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T. R. J.-The green variety of Fluor-spar is seldom if ever found in Derbyshire. It is met with in fine, large cubic crystals (truncated) in and about Alston Moor, Cumberland. The miners there generally have a collection of it.


R. D.-Climbing plants do not necessarily all turn the same way-so as "to face the sun.' Lapageria is not an exceptional instance of plants "turning the same way as the sun," although most climbing plants are right-handed, such as scarlet runners and convolvuluses; others, like the hop, are left-handed.

O. C.-It is not uncommon to find wild snowdrops in the state of those you sent.

E. W. S., AND OTHERS.-You can procure Verrill's "List of British Diptera," by addressing the author at Newmarket.

WE have received No. 107 of Messrs. Wesley & Son's "Natural History and Scientific Book Circular," Part 2, devoted to botany. We shall esteem it a favour if our correspondents will write with ink instead of lead-pencil.

J. E. NOWERS.-Send the paper you mention, and we will do our best with it.

M. B. DAVIES.-If you will forward the specimen of amber to the publishers of SCIENCE-Gossip, we will endeavour to find the kind of insect imbedded in it.

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OFFERED, Xylophaga dorsalis, and pholas with siphons. Wanted, Pecten tigrinus, Striatus testæ and septemradiatus, Lima elliptica, subauriculata and loscombii, Modiolaria nigra and marmorata, Crenella decussata, Lepton nitidum, Lucina spirifera, Isocardia cor., Axinus ferruginosa, Astarte triangularis, Psamobia tellinella and costulata, Lyonsia Norvegica, Panopea plicata, Buccinum Humphreysianum, &c.-J. Smith, Monkredding, Kilwinning.

WANTED, L. C., 8th ed.: 11, 114, 848, 855-858, 861, 862, 867, 870, 983, 1253 and var., 1350, 15966, 15986, 1604, 1808, &c., in good specimens (British only). Will give in exchange 76c, 116, 1476, 192b, 4216, 423, 915 fol., 5396, 5416, 5416, 546, 549, 572, 924, 1310, 1666, 1675, &c.-A. E. Lomax, 56 Vauxhall Road, Liverpool.

Nos. 49-63 (January, 1869, to March, 1870), and Nos. 180253 (December, 1880, to January, 1886) of SCIENCE-GOSSIP in exchange for micro apparatus. Side reflector wanted.-A. Johnston, 184 Slatefield Street, Glasgow.

AUSTRALIAN eocene fossils. A fine collection offered for other fossils.-J. T. Mulder, Moorabool Hotel, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

WILL any geologist having a knowledge of any accessible fossiliferous geological sections near London, kindly communicate with J. H. Ellis, 1 Pomona Place, Fulham, S. W. ?

NAMED and unnamed fossils (good assortment) given in exchange for foreign stamps. Old issues required.-A. Tarver, 34 Croydon Grove, Croydon.

WANTED, Smith's "Diatoms," and Lindsay's "British Lichens." State requirements to-J. Larder, Mercer Row, Louth, Lincs.

WANTED, British land and freshwater shells, or any fossils from any formation not in collection, with names and where found, in exchange_for_Pholas candida, or pressed British flowers. Address-R. D. Laurie, 19 Willow Bank Road, Birkenhead.

FIFTY foreign postage stamps, all different, in exchange for eight different foreign coins.-Stampus, 24 Sidney Grove, Newcastle-on-Tyne.

WANTED, Someone who would be kind enough to name a collection of shells (gratis) if sent few at a time. Would be welcome to duplicates.-Edward Backell, Romsey.

SCIENCE-GOSSIP for 1887-89, unbound. Wanted, old collection of postage stamps for whole or portion.-D. Thomson, 81 Kyverdale Road, Stoke Newington, London.

NEw Zealand shells wanted to exchange for shells of other countries, Correspondence invited. Address-G. W. Wright, Karanaghope Road, Auckland, New Zealand.

WANTED, foreign shells and good unmounted micro material. Exchange British shells and choice micro slides of every description. Foreign correspondence invited. - R. Suter, 5 Highweek Road, Tottenham, London.

BRITISH reptiles and batrachians. Wanted, perfect adult living or spirit specimens, in exchange for correctly-named foreign species, or other objects.-G. E. M., 5 Warwick Place West, London, S.W.

"ROYAL Microscopical Journal" for 1887 and 1888, 2 vols., bound, and four parts, February to August, 1889; also "The Microscope." by H. Baker (1769). What offers ?-F. C., 53 Brooke Road, Stoke Newington, N.

DAVIS'S "Biology," Gibson's ditto,

Marshall and Hurst's

"Zoology," Lloyd Morgan's ditto, Bower's "Botany," Parts and 2, Huxley's "Biology," &c., in exchange for good standard works on geology, or a good labelled collection of minerals, rocks, &c., to illustrate lectures on physiography. Offers to-A. E. Salter, Royal Masonic Schools, Wood Green, N.

SCIENCE-GOSSIP (unbound), 1889 and 1890, complete, 8 numbers for 1880, and 10 odd numbers, for exchange. Wanted, transparent molluscan micro-slides, or offers.-J. B. Beckett, 11 Lancaster Road, Great Yarmouth.

OFFERED, Pholas candida (perfect living shells). Wanted, the rarer species of British land and freshwater shells, also good marine species.-P. R. Shaw, 48 Bidston Road, Oxton, Birkenhead.

“IBIS," ,"bound half-calf, for 1881, "Supernatural in Nature" (Reynolds), perfectly clean and good as new, in exchange for eggs, or natural history works especially relating to Derbyshire.-Miskin, Steam Brewery, Bedford.

Spirula Peronii, Waldheimia flavescens, Trigonia Lamarckii, Ianthina exigua, and other good shells. Wanted, good foreign or British land and freshwater shells.-Robert Cairns, 159 Queen Street, Hurst, Ashton-under-Lyne.

"Vegetable Substances," 3 vols. "Lib. Ent. Knowledge," in exchange for text-book on Practical Botany. Also wanted modern work on marine algæ. J. F. Neeve, 68 High Street, Deal.

OFFERED, Cypræa helvola, C. annulus, C. lynx, Oliva ispidula, O. tremulina, O. reticularis. Wanted, Nassa immersa, N. gemmulata, N. papillosa.-W. Jones, jun., 27 Mayton Street, Holloway, London, N.

"POPULAR Science Review," 1887 and 1888, in 1 vol., "Geological Survey, Canada, Report for 1853-1856," 1 vol. Offers wanted.-J. A. Floyd, 5 Hospital Road, Bury St. Edmunds.

FOREIGN stamps wanted. Will give British shells in return. -T. E. Sclater, Bank Street, Teignmouth.

OFFERED, birds' and animals' skins, birds' eggs, shells, photographic camera and apparatus, &c., in exchange for foreign stamps.-H. Knights, Beaconsfield Road, Great Yar


Lima hians, L. Loscombii, L. Sarsii, L. elliptica, Modiolaria costulata, Crenella rhombea, Arca obliqua, Axinus croulinensis, Ampidesma castaneum, Tellina balaustina, Panopea plicata, Teredo Norvegica, T. pedicillata, Trochus amabilis, T. Dumingii, T. occidentalis, Rissoa Jeffreysi, Jeffreysia diaphana, Cerithiopsis metaxa, Eulinia stenostoma, Odostomia decussata, O. conspicua, and Stylifer turtoni wanted. Other rare British shells given in exchange.A. J. R. Sclater, 23 Bank Street, Teignmouth, South Devon. PHOTOGRAPHIC sets. One -plate set, one slide, lens and tripod complete; a t-plate set by Lancaster, two double slides, &c., all complete, in real good order. I will exchange for appliances or books on microscopy, biology, brewing, &c.Apply-Horton, Brayford, Lincoln.



An Introduction to the Study of Botany," by Dr. E. Aveling (London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co.).-"Mineral' Resources of the United States," vol. for 1888.-"Monograph of the U. S. Geol. Survey-Lake Bonneville," by G. K. Gilbert." Ninth Annual Report of the U. S. Survey for 188788."-"Bulletins of the U. S. Geol. Survey," Nos. 58-60 (all published at Government Printing Office, Washington).-"A Class Book on Light," by R. E. Steel (London: Methuen & Co.). "The Foundations of Chemistry," by E. T. Dixon (London: Geo. Bell & Sons).-"Insect Life," vol. iii. No. 5, by C. V. Riley and L. O. Howard (Washington: Government Printing Office).-"Report of Wellington College Nat. Science Society, 1890."-"Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society," February." Nature Notes."-"British Cage Birds," Part 11. -"Le Diatomiste," No. 4.-" Journal and Proceedings Royal Society of New South Wales."-"The Medical Annual, 1891.' -"American Microscopical Journal."-"The Microscope." "American Naturalist."-" Čanadian Entomologist."-" The Naturalist."-"The Botanical Gazette."-"The Gentleman's Magazine."-"The Midland Naturalist."-"The Garner.' "Feuille des Jeunes Naturalistes," &c., &c.

COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVED UP TO THE 13TH ULT. FROM: J. W. S.-W. J. S.-H. A. M.-T. A. L.-M. P.-H. E. G. -S. A. B.-W. E. C.-J. E. W.-C. O.-W. J. B.—A. J. J.— H. H. M.-C. B. M.-F. L.-E. B.-J. S.-C. P. G.J. W. W.-H. W. B.-W. D. R.-O. H.-M. W.-W. H.A. J.-E. B.-J. S.-F. W. F.-W. F.-J. B. B.-P. R. S. R. C.-J. T. N.-W. J.-J. A. F.-H. K.-S. T. B.-T. S.G. E. S.-J. W. B.-A. G. T.-V. A. L.-G. A. H. A. J. R. S.-J. A.-W. A. G.-F. C.-G. E. M.-R. S.D. T.-J. W. W.-G. W. W.-A. E. S.-O. C.-G. W. N.E. A. M.-R. D. L.-R. H. J.-R. T.-A. E. L.-J. S.J. T. M.-W. A. G.-J. L.-J. W. S.-A. T.-A. J.-J. A. E. -W. A. T.-Dr. P. Q. K.-J. E. L.-W. E. C.-T. S.J. W. H.-J. E. N.-M. B. D.-A. A.-H. P. G.-&c., &c.

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COW that the happy

time for all botanists is coming on, I think it may interest those who have like myself a special love for bog-plants, to hear of a successful experiment made by me for two successive seasons.

I set up a miniature marsh thus: I took off with a trowel, so as not to disturb the roots, some patches of the bog surface, containing plants of the pinguicula, others with clusters of different sorts of drosera, patches with masses of the tiny bog campanula, also some young plants of the bog asphodel. I packed my patches of bog tightly in a shallow seedpan and added to them Parnassia palustris sent to me from Scotland and filling up all the interstices with growing bits of moss. I then placed my pan in one sufficiently large to allow of two inches between the inner and outer pans on all sides. The holes of the outer pan were carefully plugged and filled with water which oozed naturally up through the holes in the bottom of the inside pan, and placed the whole upon a sunny window-sill. The water drawn up by the sun kept the contents not only soft and wet, but kept a warm soft atmosphere about the plants, such as they had in their native habitat. If any of your readers ever put their face down close to a bog to look closely at its exquisite vegetation on a warm sunny day, they will understand the soft warm breath the plants rejoice in.

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The little marsh garden succeeded beyond my most sanguine expectation, the plants never felt they had been taken from their native land, but grew apace and blossomed well, the pinguiculas threw up No. 317.-MAY 1891.

their lovely purple-headed stems, the sundews sent up numberless bunches of their little white flowers, the campanulas were plentiful, and the Scotch parnassus flourished and blossomed as well as if it was on its own mountains.

To my great delight I had several unexpected ornaments to my marsh garden. A crop of pink pimpernel made its appearance, and grew with such speed and luxuriance that they had to be removed to a flower-pot saucer, where they hung over the edge after a very short time in beautiful pink wreaths. Next, a small marsh hypericum came to light and embellished my marsh with its small trails of yellow flowers and red buds. Then a small green flower surprised me one morning by making its appearance in the centre of a patch of spear-shaped leaves that I had supposed to be some sort of grass, a small deep cup-shaped blossom, its corolla five-cleft with a stamen in the curved centre of each division, and a shining moist spot in the heart of the cup instead of a pistil. The number of small mosses was most interesting, some of them of exquisite beauty; they came and went in a constant succession during the early spring-March and April-but there was always some curious plant or other quite unknown to me during the whole summer.

After a few months the water between the pans became the home of numerous small water insects, and two sorts of water snails made their appearance. For their benefit and shelter I put a plant of watercress in one corner of the water, which speedily threw out roots and flourished, making a shelter for the insects.

I kept the outer pan filled to about an inch under the rim of the inner one, in hot weather it evaporated very quickly, and I was careful to keep the water even with the mark.

If any of your readers think of setting up a marsh for themselves I am sure they will find it a source of endless interest and pleasure.

NOTE. The campanula mentioned above I was unable to identify; it was like C. hederacea, but smaller, and the blossoms upright instead of drooping.

I. G. F




F.R.C.S., recently delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons three lectures on the Structure and Development of the Skeleton of the Head, the Nervous System, and Sensory Organs of Insects in relation to Recent Views on the Origin of Vertebrates, giving the results of work in which he has been engaged for at least fifteen or twenty years. His views are that the vertebrate and the arthropod stand in a genetic connection with each other. He said: "If we seek for links uniting these two great sub-kingdoms, we must look for them amongst the most generalised groups in each in the vertebrata amongst the amphibia, and especially the perennibranchiate forms; in the arthropods, and in the kingcrab "Limulus," which hold a zoological position between the arachnids and the crustacea." The lecturer compared the embryos of the axolotl, as figured by Professor Parker with arthropod embryos, and, showed many points of similarity. He then adverted to the fact that both Drs. Gaskell and Patten had independently arrived at the conclusion that the king crab stands in a genetic relation to the vertebrata.

The existence of a notochord in the chordata has been looked upon as of primary import in the question of the descent of vertebrates from an invertebrate type. Adopting, however, Gaskell's views, and holding that the central canal of the spinal cord represents the arthropod alimentary canal, the lecturer showed at some length that the proctodeum of the insect embryo corresponds with the mesenteron of the vertebrata; and he held that a notochord should rather be regarded as a secondary character, resulting from an invagination of the epiblast, than as a structure of a high morphological significance; and he showed that a rod of cartilage, similar to a notochord, is actually developed on the dorsal surface of the invaginated head capsule of the blowfly larva, whilst those structures in invertebrates which have been supposed to represent a notochord have a similar origin. He pointed out that the structure which supported the nerve centres in Limulus, is composed of cartilage very like the cartilage of the vertebrata, and it could only, with great difficulty, be distinguished from it. Professor Ray Lankester was the first who made out this peculiar form of cartilage, which he said was developed from the mesoblast; while the lecturer, judging from the relation the structure bears to the same parts in insects, believed it to be an epiblastic structure. This led him to accept the view put forward by Dr. Patten in America and by Dr. Gaskell in this country, that the ventral surface of the anterior somites of the arthropods represents the basis cranii of the verte

brata. The relationship between the nervous system in the vertebrates and the arthropods led him to adopt Dr. Gaskell's hypothesis, inasmuch as it harmonised many things which had formerly puzzled biologists. For many years it had never occurred to him to compare any parts of the arthropods with the functional corresponding parts in the vertebrata. As soon as Dr. Gaskell showed that there were strong reasons for believing that the central canal of the spinal cord corresponds with the primary intestinal canal, the difficulty considerably diminished, and many parts of the insect were found to correspond so closely to parts of the vertebrate, that it was no longer possible to ignore the correspondences between the structures, both in develop. ment and in relation to their anatomical parts. Having given a description of the insect brain, Professor Lowne referred to the idea that the antennæ of insects were homologues of the ventral appendages. The evidence against that idea was becoming stronger and stronger every day. They were not lateral appendages, in the usual sense--a fact long since recognised by Professor Balfour,—but olfactory organs, corresponding point by point, more especially in relation to the nerve ganglia, to the olfactory organs of the vertebrata. Neither did the eyes of the insect represent ventral appendages; they bore no relation whatever to them.

The lecturer entered at great length into the details of the structure and development of the arthropod brain, and showed that it possesses many points of similarity with the cephalic nerve centres of vertebrates; that it is developed from three vesicles; and that median pineal eyes are developed in the wall of the middle vesicle. That there is actually a third ventricle from which the nerve of the median eyes, ocelli, arises.

The lecturer finally dealt with the development of the eye. The sensory organs of arthropods were usually developed by the process of invagination of the epiblast, just in the same way as the sense capsules of vertebrates were developed. The eyes first appeared as a single layer of cells in a kind of cup-shaped cavity, divided into at least two layers; from the surface layer a series of lenses was developed about 4000 to 6000 in number, instead of one great lens. In some insects there were as many as 24,000 to 30,000 separate lenses. These form the compound cornea. The lenses were very remarkable in their structure, and appeared to consist of a stroma very much like the stroma of the red blood-corpuscle of a vertebrate, and a substance which has a very highly refractive power, and which is fluid and soluble in ether. This substance gradually passes out through the stroma after the insect dies, and impregnates the other tissues, but in a living insect the cornea has the same kind of brilliancy as in the vertebrate; but as soon as the insect dies the brilliancy rapidly fades, and in a quarter of an hour it has become quite dull.

The stroma consists of proteid substances, but as development progresses the albuminous material gives place to this highly refractive, probably oily material, and then the lenticular portion of the cornea becomes reticular after having been treated with such reagents as will dissolve out this interfibrillar substance. About twelve years ago, when examining the lateral portions of the compound eye of the lobster, he continually found thickenings beneath the rod-like bodies which united the corneal portion of the eye with the nerve centres beneath, and he became convinced that no nerve structure passed through this

membrane, and then it struck him that, in trying to THE

make out that this structure was retinal, he was doing very much the same thing as examining the minute structure of the crystalline lens of the vertebrata, and coming to the conclusion that the rod-like fibres of that lens were in themselves not merely a portion of the refractive structure, but were actually the terminals of the optic nerve. He regards the whole of the structure developed from the superficial epiblast as a refracting organ, and with that view he had termed it the dioptron, or the refractive portion of the compound eye. In some insects which do not undergo metamorphosis the great compound eye is at first small, and consists only of a few facets, but a new portion of the eye is developed at each shedding of the integument. The nerve also gradually passes to the surface, encircles the old nerve, and forms a new retina. This goes on until at the last the optic nerve is found very much spread out. During the last shedding of the skin the whole of the retina undergoes degeneration, and a new one takes its place; so that new sets of facets are developed at each skin shedding, and a new retina is developed from the nerve centres beneath the dioptron.

In expounding the various theories of insect vision, the lecturer explained that Müller's theory of "mosaic vision" was not in itself tenable, because, in the first place, the images produced would be blurred, and surfaces of eight or ten inches square, would only be visible as points at very moderate distances-say, ten or twenty feet. The theory which the lecturer propounded was that an inverted sub-corneal image was formed beneath each corneal facet, and the great rods of the dioptron produced a magnified erect image of that portion of the subcorneal image which lies in the axis of each. The integration of these images produces the retinal image upon what he had described as the " neuron." This image had actually been demonstrated by Sigismund Exner of Vienna, who first showed it at the Cologne Congress of Naturalists. The "mosaic view," or Müller's theory announced about 1826, assumed that the tubes of the dioptron only permitted axial light to pass through them; so that each tube of the dioptron produces one distinct stimulation of the nerve, and there could only be as many separate sensations of light as there are tubes to the dioptron, a supposition

which is quite incapable of explaining vision in an insect which has perhaps only fifteen or twenty lenticles of the eye, some only having five or six, although others have as many as 24,000 to 30,000. Even in those which have the largest number, the acuity of vision is not sufficiently explained by Müller's theory.


[Continued from p. 88.]

HE upper reaches of our lane are much frequented by that lovely and docile bird the goldfinch (Carduelis elegans), for here the thistleheads afford him many a dainty meal; his headquarters are, however, in my garden hedge, where, secure from harm, he builds, and delights us with his soft and cheerful strain. As sweet, though less varied, is the song of the beautiful plumaged chaffinch (Fringilla calebs), he, too, is a frequenter of our lane, and throughout the early spring and summer months pours out the gladness of his little heart from daybreak till night casts her dark mantle on all around. Nor must I forget my sober-coated protégé most innocent of all the feathered tribethe hedge-warbler (Accentor modularis). Use him very gently, dear reader, he is a most lovable bird; soft and low, his plaintive song correctly indicates his innocent nature. Drop for him the tiny crumb. I love his presence, and glad am I to think he is influenced by no migratory impulse. Need it be said that that harmless bird whose trustful nature leads him to seek man's companionship—his little, bright-eyed friend, sweet robin red-breast (Erythaca rubecula) attends us in our garden-strolls, and claims his daily share of crumbs; carolling his bright song by way of thanks. To him, as it is to others, our garden is a sanctuary, and well he seems to love it. The yellow-ammer (Emberiza citrinella), too, he loves the hedges and pastures of our lane; but he, too, in our garden hedges and ivy builds, nor do his oft-repeated notes pall on my ear. His favourite perch is the vane of a weather-cock upon the top of my summer-house, from whence, hour after hour, he trills his little varied song; this, too, when the songs of other birds have long been hushed. I always welcome the advent of that tiny bird the chiff-chaff (Sylvia hippolais), together with that of the whitethroat (Curruca cinerea). Not much have they to boast of in the way of song, but their sweet accompaniment to the richer melodies of other feathered choristers make up the sum of a glorious concert; whilst high above the much-besoiled earth, the skylark (Alauda arvensis) and the woodlark (A. arborea) pour out at "Heaven's gate" their joyous hymns of praise.

Adjoining my garden is an arable field, and beyond, and yet beyond are others, and here the former loves

to nest, and through the live-long day sings in the cloudless, or sparsely-clouded sky. Well hath a writer designated song the joy of birds-a happy definition, for surely 'tis the expression of their happiness.

But linger I must not o'er a subject so fraught with pleasant associations, and scarcely dare I venture to enumerate birds so common in our lane, and skirting fields and orchards as the linnet (Linota cannabina), wren (Troglodytes Europaus), willow-wren (Sylvia trochilus), pied wag-tail (Motacilla Yarrellii), greenfinch (Coccothraustes chloris), bullfinch (Pyrrhula vulgaris), spotted fly-catcher (Muscicapa grisola), redstart (Phanicura ruticilla), grasshopper warbler (Salicaria locustella), and such well-known birds as the siskin, wood-pigeon, ringdove, starling, meadow pipit,

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Fig. 71.-The Jay (Garrulus glandarius).

cuckoo, the ubiquitous sparrow, swallow, martin, and swift. Those restless and beautiful-plumaged birds the greater and the blue titmice swarm in my garden, and put my friendship to a severe test when my peas and pears are in season; whilst the cole titmouse (Parus ater) ever finds a welcome. Not seldom the screech-owl pours out his doleful plaint from trees hard by, and the jay (Garrulus glandarius) visits my windows to gather the berries of the cotoneaster. The nuthatch (Sitta Europaa), too, is one of our most familiar birds, and his frequent tap, tap, tap, assures us of his presence even when his cry of "chu-whit " cannot be heard. Magpies, rooks and hawks are

very numerous--a pair of the former nest in the ivyclothed branches of a sycamore in my orchard-hedge, hard by the house.

A host of rarer visitants must needs be unmentioned. Enough has been told to inform the naturalist that the avifauna of our lane is not a limited one. Nor is animal life restricted to two-footed things. The nimble rabbit, scared by my footstep may oft be seen scampering up the lane-the agile squirrel ventures to leave his woods in search of hazel-nuts-and the freshly-raised hillocks of loam in the pastures, plainly indicate the presence of a silent worker-the sleekcoated mole (Talpa Europaus). Those much persecuted creatures, the hedgehogs, abound in the meadows; and into our orchard, the past summer, I


Her nest is in a yew tree some few yards from the bottom of my garden.

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have good reason to believe, ventured a badger, or badgers, courageous enough to face an armed host of wasps; excavating large cavities, and tearing to fragments the nests-presumably to devour the grubs. No smaller animal could have excavated so large a quantity of earth in a single night. I have not, however, seen one, but learn that a sporting friend has several skins of these animals, all of which he has shot in this neighbourhood. The long-tailed fieldmouse (Mus Sylvaticus), the short-tailed field-mouse (Arvicola arvensis), and shrews are wonderfully numerous-and that tiniest of four-footed creatures the elegant harvest mouse (Micromys minutus), is common in the fields adjoining my garden. A mere atom of four-footed animality is it, and a stranger to fear, for on the several occasions that I have come

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