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LONDON, SATURDAY, JULY 18, 1868.
priest. He was well fortified against the love of
these two ladies, if they had evinced any to him, CONTENTS.-No 29.
by his ardent passion for Laura (not so named NOTES:- Tasso's “Love and Madness,” 49 - Dr. Wilmot, from Petrarch's, but so baptised) Pepararo, who the author of the “Heroic Epistle," 50 – Professor Jeri- was first seen and loved by him in his twentieth chari's “ Bathers surprised ”: Eliot's “ Spanish Gypsy,” 51 - The Jews of the Captivity in Armenia and Persia, 52
year. She, however, married Count Turchi of Passave in St. Luke: Luke xvi. 16-19, 53 – Book Inscrip: Ferrara, and was afterwards a lady of honour to the tions – Opapanax Levellug up" – Cromlechs - Once
Duchess Margaret, where Tasso was domiciled. French-English - Selden: Swist - Corrupt Euglish, 53.
Tasso was also fortified in another way, as these QUERIES:- Ball: Rectors of Whippingham, Isle of Wight
The Duke's Vault (or Vaunt) Oak in Saveruake Forest ladies were respectively nine and ten years older
Dante's “Iferno" Ten Eclish Prisoners released by than himself ; and who, as compared with Scotch Buona parte Godfrey Families
Grimin - Heraldic Query - The Holy Court" - Genuine Irish Baronetage ladies for example, may be regarded as sixteen Jersey families - Leuxan – Linen Pattern Panels – Mary or seventeen years older physically. Tasso is reBeatrice, Qu en of James II - Robert Morriso- The Para: presented as in the chamber of the Duchess of Herefrid ? -St. Nicolas Acon – Sea Water, 53.
Urbino, June 15, 1577, drawing his sword on a QUERIES WITH ANSWERS: - Origin of Envelopes – The domestic, whose ears he ought rather to have
People called Quakers - Bibliographical Quotations boxed. Is this the man of thirty-three who the walited - Ivory, the Mathematician Leggings, 56.
year before put four men to flight-Tam Marte REPLIES:- Riman Inscription at Cannes, 58 - - Hogarth, 69 - A Lacemaker's Song, 16. - Queen Bleareye's Tomb: quam Mercurio? If we think of our James I. about Paisley Abbey, 60 - Floatin
, Corpus, 63 – "The Douglas thirty years afterwards, we shall not be surprised Rings: the Douglas Heart, Ib. – Disembowelment, 64
that the drawing of a sword in the chamber of a St. Thomas d-Becket and Syon Cope, 65 - Adain of Orleton's Saying - Quotations wanted – “Stradella "- Sultan duchess was no light matter. Her father caused dying of Envui - Citi and Bumpkin - Modern Invention of the Sanskrit Alphabet – Fonts made to Lock, Ancient submission, and was taken by the Duke of Ferrara
Tasso to be imprisoned. Tasso wrote a letter of and Mod rv Superstitions - Curious Orthographic Fact - Mortlake Potteries : Toby Jugs – Discovery of an Old to his country seat, Bel Riguardo. Here Tasso Medal Monograın “A.E.I.” – Enamelling the Face
was sternly interrogated as to something he had Earliest Bird - Cleanliness, &c., 66.
said; there is no evidence that it was about anyNotes on Books, &c.
thing written—as a sonnet, for example. He was
not very strictly guarded, for he ran away July 20, Notes.
after an incarceration of three weeks.
The“ metal more attractive” was still at FerTASSO'S “LOVE AND MADNESS.”
rara, whither be returned in the March following Till Rossini published his Saggio sugli Amori di (1578); being coldly received, however, he left Torq. Tasso in 1832, whose views Vieusseux that city, and wandered from one Italian court to adopted in the Penny Cyclopædia, the story of another, in some of which he was well and Tasso's being in love with one or other (for it honourably entertained. But on February 23, never was stated which) of the daughters of 1579, he again made his appearance at Ferrara. Henry II., Duke of Ferrara, had nearly died out As to the supposed attractions, we may fairly as one of the improbabilities of history. It should give up the married Lucretia; we may look now be remarked that Rosini relies exclusively on the to Leonora (= Eleanora), who was then fortyverse and prose of Tasso's works, disregarding all four years of age, or, by the Scotch rule of proother matériel for forming a judgment. It never portion above-mentioned, fifty-one-no longer a has been alleged that either of these ladies was in very tender girl for a man of thirty-five ; and she love with him. They were daughters of Renée, died in 1681, two years after T'asso's entrance into and granddaughters of Louis XII. of France. (Sis- the madhouse of St. Ann (March, 1579), and five mondi, xvi. 340.) Renée had been converted to years before his release therefrom (July, 1586). Protestantism by Calvin himself as be passed There has never been the shadow of an insinuathrongh Ferrara, where he stayed a few months in tion that she died of love for Tasso, or out of 1535. (Serassi and Guasti, i. 180, n.), Brantome regret at his sufferings, or the want of his society (vol. i. carte 302) speaks of three daughters:- in any way. The love of Tasso was the same as
“ Ces trois filles furent très-belles, mais la mère les fit that of all other real lovers — embellir davantage par la belle nourriture, qu'elle leur
“ Love is not love donna, en leur faisant apprendre les sciences et les bonnes Which alters when it alteration finds. lettres, qu'elles apprirent, et retindrent parfaitement, et en faisoient honte aux plus sçavans,” &c.
inre alters not with his brief hours and weeks,
But bears it out even to the edge of doom. We may, therefore, infer that Lucretia, the
If this be error, and upon me proved, elder, who married the Duke of Urbino, as well
I never writ, nor no man ever loved." as the unmarried Leonora, had a leaning at least
Sbakspeare, Sonnet, cxvi. towards Protestantism. Tasso, on the contrary, Next, as to his madness. It is said that he was Was a firm Rowaist, with an eye to becoming a attended by a spitit like the demon of Socrates, He says: 1
but if any one will read what Socrates himself though before his face, have been published, deformed
and incorrect." says thereon (Plato, Apol. Soc., First Alcib. i.; Theages. X.; Xenophon, Memorab. i. 4; and com- In a letter to Scipio Gonzaga, Tasso takes a like pare Plut. Genio Socratis Reiskii viji. 296, where view of his own case. å different view is taken), he will find no resem- Oppresso dal peso di tante sciagure, ha messo in abblance whatever to the spiritual being with whom bandono ogni pensiero di gloria e di onore. Angustiato Tasso said that he conversed. Manso, in his Life fonti e ne fiumi Jiberamente la spengono. Ed accresce
dalla sete, desidera la condizione stessa dei bruti, che ne' of Tasso (i. 14, p. 120), mentions that he often l'orrore del suo stato d'indignità che gli conviene usare, lo talked with Tasso on the subject of this spirit, squallore della barba e delle chiome, e degli abiti, e la and was once present at an interview he bad with sordidezza e 'l sudiciume, da cui mirasi circondato."the spirit, both men sitting at the fireside and Rosini, Saggio sugli Amori di Torq. Tusso, 8c., p. 82. looking through the window. “See,” said he, An improvvisatore once told me that a skeleton “the friendly spirit who has courteously come to in armour, introduced in a poem he was reciting, oblige me; see him, and acknowledge the truth he saw, in a darkened corner of the room, as disof what I said." Nothing appeared to Manso, tinctly as he could see any of his auditors. This and there was no dialogue, but only a monologue man was, however, under a defect in bis reasoning of Tasso; the subject was not, as Vieusseux says, and moral powers. Persons of comparatively from Milton—" of providence, foreknowledge, will, weak intellect are able to see and describe the and fate."
subjects of their imagiaation as real objects of Manso told Tasso that he saw and heard none sense; the subject indeed makes on such a perbut Tasso himself. Tasso insisted that the spirit son's understanding an impression as distinct as had addressed him, and that he had replied ; the object itself. Much of the mystery of ghostand had previously urged that it could not be seeing may be thus explained. In all these cases fancy or imagination, because the spirit told him some derangement of the nervous system must be of things which he had never before thought of, assumed, as in the case of Nicolai, Goethe's and which could not have been fancied or imagined | Proctophantasmist.' (Walpuryisnacht.) by himself. But, after the experiment, Tasso, find
T. J. BUCKTON. ing that Manso saw and heard no spirit, smiled Wiltshire Road, Stockwell, S.W. and left a sentence unfinished. Shakspeare says“ The poet's eye, in a fine frenzy rolling,
DR. WILMOT, THE AUTHOR OF THE “HEROIC Doth glance from heaven to earth, from earth to
EPISTLE." heaven; And, as imagination bodies forth
I have the pleasure to send you a sketch of The forms of things unknown, the poet's pen
some interest, especially to Junius readers. It was Turns them to shapes, and gives to airy nothing A local habitation and a name."
found among the papers of the late Sir Richard Midsummer Night's Dream, Act V. S. 1.
Phillips. It is in bis, to me, well-known hand
writing; it bears no date, but I should say was Here the imagination is under control, and can
written when he was making his “ Personal be brought under the “poet's pen.” Tasso's was
Tour" in 1828-29, and was doubtless intended for beyond this, and out of his control as regarded that work, which, in publication, did not reach the spirit, the result of a diseased imagination.
the locality of this paper. With it is a drawing, All the biographers of Tasso, as far as my re- by Mrs. Serres, of the bouse in which the Letters of search has extended, have omitted to notice the Junius were written (Dr. Wilmot's house), directed interview of the acute and accurate Montaigne in
to Sir Richard by that lady. Joun TIMBS. November, 1580, and to which he refers in his “Apologie de Raimond Sebond” (Essais, liv. ii.
“I visited as a ballowed spot the house, formerly St.
John's Monastery, inbabited by Dr. Wilmot, the author ch. 12):
of the Letters of Junins. I have often referred those com“Great wits are ruined by their own proper force and positions to Macleane, a Scotchman; but no Scotchman quickness. What a condition, through his own agita ever had the heart, the feeling, and the energy of intion and promptness of fancy, is one of the most judi. tegrity of Junius. I have referred them to Irishmen, cious, ingenious, and best formed souls, to the ancient but vanity is too deeply identified with the soul of an and true poesy, of any other Italian poet that has been Irishman to enable him to keep such a secret, while the these very many years, fallen into ? Has he not great same sentiments with the pen of an Irishman would have obligation to this vivacity that has destroyed him? To been expanded to a folio. this light that has blinded him? To this exact and sub- “ Dr. Wilmot was a scholar, an Oxonian, even the tile apprehension of reason, that has robbed him of rea- Father of that University, and a man who had seen and son ?" "To this curious and laborious scrutiny after felt by personal experience the emptiness and the worthsciences, that has reduced him to a brute? And to this lessness of human grandeur; and he was, therefore, dead rare aptitude to the exercises of the soul, that has ren to the small motives which might have stimulated many dered him without exercise, and without soul? I was to seek the trophies from such a performance. Junius more angry than compassionate, to see him at Ferrara had effected its purpose; and the author having sown in so pitiful a condition survive himself; forgetting both the seeds of tavourite principles with an effect at once himself and his works, which, without his knowledge, complete and effective, he was satisfied.
“ Dr. Wilmot was then (sic) 58; and though he lived short, in all his attributes, we find in him the identical to be 92, he would at 58 look with indifference at the Junius. applause of a public which as often extols the foolish as “ I learnt at Warwick that he had been blind seven the wise. Mystery and intrigue too had been the habit of years before his death, but that his mind was vigorous to his life. He inarried George the Third in 1759 to the Fair the last. Shortly before his death, he caused a vast load Quaker. He married Henry Frederick, Duke of Cum- of letters and papers to be burnt by his servants: a few berland, in 1767, though much against his will, to his he confided to Lord Warwick, and others to his grandown daughter. His learning, talents, and activity made daughter; but still, in the spirit of Junius, sealed, and him the confidant of Chatham, Chudleigh, Wilkes, and not to be opened till after the death of George the Third. other agitators of the age; and he was in familiarity with I saw them under seal long before they were opened, and Royalty. Born in 1714, he was old enough to have been have often examined them since. They merit the notice an associate with Bolingbrooke, Glover, Thomson, Mallet, of Parliament; and the way in which they bave been Hammond, and others in the court of Frederick; and his slighted is another proof of the mischiefs of an ephemeral connection with it is proved by his being chief mourner press, when corrupted, or in hands who do not feel their at the funeral of that Prince in 1751. Such a man would power of doing good or harın. The world, on many imbe lifted in soul above the motives which govern smaller portant subjects, has a daily extinguisher placed on its minds, and he doubtless considered Junius as the proper powers of seeing and discriminating by the specious adtriumph of genius over the grovelling pursuits of cour- vocacy of the public press, and it is one of the many tiers, and of first-rate information over the hearsay imperiections of society which it is difficult to find means sources of truly ephemeral scribblers.
of reconciling in utility with unequivocal benefit. In a " I do not adopt this opinion on vague surmises. I have word, these documents of Wilmot have been written known most of the men wzo had been suspected to have down by the hired, and the language of the hired having written Junius. I have known others who value them- been adopted by the ignorant or inconsiderate, there is selves as having a second, third, or fourth-rate know- hazard even to myself in saying a word about them; but ledge of the subject. But having seen a paper in the the associations at Warwick have forced from me this too hand of the great John DUNNING in which he gives Dr. long, or too short, a notice. Wilmot permission to print with Dr. Wilmot's Junius “If there was in England any patronage of books, exhis Letters of Philo-Junius, I can have no doubt on the cept of trumpery novels, second-rate works of imaginasubject; while, considering all the characteristics of the tion and speculations in theology, I would assemble all man-his adventures in life, his acknowledged talents, the few that could now be collected relative to Wilmot his splendid connections, and, in short, everything about and his connections, and prefix them to his known writhim-1 regarded him as the undoubted AITHOR of the ings; but nothing more clearly proves the general deca LETTERS OF JUNIUs, and therefore as the most eloquent dence of Britain than the low state of literature; and I writer of the English language, and one of the ablest doubt whether there are ten men in England now living and most spirited politicians and patriots that ever ap- who would aid such a design, or even any great design, peared in any age or country,
which did not concur in supporting received and common“The mystery about the MS. is solved by considering place opinivns.” that Dr. Wilmot had an accomplished sister, wife of Captain Payne, who wrote just such a neat character as that in which these compositions were penned; for Dr. PROFESSOR JERICHAU'S “BATHERS Wilmot's handwriting had been spoiled in scribbling exercises, like that of all boys at classical seminaries, yet
SURPRISED”: ELIOT'S “ SPANISH GYPSY.” his intriguing practices had led him to vary it. I have I feel myself indebted to the tasteful critic in heard of his corresponding with the same person, as a joke, in two opposed characters, and being consulted him
The Times, who directed his readers' attention, a self about the sentiments of both. He wrote verse, tvo, few days ago, to the admirable group of the as well as prose. His epigrams and classical imitations “ Bathers,” by Thorwaldsen's distinguished pupil, were excellent; and it is a very curious fact that, having now for a short time to be seen at South Kenin my possession the MS. of the Preface to the Heroic sington. He has so vividly described the figures, EPISTLE TU SIR W.CHAMBERS, I find it to be in the hand that it would be a work of supererogation for of Wilmot; while a list of persons to whom he wished the bookseller to send copies is in a character not that
me to follow, longo intervallo, in his footsteps. I of Junius, but more like it. I need not tell any reader shall content myself with one or two remarks. that that poem, and its fellows, are deemed the most Though it would be unfair to forget Baily's finished productions in the language, and as to perfect most elegant and interesting“ Eve at the Founversification, just what Junius is as to perfect prosaic tain," and several other works of his, which belong composition. The same policy marked this publication as the other. He went to Almon at night in a mask.
to sculpture of this class, yet I can truly say that Almon never could trace him ; but as he appeared the “ Bathers" are, without exception, the two to be a clergyman, he fixed on Dr. Mason, one of the most modest figures, completely nude, I have ever King's Chaplains, and hence the blunder about one
seen; and every one who has any pretension to Mason, the author of The English Garden, &c. Ten thousand copies were sold in six months, and who but a
taste must envy the most excellent and beautiful man of the same feelings as those of Junius could have Princess for whom so charming a possession is kept his secret ?
destined To Her beauty they are akin, but can“In person Wilmot was above six feet, active, daring, not rival it. The conjunction of the two figures and enterprising. In his size we recognise Woodfall's is original, pure, and natural; and there is much of tall clergymin who put a letter of Junius into his letterbox, and the same person in the interview with Almon.
grace and symmetry in the forms. The noble, dig"In his connection with the Duke of Cumberland, Lord wified expression of the elder sister, blended with Chatham, and others, we discover the means of his accu- a nuance of indignation, is pleasantly contrasted rate information and of his perfect political views. In with the curiosity and wonder in the countenance
of the young girl. Perhaps one might be allowed THE JEWS OF THE CAPTIVITY IN ARMENIA to desiderate in the latter a slight intermixture of
Pakradooni were reputed to be of pure
to it stoutly that Pakarad was a Jew, refused to
conform to fire-worship or idols, and was allowed * Yet the Florentine Venus is very fascinating, in spite to preserve his own faith (ii. 8); and that some of her air of affectation, which perhaps is largely due to of his children were martyred for refusing to conthe pose of the modern aims. I never could believe that form, but that others consented to go hunting the original hands were detached; and this notion is strongly supported by the discovery at Rome, in 1859,
and to war on Saturdays, and to leave their chilof another epus, considered by many as Greek, and pro-dren uncircumcised. It appears, too, they interbably a copy of the Medician, in which the marks of married with other princely families. This Moses the fingers on the right thigh and lett bosom are plainly states on an older authority, that of Mar Abas visible.
Cadina (ii. 9). The Pakradooni also ate pork “ Form all curves like softness drifted,
and the flesh of sacrifices (ii. 14). Wave-kissed marble roundly dimpling,
Of the race of Pakradooni, Moses relates many Far-off music, slowly winged,
adventures. Whether they were Jews or not, Gently rising, gently sinking.
though Moses and others are circumstantial on “Pure as rain tear on a rose-leaf,
this point, we may deduce this fact, that to be Cloud high-born in noonday spytless, Sudden perfect as the dew-bead,
a Jew or of Jewish descent was not held to be Gem of earth and sky begotten.
dishonourable, but so honourable that it was a
matter of pride. “The spirit in her gravely glowing face
Moses (ii. 14) says that Tigranes, at the capWith sweet commuvity informs ber limbs, ture of Ptolemais, took many Jewish prisoners; Filling their fine gradation with the breath
also (ii. 19) that he took prisoners from JeruOf virgin majesty."
salem, and transported them to bis empire. The Spanish Gypsy, 1868, pp. 41 and 61.
A little further on he reports an accusation against Enanus, chief of the Pakradooni, of entering into a conspiracy with the High Priest to restore bis family to the Holy Land (ii. 24). In the legend
of Edessa, Tobias, a Jewish prince, is said to be PASSAGE IN ST. LUKE: LUKE XVI. 16-18. of the family of the Pakradooni.
“ These verses ” says De Wette, “stand quite detached, Ardak hes, King of Armenia, built a new city and every attempt that has be-n made to point out any called Ardakhad, and removed thither from the
connexion has proved a failure.” city of Erwant the captive Jews who had been Nothing can be more true, and they make our originally settled at Armavir (ii. 49) after the Lord begin his parable in a rambling inconclusive first captivity (ii. 65).
way, quite at variance with his usual manner. The race of Amadooni, according to Moses, was
There must therefore be an error on the part of of Jewish origin, being descended from a certain the writer or of the transcriber, and I think it is Manoah; whose son, of giant and athletic height, easy to show that the fault lay with the latter. was called Samson, as it is the custom of the In my Shakespeare E.cpositor I have shown that Jews to give the names of the first Jews in the transpositions frequently arose from the circumhope of seeing them worthily represented.” This stance of the author having made an addition is an interesting note, as it shows how long this in the margin, or a copyist having added in the custom of giving imitative instead of special margin something that he had omitted, which had names has descended among the Jews. This been afterwards taken into the text in the wrong family had been transplanted into Armenia by place. These were the only cases I had need to the first king of the Parthians, and had gradually notice there, as they applied to printed books ; increased in honour in the country of the Arik but there was a third case-that of taking mar(ii. 57).
ginal notes into the text - which could only take In the third book, chap. xxxv., is an interesting place when books were in manuscript. Of this passage, because it is nearer to the times of the we have many instances in the Bible, the Classics, annalist, and thereby throws a light on the other and the works of the middle ages. Thus, for recitals. He says Shabouh, King of Persia, sent example, the doxology at the end of the Lord's an order into Armenia to carry off the Jews who Prayer in St. Matthew's Gospel is wanting in all were faithful to the Jewish law. The Jews who the best MSS. and the works of the more eminent bad been in Van from the time they were carried Fathers, and the natural inference is, that it was off from Judea by Tigranes, were consigned to the pious reflection of some devout Christian, Asbahan. There were also carried into captivity written in the margin of his copy, and afterwards the Jews established by Tigranes at Ardashad and taken into the text by some transcriber. Vagharshabad, and who were converted by St.
So also I think it must have been with these Gregory and Dertad to Christianity,
verses. They are all, it may be seen, taken from Thus we see that the Jewe in Armenia were the Gospel of St. Matthew, and were probably not, as in other districts of the Roman empire, written in the margin from memory as illustrative regarded with contempt, nor did they consist of the concluding verses of the parable, and being solely of mechanics and traders. A Jewish de- written lengthways and not across, they may scent was regarded with honour. We find colonies have extended the whole length of the parable, of Jews, as of other nations, settled in the cities, and so when the transcriber was taking them intó as Walloons, French Huguenots, and Palatines the text in the usual manner, he did it at the behave been among ourselves. Some of these Jews ginning, and thus gave them their present posihad conformed more or less to fire-worship, and tion.
Had he taken them in at the end, though some to Christianity; for it may be questioned they would still have been embarrassing, they what kind of Christianity of heart was that main would have been far less so than they are in their tained by churches composed solely of Jews, and present place. In fine, the natural and easy if we have not some of the incidents of Jewish
manner in which the 15th and 19th verses unite history in Spain repeated, with Nuevos Chris- when they are removed, seems almost to demontianos.
strate the truth of this mode of emendation. It It is to be observed, Moses of Khorene was
is curious enough that practice on Shakespeare not wanting in prejudice against the Jews, as
should have led, as it has done, to the removal of they had crucified Christ.
a difficulty of some magnitude in Scripture; and Sir Francis Goldsmid having called my attention is iī not amazing that so simple a correction to Jost's Allgemeine Geschichte des Israelitischen should have escaped the acumen of, we may say, Volkes, I find that laborious inquirer has not
a host of critics ?
Thos. KEIGHTLEY. omitted this source of information; and in his second volume refers to Moses of Kherene, but
BOOK INSCRIPTIONS.does not go into the subject at any length.
(1.) “ John Deere his booke Amen HYDE CLARKE,
and soe god save our noble king 32, St. George's Square, S.W.
ye rose is red ye grass is green