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(VOLS. I.—XII.: 1862–1867)



A Medium of Intercommunication


“And in such Indexes, although small pricks

To their subsequent volumes, there is seen
The baby figure of the giant mass
Of things to come at large."

Troilus and Cressida, Act I. Sc. 3.

EXTRACT FROM PREFACE. SIX YEARS having elapsed since, following the example of other Joint Stock Companies--for what is NOTES AND QUERIES but a Joint Stock Company for the promotion of historical truth ?- we rendered to our subscribers an account of our stewardship, we have called in once more the assistance of our highly skilful literary accountant, and in the following pages subur it to public inspection his balance sheet, which will, we trust, show most satisfactorily how great has been the gain to historical, biographical, literary, antiquarian, and philological knowledge in the last twelve volumes of NOTES AND QUERIES.

The late Lord Brougham, whose name can never be mentioned by us without grateful acknowledgment for many unsolicited acts of friendship, was once good enough to declare to us his opinion that “ NOTES AND QUERIES was most useful, most valuable, and made ten times more so by its admirable Indexes." Lord Brougham was perfectly right. Intrinsically valuable as the contents of the many volumes of NOTES AND QUERIES must be for the information they contain, they would be comparatively useless but for the ready means which the Indexes afford of turning the information stored up in them to instant account. Without such Index they would form

"One glaring chaos and wild heap of wit." But with such an Index as is here set before the reader, which well deserves Bayle's definition of an Index, “ the soul of a book,” the huge confusion springs into regularity and order, and the curious masses of information are at once available to the student.

How vast and how varied these masses of information are, one little fact will serve to show. In the series of Indexes, of which the present is the third, there will be found nearly EIGHTY THOUSAND ARTICLES, many of them furnishing references to the best authorities on the special subjects to which they refer.

The First SERIES of NorES AND QUERIES, in Twelve Volumes, was brought to a close at the end of 1855, by the issue of a GENERAL INDEX. Of the utility of this Index, The Times spoke as follows on June 28, 1856:

4 The utility of such a volume, not only to men of letters, but to well-informed readers generally, is too ohvious to require proof, more especially when it is remembered that many of these references (between 30,000 and 10,000) are to articles which themselves point out the best sources of information upon their respective subjects."

A SECOND SERIES of Twelve Volumes was completed at the end of 1861, by the publication of a similar GENERAL INDEX, of which he Times of November 8, 1862, remarks:

" It contains about 30,000 references to articles written by some of our best scholars upon every conceivable su hject, 'from predestination to slea silk,' for in the pages of this Everybody's Conumon-place Book no subject comes amiss. • It is a hook which will be found most useful to those who possess NOTES AND QUERIES, and indispensable to the searchers after the curiosities of literature.'"

Of these Two INDEXES a few Copies may still be had, price 58. and 58. 6d. respectively.

W. G. SMITH, 43, Wellington Street, Strand, and by order of all Booksellers and Newsmen.

Pripted by GEORGE ANDREW SPOT FISWOODE, at 5 New-street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the County of Middlesex;

and Published by WILLIAM GREIG SMITII, of 43 Wellington Street, Strand, in the said County.-- Saturday, August 22, 1868.

A Medium of Intercommunication



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LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST 29, 1868. peace both with the Pope and the Pays Bas, John

Tame would not have ventured on an act of piracy CONTENTS.-N° 35.

on a ship of the Flemings, and particularly if

the glass belonged to the king's spiritual father, NOTES:- The Fairford Windows: Albrecht Durer. &c. 193 - Sir William Blackstone's Works, 194 - Chaucer's

Ackstone's Works. 194 - Chaucer's | Pope Alexander VI. A set of windows constructed “ Canterbury Tales," 196 - The Manchester Lunatic for a church in Rome would not fit an English Asylum, 198 — Pieces from Manuscripts, No. IV., 199

perpendicular church. John Tame, probably therePopular Phraseology: Use of the Word Power -- "Yede," misused by Spenser – Robert Wallace, Esq.- Undesigned fore wishing to decorate the church of his newlyCoincidences – Rough Piety, 199.

acquired manor, sent to his Low Country agents QUERIES: - Anonymous - Cardinal Beaufort - Beli to obtain a set of the best obtainable on the Mawr = Beli the Great - Cattern's Day -" Cazen Edi.

Continent. Mr. Ic!! thinl:s that the curious tion” - Chandra Gupta Maurya -- Conmecherchy - An English Church at Arnheim in 1640 - Ancient and Modern paintings discovered abuu: ficon Tears since, Superstitions - Trials for Felony - Mask of Cromwell

some of which were unfortunately scraped cm; English Jacobite Songs-William Fenton - Giles Fletcher - Joseph Fletcher - Local Terminations -- Perpetual were the work of the foreigners who came to put Youth - Quotations wanted — “Songs of Shepherds," &c.

up the glass. In Dürer's pictures and engravings - Tobit Family - Townsmen and Countrymen - Water: Beer: Ale - Bishop Stephen Weston -"Youth's Maga we find great attention paid to detail ; this is the zine,” 200.

case in these designs. The lettering is in the QUERIES WITH ANSWERS: - The Battle of Brenneville identical character invented by him, and still The Song of Ally Croaker - Lists of M.P.s -- Bishop Gros

known to printers as “ Albert Dürer's alphabet." teste-- Raymund Lully, 204.

Now Mr. "Holt goes so far as to say that the REPLIES:-- Bishop Percy, and his "Reliques,” 205 — Illus

trations of Bishop Percy's Folio Manuscripts, No. II., 206– “Block Books” comprising the Biblia Pauperum. Letter from Sir Thomas Fairfax, 207 - Modern Inven. the Speculum Humane Salvationis, as well as thé tion of the Sanscrit Alphabet, 208 - Hawaiian Alphabet,

Nuremberg Chronicle and the Schatzbehalter, were 209-Stanton Harcourt: Separation of Sexes in Worship, 210 - The Comyns of Badenoch, 16. - St. Thomas-aBeckett and Syon Cope: the Copes of Waterford, &c., 211

| Humphreys, in his great work, The History of the Naked Legs at.courter "res

masmitation Christissay ": Taot" - Grook Motto Marc Lootend the same contlemon in oletten

Art of Printing, gives these works a much earlier Cleanliness “No Love Lost” - Greek Motto -Marc Antony as Bacchus - Bummer, &c., 212.

Times (Aug. 17, 1868), points out that a wellNotes on Books, &c.

known copy of the first edition of the Biblia Pau

perum, still in its original binding, contains a date Notes.

which clearly proves that the work of the binder

was performed between the years 1420 and 1430, THE FAIRFORD WINDOWS: ALBRECHT

and as Albert Dürer's father came to settle in DURER, ETC.

Nuremberg as a young adventurer in 1455, he No artistic discovery for the past three hundred was not probably born in 1425 nor even in 1430. years has equalled in interest and importance the It is to be observed, also, that the first editions of probable fact that the eight-and-twenty painted the famous Biblia Pauperum were printed, on one windows of Fairford church are the work of Albert side of the paper only, with a distempered ink, the Dürer. The thanks of the art-world are due to Mr. impression being produced by rubbing at the back, Holt for drawing attention to this in his able which at once stamps them as the work of an paper read before the British Archæological Asso epoch long anterior to Dürer. The latest edition ciation at their recent meeting at Cirencester of the book bears a printed date 1470, a year be

According to Hearne, Vandyke “affirmed to fore Dürer's birth. As regards the Nuremberg Charles I. and others that many of the figures were Chronicle, it is possible that Dürer may have exso exquisitely well done that they could not be ercised his 'prentice hand on some of the illustraexceeded by the best pencil.” Fosbrooke, in his tions, as the work did not appear till 1493. Mr. Abstract of Records and MSS. respecting the County Holt gets out of the difficulty in assigning a later of Gloucester (1807), declared " that the glass ex- date to the Block Books, and points out that the ceeded in execution, and especially in brilliancy form of the nimbi in these books and in the Fairof tint, everything of the kind within his experi- ford windows is unique, and never found elsewhere. ence." Mr. Holt has well exploded the absurd The name of Albert Durell appears in the first theory respecting the origin of the glass, viz. that printed account of the windows by Sir Robert John Tame, a wealthy cloth manufacturer in the Atkyns in 1712. A vellum roll, tradition says, time of Henry VII., in October, 1492, took a ship was placed in the church chest by John Tamer, on its way from some port in the Pays Bas, and but was lost when Atkyns wrote. In 1778 people bound to Rome, which had on board the glass of came to the conclusion that Albert Durell must the Fairford windows, and that he rebuilt the be Albert Dürer, but this was pooh-poohed by church at Fairford to receive the glass which was Bigland in 1791, and was not again asserted. fixed about 1500. Now Jobn Tame did not pur- Everyone acquainted with Dürer's pictures chase the manor till 1498, and as England was at and engravings is aware that that great master nearly always placed his monogram in a con- “St. Christopher" is a forgery, and that the date spicuous part of the design. Now the only ap- really should be 1493, the figure “9 ” having proach to a monogram in the Fairford windows been ingeniously converted into “2”; and that was a letter A on the sword of an Amalekite. no copy of the Biblia Pauperum can be proved to Mr. T. Taylor, in a letter to The Times (Aug. 19) have been in existence prior to 1485; seem at first says that this is a monogram A. T., and that sight to be “pestilent heresies : " they may posDürer, at the time these windows were designed, sibly turn out to be " startling truths" ; but as wrote his name “Albrecht Thürer,” and employed they have been advanced by a gentleman who å punning allusion to the significance of the second tells us that he has made no less than five pious factor, a representation of the two leaves of a pilgrimages to Nuremberg, and devoted the leidouble door. Both this and the monogram A. T. sure of ten years to unravelling the personal hiswill be found in the cuts in the Nuremberg Chroni- tory of Albrecht Durer, they certainly deserve cle, probably the work of Dürer.

the patient examination of all who take an inWe know from other sources that Dürer was a terest in the history of art in this country; and glass-painter. Lenoir, in bis celebrated work on of that question which has I believe been already glass-painting, describes a series of twenty win- touched upon once or twice in N. & Q." - the dows of his in the church of the Temple at Paris, literary and artistic relations which formerly exdestroyed during the Revolution. He also de- isted between England and the Continent. On scribes windows at Passy which shared the same these grounds, and others too obvious to require 'fate, and a famous series occupying the windows insisting upon, I hope some of your able correof the monastery church at Hirschan, in Upper spondents will give us the benefit of their learning Bavaria, representing the principal events in the and acquirements. lives of the Virgin and the Saviour, which must P.S. I venture to suggest the publication of a have been very much the same as the Fairford series of photographs of the windows, not too large, windows, but destroyed by the French in the in aid of the fund for the preservation of these inwars of the Palatinate in 1685.

teresting remains.

F. S. A. I hope one of your Gloucestershire correspondents will examine the monogram and tell us its exact nature. I confess I can see no reason for

SIR WILLIAM BLACKSTONE'S WORKS.* altering the date of the Block Books, which has

The chronological is the only order used in this generally been received, but think the other evi

list. Many of the works I have not seen, and in dence brought forward 'by Mr. Holt is sufficient

that case I have generally put a reference to some to establish the Fairford windows as the handi

Review or Magazine. work of Albrecht Dürer.

(1.) Remarks on some paragraphs in the 4th Mr. Holt denounces the date upon Lord Spen

vol. of Dr. B.'s C. ... relating to dissenters. By cer's “S. Christopher of 1423”-so implicitly be

: Joseph Priestley . . . [July) 1769, 8vo, 60, 18. lieved in to this moment to be the earliest known woodcut with a date—to be a forgery, and that Reprinted with notes in Dr. P.'s Works by Rutt, the true date is 1493. He thinks that the forgery

vol. xxii. p. 302. was effected by altering the “c” of the “xc” into

“ The paragraplis referred to contain the most injurious

reflections on that part of the community to which I :an “x,” by which simple process seventy years was

belong; but as they are altogether destitute of candour, forthwith added to its date; and he considers the

so they are unsupported by truth.” “ S. Christopher" in question was executed by

Some one said that Dr. P. had the conceit to imagine Dürer at Colmar in 1493, on the occasion of his they were personally levelled at him, but this he denies visit to the brothers of Martin Schön.

in his memoirs. Blackstone, in his reply, calls the above JOHN PIGGOT, JUN., F.S.A., F.G.S.

“ a very angry pamphlet,” and he proceeds to say: “ The method which I have hitherto observed, with regard to the numerous strictures my Commentaries have excited,

has been to neglect them entirely, if I thought them Though away from home and my books, yet mistaken or trifling: but if founded on Justice, I have happily I am within reach of The Times and availed myself of the truths they imparted, and have Notes and Queries; and I have been so greatly endeavoured to correct my own mistakes in subsequent interested in the discussion which has appeared

impressions of the book.” in the former on the subject of Mr. Holt's views (1 a.) A reply to Dr. P.'s remarks on the 4th respecting the origin of the Fairford windows, vol. ... By the author of the Commentaries that I hope to see the consideration of the many (Sept.] 1769, 8vo, 28, 6d. ancillary questions which seem likely to arise | Monthly Rev. plii. 298. This reply was republished from it commenced in your journal. Mr. Holt's ) in an appendix to Sir W. B.'s Commentaries, Philaopinions that “printing preceded engraving,” and delphia, 1772, pp. 34-47. that no engraving even of Playing Cards existed prior to 1440;—that 1423 upon Lord Spenser's

* Continued from 4th S. ii, 124.

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