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Lene me a mark”-quod he_“but dayes thre.” Morris prints lene. Tyrwhitt prints leve, but re

Chaucer, Chan, Yem. Ta. 15. cants this opinion in his Glossary (s.v. “Lereth”), “I shal lene the a bowr."-Havelok, 2072. | in all three instances. But what Mr. Halliwell appears to deny is, the

The three instances in Havelok occur in similar existence of the verb leue : and this is the point exclamations, in the forms “God leue” or “Crist to come to.

leue," and Halliwell need not have called such a Dr. Stratmann's account of it is, that leue or spelling absurd. The quotations from the Ormuleve is the A.-S. lefan, German erlauben, to give

lum entirely establish the phrase. leave to, permit, allow. Now this word, in various

Lastly, by way of a crucial test, take Pierce the forms, lyfan, lefan, alyfan, gelyfan, is common

Ploughman's Crede. I regret that I have, in all enough in Anglo-Saxon, and as f between two four places, printed lene in the text. Yet, strictly vowels had the sound of v, it would necessarily

| speaking, there are two instances of lene, in lines produce leve in Old English. There are three

445, 741; and two of leue, in lines 366, 573, where undoubted examples of its occurrence Thus, in the phrase is “God leue,” &c. And now observe the Ormulum, we have (vol. i. p. 308) the line —

a circumstance that clinches the whole result. “Godd allmahhtigg lefe uss swa

In lines 445 and 741 all three copies of the Crede To forthenn Cristess wille,”

have lene; but in lines 366 and 573 the best MS. i. e. “God Almighty grant (or permit) us so to

can be read either way; the British Museum MS. further Christ's will." Here the spelling with f

has leve, and the old printed edition has leue, as makes the word certain ; and to make doubly

shown by my footnotes. Surely future editors of sure, we have a similar expression in the same

Chaucer ought to note these corrections. volume, at p. 357. But there is a third instance.

Of course I have not taken into consideration In Douglas's l'irgil is the phrase “ Gif us war

here the other senses of the word leue, viz. (1) to lewit," which is equivalent to leuit, as explained

believe, (2) to leave, and (3) dear. Curiously by Jamieson. Here again, the use of the w makes

| enough, all these three occur in one line: the word altogether certain; for w has the force “What! leuestow, leue lemman, that i the leue wold ? " of v very commonly in Lowland Scotch. The

William of Palerne, 2358. signification of the phrase is — “if it were per

WALTER W. SKEAT. mitted to us."

1, Cintra Terrace, Cambridge. That the two words have been so hopelessly jumbled together is no doubt owing to the fact BISHOPRIC AND CATHEDRAL OF HEREFORD. that each can be represented by the words to grant ; but it really makes all the difference

The ancient district of Siluria, of which the whether we are speaking of to grant a thing to a

| city of Hereford and its vicinity form a portion, person, or to grant that a thing may happen.

was nominally Christianised before its conquest *God lene thee grace” means, “Gud grant thee

by the Saxons. It is stated both by Archbishop grace," where to grant is to impart ; but “God

Usher and Heylin that a Bishop of Caerffawidd leue we may do right” means,“ God grant we

(the ancient British name of Hereford) attended may do right," where to grant is to permit. The

an ecclesiastical meeting convened by the Archdifference between the two is distinct enough,

bishop of Caerleon (whose seat was afterwards and the instances of lefe in the Ormulum render |

removed to Saint David's) in the year 544, and the blunder here protested against quite unjustifi

the see of Hereford is considered to be the oldest able. Briefly, lene requires an accusative case after

in England. it, leue is followed by a dependent clause.

The names of all the bishops are recorded exAnd now for the results. The following are true

cept two-those constituted in 544 and 601. The examples of leue :

third, Bishop Putta, succeeding in 676, is the first

name on the roll of Hereford. There were twenty“God . . . save and gyde us alle and some,

nine bishops before the Conquest, the last being And leue this sumpnour good man to become.”

Chaucer, Freres Tale, 346. Walter de Lorraine in 1061. His successor, Robert Printed lene by Tyrwhitt, and leene by Morris.

Losinga (temp. William I.), took possession of the

see in 1079. “ Ther he is now, God leue us for to meete.”

The bishops constituted since the Norman ConPrioresses Tale, 231.

quest up to the death of the late Right Reverend Printed lene by Tyrwhitt and Morris.

Renn Dickson Hampden in April last, and presid“ Depardieux”-quod she-"God leue all be wele.” ing with two intermissions only of four years and

Troil. and Creseide, ii. 1212. fifteen years, the latter from 1646-1660, on de“God leue hym werken as he can devyse.”

mise of Bishop Coke, are sixty-seven- in all

Ibid. iii. 7. ninety-six. The Right Reverend James Atlay, u God leue us for to take it for the best.”

D.D., consecrated on June 24 last, and enthroned Ibid. v. 1749. in the cathedral on Thursday, July 1, is therefore the ninety-seventh prelate wearing the epis- Athelstan (1012-1056) rebuilt the cathedral copal mitre within the ancient and loyal city of from the foundations; but in 1058 Hereford was Hereford.

burnt by a body of Welsh and Irish under AeolfSaint Augustine, who was invested with gar, the exiled Earl of Mercia, and the cathedral archiepiscopal dignity by Pope Gregory A.D. 597, was left in a state of desolation, and the good was confirmed by Ethelbert, King of Kent, at bishop was interred within its walls. He was the instigation of his queen (a Christian princess) succeeded by the bishops Leofgar, Walter of Bertha, daughter of Charibert, King of France, Lorraine, and Robert de Losinga, in 1079, who to the city of Canterbury with its dependencies found the cathedral in ruins, and he rebuilt it some years after, when the church of Canterbury on the model of the church at Aachen (Aix-de-lawas made a cathedral and dedicated to the name Chapelle). The existing choir is regarded as part of Christ.

of his work. The earliest Christian temple at Hereford, The structure was not completed until the episknown as the Chapel of Fernlege, preceded the copate of Reinhelm (1107-1115), who in an obitfirst cathedral by a century or two, which cathe- uary of the canons of Hereford is mentioned as dral is supposed to have been built on the site of “ fundator ecclesiæ S. Ethelberti.” But there is the present cathedral on the accession of Bishop no direct proof of the fact. Putta, A.D. 676.

During the troubles of Stephen's reign, and The cathedral and city of Hereford bordering whilst Robert de Bethune was bishop (1131-1148), 80 closely on the principality of Wales, have suf- the city of Hereford suffered greatly, and the fered several times by the incursions and ravages cathedral was desecrated and deserted. The bishop of the ancient Britons. The permanent establish- was obliged to take flight in disguise ; but upon ment of Hereford as a bishop's see was completed his return," he cleansed and repaired the build. by Archbishop Theodore, who, after the Council ing.” This prelate was succeeded by Gilbert Ffolat Hertford (A.D. 673), divided the great diocese liott (1148-1163), Abbot of Gloucester, a most of Mercia, as he had done that of East Anglia, inflexible antagonist of Becket. Whether or not into several bishoprics. It was in 676 that he added to the cathedral is not known, but FfolMercian dominions were divided into the sees of liott was annually commemorated in the canons Hereford, Worcester, Lichfield, and Leicester; of Hereford as one who “multa bona contulit and Putta, Bishop of Rochester, was then trans- Herefordiensi capitulo.” lated to Hereford. Of the bishops of this see Giles de Bruce, or de Braose, bishop from 1200 (A.D. 688 to A.D. 1012) between Putta and Ethal- to 1215, is said to have built the central tower stan little is recorded but their names. Cuthbert and west front of the cathedral: the latter fell to (736-740) is an exception, and in the latter year the ground on Easter Monday, 1786. This porhe was translated to Canterbury. In his archi- tion was replaced by Mr. James Wyatt, whose episcopate the Lord's Prayer and the Creed were design may be pronounced to be a sad disfigureordered to be universally taught in English. The ment of the sacred fabric. first Saxon cathedral at Hereford, in Bishop Putta's Thomas Cantilupe (1275-1282), the last Engtime (according to Polydore Vergil), was of timber, lishman canonised before the Reformation, and and was destroyed by fire.

styled St. Thomas of Hereford, conferred disIn the year 792 the importance of the cathedral tinguished honour on the see; was Chancellor of at Hereford was increased by the murder of Ethel- England under King Henry III. in 1265, and died bert, King of the East Angles, at the palace of on August 25, 1282, at Orvieto, on his return from Offa, King of Mercia, at South Town (now Sutton Rome. Walls), five miles from the city. The young The northern transept was enlarged, and very prince had been invited thither by Offa, and was probably altogether rebuilt, during the episcopacy there affianced to Elfrida his daughter, and on of Richard Swinfield (1283-1317), and the rethe following night was, at the instigation of the mains of Cantilupe were removed to it in 1287. Queen Quendreda cruelly beheaded. His body In the same prelate's time, the cloisters and was first buried at Marden church, but was sub- upper portion of the choir, the central tower sequently removed to Hereford cathedral, and above the roof, and the eastern transept as it now over it was placed a magnificent tomb. After his exists, were either completed or were in progress. canonization the cathedral was dedicated to Saint The original cathedral of Bishop Athelstan apEthelbert and the Virgin Mary; and in expiation pears to have comprised only the nave and its of his crime Offa endowed the cathedral with aisles, the choir, and the north and south tranlarge possessions, which it now enjoys.

septs. When the ancient chapter house, once the Offa on his return from Rome, whither he went glory of the edifice, was erected is uncertain. to the pope for absolution, built the Abbey of This splendid appendage to the church was on St. Albans, and died childless, his son and daugh- the south side, occupying the site of the garden now ter having predeceased him.

lying between the college cloisters and bishop's cloisters. It fell into decay during the Parlia- Freer, Canon Morgan, Canon Clutton, Mr. Hunt, mentary wars of Charles I., and was finally de- and Lieutenant Arkwright. molished by Bishop Bisse, 1713-1716. The The cathedral library is rich in ancient manupresent small chapter house was formerly the scripts

, illuminated missals, and Bibles. It has Treasury.

also, in good preservation, a remarkable map on The principal additions which have been made thick vellum, of the thirteenth century, by Richard subsequently to the cathedral, are — the Lady de Haldingham and Lafford (Haldingham cum Chapel (1230-1250), in the lancet or pointed Sleaford) in Lincolnshire, representing the World style, under Bishop Maidstone and Peter d'Ac- before the discovery of America. ALPHA. quablanca; to which is attached the chapel by Middle Temple. Bishop Audley about 1493, in the decorated style; also the north porch by Bishop Booth

CHARLES LAMB'S “OLD FAMILIAR FACES.”(1516-1534), in the late perpendicular style. The tragic story of Lamb's early life was first ÌIe, during his lifetime, erected his own tomb detailed in an article in the British Quarterly under a pointed arch in the north wall of the Review, in a review of Talfourd's Memorials—at nave; and Bishop Stanbury's chapel (1453-1474), least, I never knew the facts till I read that rein the north-eastern aisle of the choir. The Bishop's Cloister, of which only two sides Faces," as given in “ blank-verse by. Charles

view. The pathetic verses, the “Old Familiar now remain, built about 1450, in the perpendi- Lloyd and Charles Lamb. London, printed by cular style, connect the garden of the bishop's T. Bentley for John and Arthur Arch, No. 23, palace with the cathedral. Attached to the cathedral also is a college of

Gracechurch Street, 1798,” contain one line which priest-vicars, which, with its cloisters, hall, and the poem, or at least is new to me: –

seems to have been omitted in the later copies of quadrangle, were erected between 1462 and 1472. It comprises a capitular body, presided over by

“Where are they gone, the old familiar faces ?

I had a mother, but she died and left me, its own custos and members, and distinct from

Died prematurely in a day of horrorsthe dean and chapter of the cathedral itself.

All, all are gone, the old familiar faces." Several styles of architecture prevail through

All the other verses have only three lines each; out the building, affording good examples of each. In the southern transept (a portion of Athelstan's sonal reminiscence—seems to have been omitted.

and the line in italics—a curiously painful perchurch) is preserved much of its early Norman In the last verse, part of the second line is printed character. The pillars and bays of the nave, and in italics in the copy before me, and doubtless the interior of the choir, are Norman. The Lady refers to the same sad fact : Chapel is in the lancet or pointed style, similar to the chancel and Lady Chapel of Dore Abbey

“ For some they have died, and some they have left me, church; and the north transept may be considered

And some are taken from me: all are departed;

All, all are gone, the old familiar faces. a fine specimen of the geometrical style. Underneath the Lady Chapel is a fine crypt

“ January, 1798."

ESTE. (early English, circa 1220), which is sixty feet long, and consists of a nave and aisles, and is ap

BINDING VARIOUS AUTHORS.- I frequently see proached by a porch, having descending steps Historia, and Moses and Aaron, by the same

a volume for sale containing Godwyn's Romanæ entering from the north side of the cathedral.

Between the years 1786 and 1840, no material author, bound with Archeologie Attice, by Franalterations were made in the cathedral. About cis Rous, "Scholler of Merton Colledge in Oxon.” the latter year was commenced the restoration of and I am puzzled to know how these three works by the Lady Chapel, great central tower internally, two different authors are so often met with in the the choir, and north transept, at the instance, and

same volume. It sometimes happens that the treaunder the zealous supervision of the then dean, tises are transposed, but they are invariably bound the very Rev. John Nerewether, D.D., who died together, although the editions of each vary as in 1850. He was succeeded in his dignity and well as the publishers. Could it have been an valuable labours by the very Rev. Richard Dawes,

old stock lying by as dead literature in " AbingM.A., who as dean was fortunate enough to be a

don School" ?

GEORGE LLOYD. witness of their completion in June, 1863.

Darlington. The cathedral contains the tombs, and other HIUMBER. — Amongst the various suggested dememorials, of more bishops and deans, than any rivations of the name of this river, I have never met similar structure in England. It also possesses with the Early English word Úmbre, rain, from several fine brasses, and a few examples of (an- the Latin Imber, which signifies water as well as cient) stained glass. In modern stained windows rain. In one of the alliterative poems in the it has memorials to Archbishop Musgrave, Bishop West Midland dialect, the Almighty declares to Huntingford, Dean Merewether, Archdeacon Lane Noah that he will never again destroy the world


for the sin of man ; that summer and winter shall “ His LORDSHIP said he had set the example of leaving never fail.

off the wig in consequence of the unprecedented heat of “Ne hete, ne no harde forst, vmbre ne drouthe."

the weather, as he thought there were limits to human

endurance. The Humber receives the surplus rainfall of " a “Sir R. Collier expressed a wish that this precedent basin estimated at 9000 square miles, or one-sixth might be generally followed, and hoped that the obsolete of the surface of England.

institution of the wig was coming to an end-a hope in Taylor, in his Words and Places, appears to

which many members of the Bar heartily concur." think that the word Humber is a corruption of This innovation took place in the Court of Inver and Aber, the etymology and meaning of Probate and Divorce, Sir J. P. Wilde being on which two words are the same—a confluence of the bench.

S. F. CRESSWELL, M.A. waters, either of two rivers or of a river with the Dartford Grammar School, Kent. sea. Elsewhere he connects the names of several rivers with the root from which the English

DR. Johnson's EARLY CONTRIBUTIONS TO word rain is derived, and again and more fre- BIRMINGHAM NEWSPAPER. — It is stated by Bosquently with words signifying water.

well that Johnson furnished some numbers of a The water of Humber” is charged and "em- periodical Essay printed in the newspaper of which browned” with an immense quantity of liquid a Mr. Warren, the first established bookseller mud. Nares defines Umber to be a sort of brown

at Birmingham, was the proprietor; but, adds Boscolour. And Shakspeare makes Celia say to Rosa- well, “ after very diligent inquiry I have not been lind

able to recover those early specimens of that par“I'll put myself in poor and mean attire,

ticular mode of writing by which Johnson afterAnd with a kind of umber smirck my face.”

wards so greatly distinguished himself.” Alexander Neckham says:

Having just seen the announcement by Mr.

Cadby, bookseller, Birmingham, of a Bibliotheca “Fluctibus æquoreis nautæ suspectior Humber, Indignans urbem visere, rura colit.

Birminghamiensis : or, a Catalogue of Books erHunnorum princeps, ostendens terga Locrino, clusively relating to Birmingham and the Neighbour

Submersus nomen contulit Humber aquæ.” hood, it occurs to me that possibly the Bibliotheca, Milton speaks of —

which I have not yet had an opportunity of consult“ The Humber loud, that keeps the Scythian's name;

ing, may furnish some clue towards the discovery

J. MACRAY. and Drayton, in his elegy upon three sons of the of the Essays alluded to. Lord Sheffield drowned in the Humber, says:

Oxford. “O cruell Humber, guiltie of their gore!

I now believe more than I did before
The British story, whence thy name begun

Of kingly Humber, an invading Hun
By thee devoured ; for 'tis likely thou

AMBASSADORS KNIGHTED. Le Neve writes in With blood wert christened, bloodthirsty till now.” his “Notebook," as printed in the Topogr. and

E. S. W. Geneal, iïi. 509Melton.

“ Seignior Grimani, Venetian Ambassador, knighted CHERUBIN, A CHRISTIAN NAME.—Speaking of according to custom, and had an augmentation to his arms, Cherub, Cherubim, Miss Young in her History of

dated April, 1714." Christian Names (i. 129) observes that the word What evidence is there of this custom ? how is hardly ever to be met with (as a Christian did it arise ? and when was it discontinued ? name) out of Spain and Italy. I observed it for

TEWARS. the first time in the following epitaph :" In memory of Cherubin the beloved wife of Thomas Bridgemasters of London, and where can I find

BRIDGEMASTERS OF London.-Who were the Diball, who died Deck 11th, 1863, aged 78 years ..., W. H. S. a list of them ?

G. W. M. Thrandeston, Suffolk.

CLASSIC CHURCHES.—Telford, the engineer, reIMPENDING A BOLITION OF LEGAL WIGS.- built the collegiate church of St. Mary Magdalen, Pray allow an old querist and note-maker of formerly situated within the walls of the ancient N. & Q.” to renew his devoirs by sending the castle of Bridgenorth, in a Grecian style, about appended cutting from The Times of Friday, the year 1742, in sad contrast to the fine old July 24, 1868, p. 11, col. 1, which nearly con- Gothic building represented in Back's engraving. cludes the Law Reports of July 23 :

Many churches after the Reformation were erected

at least in imitation of the ancient style, though “ During the last two days the learned Judge and the its character had become debased. Bar have been sitting without their wigs, and, in opening When did the fashion for building such purely a case, “ Sir R. COLLIER called attention to the innovation,

classical churches as the one described commence ? and apologised for not appearing in full forensic costume.



Will any

Danish Law. - Against St. Mary's church, can I attribute any identity with historical perBeverley, is an oval stone with two swords crossed sonages. I should be glad if any of your correand the following inscription:

pondents, more deeply versed than I in Spanish “ Here two young Danish soldiers lie.

history, could help me in my difficulty. Α. Ε. The one in quarrel chanced to die ; The other's head by their own law

Lassus. — May I ask some one to explain the With sword was sever'd by one blow.

allusion to Lassus contained in the concluding Dec 23,

sentence of Lord Lytton's Devereux? From the 1689.

remarkable article in The Atheneum of July 4, Would any one now be tried and executed by entitled “Stop Him," it may be inferred that the Danish law in England ? And how late would it author of With Marimilian in Mexico is equally have been done ?

L. C. R.

puzzled with myself. The only author named BIOGRAPHY OF THE CHEVALIER D'Eon.—Ly- Lassus that I can find any notice of is a musical

F. R. S. sons, at p. 278 of the Supplement to the first composer in the sixteenth century. edition of the Environs of London, states that a

LEADEN BRONZES.—Lately a friend of mine had friend of his (apparently an Englishman) is pre- offered him, and had agreed to purchase, some paring a biography of the Chevalier d'Eon from

very fine medallions by Andrieu. They were apthe deceased's MSS. Does any one know who parently of bronze, but were mounted in frames this friend was, or what became of the biography? and glazed. They proved on examination to be

E. X.

no more than lead bronzed on the surface. Are ANCIENT SCOTTISH DISTILLATION.—I hare read such imitations common?

B. II. C. somewhere, I think in Holinshed, that the ancient

CERTIFICATE OF NATURALIZATION. Scots distilled a powerful beverage from the mountain heath, but I cannot find the passage. Perhaps of naturalization can be examined; and if so, at

one have the kindness to inform me if a certificate some of

may give a light.
what office ?

M. L.
Snowdoun Villa, Lewisham, S.E.

POEMS.— If any of your readers can assist me to Kings in COUNCIL. — Turning over a sixpenny find these two poems, and answer the third quesacquisition of two somewhat shabby 12mos, pub- tion I annex, they will confer a kindness on one lished in Amsterdam (Paris ?) in 1759, under the

at a distance. title of Curiosités Historiques, ou, Recueil de Pièces Where shall I find a poem on the arrival of utiles à l'Histoire de France, et qui n'ont jamais the Mayflower, of which the following shreds paru, I lighted on a Jugement” of the king alone remain in my memory :(Henri Quatre), dated at St. Cloud, August 2, Oh, Mayflower ! stricken Mayflower 1589, the day after the assassination of his prede

that gave the Mayflower rest cessor by Friar Jacques Clement, on another of

Were there no graves beyond the deep, the brotherhood, Jehan Leroy, who had killed a

That here ye come to die? certain Captain Hermos, to the effect that "pour les cas résultans du procès,” his reverence should

And the Mayflower answered, be tied up in a sack, and thrown into the river;

As towards the shore she drew, the which order was, as the official phrase de

Seed for a nation of the free,

Unblenching souls, and true!'” licately runs, “carried out” on the day but one ensuing.

2. Where shall I find a poem of which the followDid this mode of execution forni a part of the ing is all I can remember. I met with it many then existent French code, or was it a pro re nata

years ago in a review, and have ever since regretted of the royal appointment?

E. L. S. I did not copy it. There is a poem on the same Kings of Spain. - In Longfellow's translation Poetry, I forget by whom, but very different from

noble story in Coventry Patmore's Garland of of the Coplas de Manrique several kings of Spain the poem I am in search of :are enumerated, whom I find it impossible to

And when identify. The poet mentions first, “ Don Juan ”;

The spoiler seeks your dwelling next, then King Henry

Be with me here again.
“ Whose royal court displayed
Such power and pride";

Bring forth the dead and lastly

Oh, Allah! gracious Allah! thy servant faintly won

This blessing to a father's heart—'tis not, 'tis not my “ His brother, too, whose factious zeal

son ! Usurped the sceptre of Castile."

'Tis not Mahmoud, the wayward, who thus the law defied, "Spain's haughty Constable " is also celebrated Yet I deemed that none, but my only son, dared set my by the poet for the “countless treasures of his

oath aside." care." But to neither one nor the other of these 3. The exact date and exact historical event

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