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by Mr. E. T. Newton as portions of fish-teeth. Mr. Player observes that the phosphate occurs in such a condition that it would not improbably serve as a valuable fertilizer, without conversion into superphosphate. This condition is probably due to the partial replacement of carbonate of lime by phosphate in the organisms. The removal of the remaining carbonate leaves the phosphate in a honeycombed state, peculiarly favourable for attack by the acids in the soil. Mr. Strahan commented upon the resemblance of the deposit to the phosphatic chalk with Belemnitella quadrata which is largely worked in Northern France, and upon a less striking resemblance with that of Ciply, which is at a higher horizon. In the discussion which followed, Dr. G. J. Hinde said that he had examined microscopically the phosphatic chalks of Taplow, and compared it with the similar material from Douillens and Ciply, and he fully agreed with Mr. Strahan's description thereof. The fine, white, powdery portion of the Taplow rock consisted nearly entirely of Coccoliths, Discoliths, and Rhabdoliths, unaltered and of carbonate of lime similar to those in the normal white chalk. . The minute, translucent, angular fragments in the granular portion were shown to be pieces of fish-bone by the occurrence in them of true bone lacuna and canaliculi, and many were likewise thickly penetrated by borings of algæ or fungi. Similar fragments were present in the Douillens and Ciply material, but their osseous nature had not previously been recognised. The minute phosphatic pellets were probably coprolites of small fishes. The evidence pointed to the exuviæ of fishes as the source of the phosphatic materials in these deposits. Mr. Whitaker said that, from the regularly bedded character of the phosphatic chalk, one would have expected it to occur for some distance from the pit ; but no trace could be seen either of the phosphatic beds or of the flintless chalk in which they occur. It seems as if the topmost chalk here occurs only over a small area, having been eroded elsewhere. That this was the case to the west and north-west had been surmised by Mr. Jukes-Browne (“Geology of London,” vol. i. pp. 76-78, 1889), from an examination of fossils collected from the various pits ; but the thinning out of the top chalk seems to be more sudden than was expected, and not only in the above directions but all round from Taplow. Mr. Strahan's discovery showed how much there might remain to be done, even with regard to so well-known a formation as the chalk. Professor Judd remarked upon the interesting nature of the microscopic borings described by Dr. Hinde. His attention had been of late directed to the subject in connexion with the curious organisms found in Oolitic grains, both recent and fossil. Both Mr. G. Murray and Dr. Scott were of opinion that these borings were produced by the plants that had been so well described by the distinguished French algologist, Bornet. A very acute

observer, Mr. F. Chapman, had noticed that shellfragments in the gault frequently exhibit these borings, and Dr. Scott had been able to identify several of Bornet's genera, founded on recent specimens, as being represented in these Cretaceous shells. Bornet believed that these boring algæ perform a very important part in the economy of nature, by bringing about the destruction and solution of shell-fragments. The president, alluding to the geological and economic interest of the discovery described in the paper, remarked that though the area occupied by the phosphatic layers seemed to be small, there was good reason to hope that somewhere else in the UpperChalk districts the same or similar bands might yet be found. The search for such deposits would now be stimulated by the information so fully supplied by the Author, who himself would no doubt follow up his observations at Taplow by a thorough examination of the higher members of the chalk in the east of England.

NOTE ON THE OCCURRENCE OF COCKROACH WINGS IN THE COAL MEASURES OF THE FOREST OF DEAN.-I am indebted to Mr. Lawe, of Pillston Penna, for the information that two entire wings and a fraction of a third were received by him amongst a collection of fossil plants from the above locality and horizon, sent by myself. I noticed the specimens when packing them, but thought them (perhaps new) fern pinnules. I am in ignorance as to whether these insects have been recognised before in that locality or not; but they are certainly scarce. Of the two specimens one was possibly the counterpart of the other.-T. Stock.

NOTES AND QUERIES,

SNAILS AS A CURE, FOR CONSUMPTION.-In an old MS. book full of receipts, which were put together by Robert Sexton, an old excise officer, about the year 1794, I find the following recipes as cures for consumption, which show that the snailcure was recommended to a later date than we generally acknowledge by the medical faculty to the phthisical patients. The first, on the authority of one, Dr. Simmons, runs' as follows :—“Oysters will sometimes be beneficial, and so will snails either swallowed whole or boiled in milk-cow's milk, if warm from the cow, diluted with one-third of water; in general, buttermilk or whey, either from cows or goats, is far preferable to new milk, but to be beneficial it should be the principal food.” The second recipe, given on no authority, is in the following words :-“Boil half-a-dozen of red garden snails every evening in a quart of sweet milk or whey, then strain the liquor through a coarse cloth and drink it with sugar every morning gradually upon an empty stomach, and repeat these draughts for a month or two if required.". This extract goes on to say that Helix pomatia has been used also for “open hæmorrhoids,” by applying “fresh snails” to the affected part every two or three hours.-), W. Williams.

HABITS OF THE CROSSBILL.-I saw a flock of ten crossbills feeding in a larch tree at Ballyhyland, co. Wexford, on the 15th of January. They are rare visitors here, and these birds allowed me to walk freely all round and under the tree they were in, for half-an-hour or so, but the light was so bad that I failed to get a satisfactory view of their plumage, a point of such interest in the crossbill. As one of these crossbills was feeding near the extremity of a bough, I saw another come hopping to him along the branch from the end next the trunk. The feeding bird, seeing the other approach, stopped eating, and gravely opening his beak took that of his visitor into his mouth. The two bills were then slowly drawn apart again, the one crossbill unconcernedly resumed his eating, and the other hopped away. Some minutes afterwards I saw the very same process gone through again. The bird visited was, I am pretty sure, the same on each occasion; about the identity of the visitor I am less clear. The grave demeanour of the birds was very entertaining to witness. I am quite at a loss to know the nature of the transaction. Was it (1) an old bird feeding her young ; (2) a cock bird feeding his mate (either would be a remarkable fact, seeing it was the 15th of January, and very harsh weather); or (3) may we suppose that the crossbills occasionally suffer inconvenience in feeding from getting bits of scales impaled on their curiously. formed mandibles, and that in these emergencies they come to each other to be relieved. The act, as I saw it, seemed to me more consistent with this last explanation. There was not the smallest symptom of an emotional greeting, a flutter of wings, or a note of welcome or expectancy, such as usually happens when a hen bird or a fledgeling of one of our common species is fed by its mate or parent. It was clearly a visit of business, regarded by both in the light of a passing interruption to the routine work of devouring the larch-cones.-C. B. Moffat.

GALVANISED WIRE AND ORCHIDS.-I find that galvanised wire kills orchids. I tied galvanised wire round some orchids to keep the moss on the roots, and most of them died, one plant especially I wish to draw attention. It was a plant of Cattleya crispa in full growth. To hang the plant up I had a band of galvanised wire placed round the pot and wire from this band formed a loop. I must relate that the plant in question had vigorous roots clinging to the sides of the pot. All these roots died, and then the plant. Since then I have taken the galvanised wire from the pots, etc., and replaced with copper. Since then the orchids are in better health.-R. Draper.

BATS FLYING IN SUNLIGHT.-On the 16th February, about ten o'clock on a brilliantly fine and warm morning, I watched two flitter mice-bats (Vesperugo pipistrellus, Schreb.), for some time. They were hawking to and fro for the numerous flies that were abroad. I have never seen bats following their avocations in the bright sunlight before.-7. E. Taylor.

TREES IN TREES.--A friend who has had experience in tree growing tells me that a young tree, as for instance an elm, grows much more rapidly when planted inside a hollow tree, say an elm, than under any other conditions. Looking to the quantity of decaying vegetable matter from which the roots of the young tree derive part of its nutriment, this does not seem at all improbable. –T. S.

DEAD THRUSHES IN RABBIT-HOLES.-Seven dead thrushes were taken from a rabbit-hole at Aust, Glos., into which they had retired to die during the late severe weather. Several birds that were picked

up dead from starvation, were difficult to skin, just skin and bone, light as a feather.-7. S.

CuticLE of LEAVES.-Could any of your readers inform me the best method of taking off the cuticle of leaves of Scolopendrium, petals of the Geranium, &c., so as to make them as transparent objects for the microscope ?

I am told that “ nitric acid, diluted with half water, is the oldfashioned way. Could any one inform me of the newfashioned, or any better way?"--George A. Hankey, Town Court Farm, Tunbridge Wells.

STRANGE CONDUCT OP A SQUIRREL.-One day in October last, as I was walking through the Phænix Park, Dublin, I came suddenly on a remarkable sight. A reddish animal was careering in rapid circles around a woodpigeon which was stationed on the ground, and which, in a dazed fashion, kept turning slowly round and round to watch the whirligig performance: in fact, the procedure was almost exactly that which I have seen when a stoat, before killing a rabbit, proceeds to mesmerise it by cutting circles round it, except that the stoat accompanies his circles by wonderful somersaults, which were lacking on the present occasion. The wood-pigeon's behaviour was almost an exact repetition of the rabbit's. Arriving so suddenly on the scene, I unluckily startled the principal performer, who stopped ; and, to my surprise, I then saw that it was a squirrel ! The bird was at first so utterly bewildered that it was several seconds before she sufficiently recovered to fly away. When at last the wood-pigeon had flown off, and not till then, the squirrel also left the scene, and betook himself up a tree. It would be interesting to know whether such conduct on a squirrel's part has been noticed before, and what would have been the upshot to the affair had it not been interrupted ? Is it to be supposed that the squirrel intended to kill the ring-dove-Hugh H. Moffat.

“Two SIDES OF THE MEDAL"-With reference to the note (p. 71) by Mr. Bird, it is only fair to what seems the only scientific school of evolutionists to state (without hazarding any personal opinion), that it is only those acquired characters which affect the whole organism, and more especially the reproductive elements, that are deemed iransmissile to the offspring. The case cited, therefore, of the two men A. and B., one born with big muscular limbs and the other not, is hardly to the point, at least without some further exposition. The other case C. and D. is completely outside the mark as it were. The destruction of thumbs is not necessarily attended with any disturbance of the genital organs; and, therefore, the most fervent Lamarkian would freely admit that D.'s children would be just as likely to have thumbs as those of any one else. It may be useful to append that the well-known researches of Brown-Sequard on the effects of lesions of guineapigs, etc., have not been, as far as I am aware, been very destructively analysed or explosively bombarded by any subsequent critic or experimentalist.P. Q. R.

NATURAL HISTORY VANDALISM.-Whilst regret. ting the deplorable sacrifice of bird-life, and the approaching extirpation of the most interesting species, it is painful to find this mischief ascribed by certain journals to naturalists. The destroyers of birds are bird-nesters, bird-dealers and their emis. saries, suburban louts who go out on Sundays and holidays, and blaze away at everything clad in feathers. Nor must we forget ignorant farmers, who have latterly taken to destroying that purely insectiv

wards straining the water and placing the shells in a glass. There were a few examples of Pisidium pusillum, all dead; Limnæ peregra and L. stagnalis were in large numbers, all young examples, ready to crawl as soon as they dropped from the block of ice; Planorbis corneus and Pl. complanatus were also found in quantity, mostly young examples and all living. As the water had been frozen over for six weeks, it is probable that the greater number of these animals has been at least a month in a solid block of ice.-W. A. Gain, Tuxford, Newark.

BIRDS AND THE COLD WEATHER.-Owing to the cold weather, no doubt our native English birds have suffered greatly. But perhaps readers would be interested in hearing that I have seen not only a great variety of birds in the garden, but all of which are enumerated here since the frost. They are :-woodpecker, nuthatch, great, little, and blackcap tit, bullfinch, goldfinch, greenfinch, chaffinch, wagtail, siskin, yellow and reed bunting, owl, tree, house, and hedge sparrows, tree creeper, gold-crested, common, and willow wrens, the mischievous jay, wood-pigeon, and the common blackbird and starling ; but not a single thrush, which seems about the only kind of bird affected by the cold.- Frederick W. Freeman, Whitwell, Norwich.

orous bird the cuckoo, and infatuated game-keepers who shoot down the owls, our best mouse-catchers. -7. W. Slater.

SPIDERS' WEBS.-Some time ago I heard a statement to the effect that “spiders are unable to make more than four webs during their life-time; and that should the fourth be destroyed the spider is henceforth dependent on outward circumstances entirely for a home and its food.” I have not been able to find any corroboration of the above statement, and should esteem it a favour if some reader will be able to prove or disprove the above.---B. Truscott.

THE MARKING OF WILD BIRDS' EGGS AT THE SMALLER END.- Why are so very few of the eggs of our wild birds which have variegated markings found to be prominently coloured at the smaller end ? The answer to this question is by no means a simple one, and comprises almost endless complications and, indeed, can at best be but indefinite, for this reason, none of our zoologists seemed to have worked out the glands containing the colouring matter of the eggs. So, of course, it is only possible to theorise. In the first place, it would be a sheer physical impossibility, as some people have supposed, for the egg to be turned completely round in the oviduct, it is far too tightly wedged for any gyration of the bird to accomplish such a thing. And, again, this latter theory would imply that the egg usually came down the oviduct with the larger end pointing first, so that it received the bulk of the colouring matter ; but this is quite a misleading idea, for it is, with rare exceptions, the smaller end of the egg which points to the exterior, and not the larger. “ Why, then, does not the smaller end of the egg, in the majority of cases, receive the bulk of the colour, instead of the larger?” The answer is not very difficult to find. The larger end of the egg, although coming down after the smaller, naturally irritates and distends the coloursecreting glands more than the latter, and therefore receives the bulk of the markings. But why the eggs of the falconidæ and of the corvidæ should be more prone to have small end markings than the majority of other birds is a much more difficult question to

It seems to me, and probably many others have also noticed it, that those eggs which most usually exhibit distinct and prominent small endmarkings, are those which either have the colour distributed in large blotches over the surface, or are those which vary a great deal in both ground colour and markings, as the eggs of the corvidæ most certainly do. In many cases of eggs marked with large blotches of colour, it is almost impossible to say they are not marked on the smaller end, they are so diffusely and profusely marked all over. Of course there are exceptions to every rule, and it would be impossible to lay down a law confining the small end-colouring of eggs to any particular group of eggs.

I have, for instance, in my own collection, specimens of the rook, crow, sparrow-hawk, redbacked shrike, yellow bunting and chaffinch, all very distinctly marked on the smaller end, and all perfectly normal in shape, except that of the chaffinch. I feel that much more might and ought to be written on this subject, and I hope that some one will offer more satisfactory explanation of this freak of nature, than I am able to do.-K. H. Jones.

POWER OF THE LIMNIDÆ TO RESIST COLD.On the breaking up of the late frost I was examining the thick ice on a large stone trough used by me as an outdoor aquarium, when I observed a large number of shells embedded in it. I' removed some large blocks and allowed them to melt slowly, after.

answer.

EXTRAORDINARY ENTOMOLOGICAL DISCOVERY. - Mr. A. S. Canham, of Crowland, has discovered a peacock butterfly beneath a layer of gravel at Crowland, some 20 feet in thickness, in a peat bed. Mr. Canham was desirous of seeing the vegetable formation in this bed, and for this purpose cut out a brick of the peat.

He then broke it open, and immediately a butterfly flew out! He captured the butterfly, and it lived for about a fortnight afterwards. Mr Canham supposed that the butterfly was in the peat at the time the gravel was brought down and thus sealed the bed. When the gravel was removed the air penetrated the peat, and the process of incubation was set up; the breaking of the cake of peat admitting more air, promoted the final development of the butterfly, and it flew out. An indentation in the peat coincides with the existence of a chrysalis there, but the shell is lost. The peat and butterfly were exhibited by Mr. Canham before the Peterborough Natural History Society.—Grimsby News.

CURIOUS BELIEFS.— With reference to a “curious belief” among the natives of county Mayo (SCIENCEGossip for April, p. 75), I noted a few weeks since a fact which seems to me to bear on the case of the man who ate salmon for a fortnight, and became apparently waterproof. A favourite cat of mine became suddenly very ill, almost unconscious for some days. A veterinary surgeon who saw it, advised us to feed it partly on cod-liver oil ; it took about a teaspoonful a day for about two days. By that time its fur, which it never licked or cleaned in any way, became remarkably glossy, and smelt strongly of the oil. May 'not the oil in the salmon-flesh have a similar result in the case of the fisherman ?

RISE OF SAP.-I asked a farmer of considerable experience yesterday if he agreed with Mr. Reeves's theories on the ascent or descent of sap. He did not; and adduced the following case, which not long since occurred on his farm. Elms, he said, are gross feeders. If they are in a hedgerow near hops they send up suckers into the hop-gardens, choosing especially the “hills" or hop-plants, which are the most manured. A large mixen had been placed beside a farm-road, about ten feet from a row of

elms. It was left untouched for six months, and when the) ; gill-run-the-ground, ground ivy. [The local cleared away was found to be pierced through and name of the ground ivy was given to it, from its through with elm-roots. Does this make for or against spreading or running habits over the ground.) BullMr. Reeves's theory?

rush, great reedmace; bindweed, large convolvulus;

cornbine, small convolvulus ; woodbine, honeysuckle. QUERY AS TO EGG.-Will any of the oological

[The local names of the convolvulus (major and readers of SCIENCE-Gossip kindly tell me the name

minor) and the honeysuckle, needs no explanation, as of the following egg, taken in this district two years

the derivation of their names is quite clear.] Horseago? In size and appearance it exactly resembles mint, common mint; burweed, common goosegrass that of the moorhen, but the nest was built on the

or cleavers ; mayweed, corn feverfew ; pussy cat, ground, like that of the plover, and contained only

catkin of willow; willow-weed, periscaria ; pigeon two eggs. The bird, which I saw several times, was

felt, fieldfare ; redwing felt, redwing; gor-crow, like an ordinary blue pigeon. A friend of mine took

carrion crow; thresher or thrusher, song-thrush; several eggs of the same kind, and he informs me

then (or fen) thresher, missel-thrush ; water washthat they are quite new to him.-G. Dixon.

disher, water wagtail ; yellow wash-disher, yellow FUNGUS ON EGGS.-If T. Brown, who complains

wagtail ; chink and chinkchawdy, chaffinch ; dicky,

common wren; heakle or heekle, green woodpecker; of fungus in his eggs, will rinse each egg out with a solution of one teaspoonful of corrosive sublimate in

redtail, redstart ; peewit, lapwing; haybirds, whitea quart of alcohol or methylated spirits, inserted by

throat (major and minor ); mollyherne and mollern, means of a glass bulb suction-pipe, or a small glass

heron ; woodpigeon, ring-dove ; screech owl, tawny

owl ; bumbarrel, longtailed-tit; green linnet, greensyringe, and expelled with an ordinary blow.pipe,

finch; cuckoo's mate, wryneck.-H. G. Ward. his eggs will never in future be troubled by fungus or anything else of a similar nature. The eggs will be right for ever in any climate or conditions, except

PARROTS AND THEIR EGGS.-A pair of East. in the matter of breakage and such like casualties.

Indian tinged parrokeets laid six eggs on alternate The solution mentioned must be used with care, it

days on the bare bottom of a large cage (having

refused to use various offered conveniences to nest being a very strong poison.

in); sat twenty-eight days; hatched three, perfectly SECOND GROWTH OF RASPBERRIES. -The fol- free from any sort of down. When twenty-one days lowing extract from my diary of last year may old, down began to appear, and eyes became partially possibly interest some of your readers :- -“ November opened. Owing to their habit of crawling about the igth, observed in the garden of Mr. Young, at Monge- cage, two have been killed, but the third (now four ham, near Deal, a second growth of raspberries, ripe

weeks old) is well and strong. The parent birds are and luscious as summer-grown ones. I may add evidently preparing to lay again.-B. L. Hooper, that the garden lies high and exposed and was a few days after covered with snow, the first token of the hard winter which followed.- J. Wallis, Deal.

NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS. YOUNG BIRDS AND THEIR Nests.-Some friends of mine have had an argument about young birds leaving their nest. The point is this : Do young To CORRESPONDENTS AND EXCHANGERS.-As we now birds, after taking their first flight, finally leave the

publish SCIENCE-Gossip earlier than formerly, we cannot un

dertake to insert in the following number any communications nest, or do they return to it as a temporary shelter

which reach us later than the 8th of the previous month. until they are strong enough to forage for them

To ANONYMOUS Querists.-We must adhere to our rule of selves ?- 7. E. Gore.

not noticing queries which do not bear the writers' names.

To DEALERS AND OTHERS.-We are always glad to treat LOCAL PLANT AND BIRD-NAMES FROM NORTH.

dealers in natural history objects on the same fair and general MARSTON, BUCKS.-Cuckoo, early purple orchis;

ground as amateurs, in so far as the "exchanges" offered are smellsmock, cuckoo flower or ladysmock; crazies, fair exchanges. But it is evident that, when their offers are marsh marigold, lesser celandine ; blind-eyes, scarlet

simply DISGUISED ADVERTISEMENTS, for the purpose of evading

the cost of advertising, an advantage is taken of our gratuitous poppy. [The scarlet poppy received the name of

insertion of "exchanges," which cannot be tolerated. blind-eyes no doubt, from the superstition, that if

We request that all exchanges may be signed with name (or you got it near to your eyes, or touched your eyes

initials) and full address at the end. with your hands after gathering it, it would blind

SPECIAL NOTE.-There is a tendency on the part of some you, a belief still prevalent in this village, and else

exchangers to send more than one per month. We only allow where. Children are cautioned by their parents

this in the case of writers of papers. “not to gather it, for it will blind your eyes,” they TO OUR RECENT EXCHANGERS.-We are willing and helpful say. This common saying makes them rather afraid to our genuine naturalists, but we cannot further allow dis. to gather this flower, and thus the pretty scarlet

guised Exchanges like those which frequently come to us

to appear unless as advertisements. petals of the poppy are left alone to fall, or to be scattered by the wind.] Cows and calfs, cuckoo pint or arum ; moons, moon daisy, white ox-eye; J. HUNT.-The bound vol. of SCIENCE-Gossip for 1872 is out halfsmart, yellow bedstraw; kingfingers, bird's-foot of print, but the publishers can supply you with all the parts

for that year, except January. trefoil ; bird's-eye, germander speedwell. [The name

H. W. D.-Apply to Mr. Geo. Dowker, F.G.S., Stourbird's-eye was no doubt given to the germander

mouth House, near Wingham, Kent, for information respecting speedweed by our ancestors, who thought that the the “South-Eastern Naturalist.”. Hower resembled the eye of a bird.) Celery (or

A. MAYFIELD.-The fossil tooth imbedded in flint is that of

a species of Lamna. salery), common sorrel. [The leaves of the common sorrel, and the fruits of the mallow are eaten by the

EXCHANGES. children here. The local name of the former flower is perhaps a corruption of the word salad, and the EXCHANGE for minerals, &c., good transparent crystals of latter name of “ cheeses" is from the form of the selenite (various forms), some remarkable in having taken up

sand during crystallisation.-W. Gamble, 2 West Street, New fruit or seed, which is round and resembles the form

Brompton, Kent. of a complete cheese.] Cheeses, mallow (fruit of SCIENCE-Gossip, 1885 to 1890, complete, with 23 coloured

plates: 1880, March and April missing; 1881, September missing : 1884. January, February, March, and April missing. Also "The Naturalist," 1889 and 1890, all unbound, but clean. Wanted, large flat_glass-topped boxes for shells in cabinets. – Lionel E. Adams, Penistone, Yorks.

Eighty species of British shells, entomological settingcabinet, collecting-box and store case, to exchange for anything useful.-—“Lindens," New Brompton, Kent.

A QUANTITY of duplicate mounts of very choice and rare foraminifera, correctly named, in exchange for cabinet specimens of Alston Moor minerals, or works on fresh water and marine algæ, or offers.-W. H. Harris, 42 St. Brannock's Road, Ilfracombe.

British birds' eggs. A long series, all with data, such as osprey, hooded merganser, eagle, sooty tern, long-billed curlew, buff-backed heron, capercailie, &c., will exchange for insect cabinet. Several dozen N. American bird skins (dated), fine condition, for exchange. Offers to-H. T. Booth, Upcerne Road, Chelsea.

WANTED, vol. of SCIENCE-Gossip for 1872, bound in blue cloth, if possible. Please name price, &c.-John Hunt, Lillyburn Print Works, Milton of Campsie, near Glasgow.

WANTED, unmounted parasites, polycistines, and other good material, in exchange for choice micro-slides of every description. Foreign correspondence solicited.-R. Suter, 5 Highweek Road, Tottenham, Middlesex, England.

What offers for cork setting-boards, zinc collecting-boxes for larva, and light insect collecting-boxes, also Nos. 240-280 of SCIENCE-Gossip? Micro-slides or material preferred, or books.-W. E. Watkins, 30 Dalmeny Road, Tufnell Park, N.

EXCHANGE chemical apparatus-retort stands, tripods, glass tubing, corks, crucibles, &c., for fossils, minerals, or rocks.J. A. Ellis, 1 Pomona Place, Fulham, S.W.

Over one hundred species of beautifully-mounted ferns, comprising most of the rare British sorts (some very rare), in handsome half-bound book, fitting into strong case. What offers 1- Joseph Anderson, jun., Alre Villa, Chichester.

OFFERED, fifty Scottish mosses, a few very rare ones, all named; will send list. Will take a copy of Hobkirk's “ British Mosses,” second edition.-Thomas Wilson, 39 North Church Street, Dundee.

OFFERED, British marine shells in exchange for micro-slides, insects, other shells not in collection, or any books on natural history. Send lists of wants and duplicates to-W. D. Rae, 9 Claremont Terrace, Alpha Road, Milwall, London, E.

Wanted, Goebel's “Outlines of Classification and Special Morphology of Plants.". Exchange Benson's “New Testament," or classical and scientific works, &c.-J. Wallis, Deal.;

For exchange, twenty back numbers of Science-Gossip, also “Naturalist's Gazette," complete, for 1889 and 18go. Wanted, minerals or fossils, or books on minerals or fossils, or what offers ?-William Hetherington, Nenthead, Alston Moore, Carlisle.

Offered, a platinum crucible with capsule cover, Beale's “How to Work with the Microscope," and Cruickshank's “Practical Bacteriology." Wanted, t-inch objective, or 2-inch B, C, or D eye-piece, double nose-piece, or offers in petnological slides.-R. M. H. St. Stephen, 25 Fordwych Road, West Hampstead, London, N.W.

SEVERAL hundred British coleoptera for exchange, all carded, correctly named and in fine condition, including many rare and local species. Wanted, offers of any natural history specimens, apparatus, and books on entomology, conchology, or geology. A. Ford, Claremont House, Upper Tower Road, St. Leonard'son-Sea, Sussex.

WANTED, British diptera, named or unnamned, foreign coleoptera, or cabinet cork, in exchange for $. African insects of any order.-R. M. Lightfoot, 134 Bree Street, Cape Town, S. Africa.

Would any botanist join me in a three weeks' botanical expedition to the Sierra Nevada, Granada, in July next? Address-A. Edward Lomax, 56 Vauxhall Road, Liverpool.

OFFERED, H. erictorum, var. faservata, H. variegata, H. caperata, H. rufescens, H. rotundata, 2. alleoura, C. rugosa, L. peregra, var. acuminata, and others. Wanted, H. pomatia, Paludina vivipara, P. listeri, Acme fusca, or others not in collection.- James Ingleby, Eavestone, Ripon.

British cryptogams-mosses, seaweeds, lichens, and fungi, correctly named, in exchange for foreign land shells. -T. Rogers, 27 Oldham Road, Manchester.

Pupa ringens, P. marginata, and var. edentula, V. pygmaa, V. pusilla, V. antivertigo, B. perversa, C. tridens, 2. fulvus, 2. crystallinus, H. pulchella, H. lapicida, Ş. rivicola, P. glaber, P. dilatatus, and many others, offered for foreign land shells, or Testacella haliotidea, S. virescens, S. oblonga, H. revelata, P. secaie, C. biplicata, A. acicula, or good vars. of H. nemoralis and hortensis.-E. Collier, í Heather Bank, Moss Lane East, Manchester.

Will exchange fifty flint implements for minerals or fossils. -W. Nunney, 29 St. Philip's Dalston, N.E.

Wanted, latest edition of the “Student's Flora" (Hooker). Apply to-John Connor, Elderslie, near Johnsone, N.B.

WANTED, a small collection of British mosses and lichens; fossils given in exchange.-A. Tarver, 34 Croydon Grove, West Croydon.

Will exchange micro-slides for works on microscope, of exchange slides for others. -Platt, Eastrop, Basingstoke.

WANTED, good specimens of Littorina obtusata, var. ornata. Will give Bulimus acutus, var, bizona.- Rev. H. Milnes, Winster, Derby.

Offered, Scalaria clathratula, Venerupis iris, Mytilus edulis, var. pallida, Cyclostrema cutlerianum, C. serpuloides, Spirialis retroversus, Eulima bilineata, E. distorta, E. polita, Odostomia interstincta, 0. spiralis, o. nivesa, Adeorbis subcarinatus, Rissoa Zetlandica, R. calathus, R. fulgida, Skener planorbis, Pleurobranchus membranacea, and other rare shells: Wanted in exchange, any of the following: - Trophon barvicensis, Natica helicoides, Leda caudata, Pholadidæ papyracea, Clio pyramidata, Adlysia depilans, Fusus fenestratus, Triton culaceus, Pleurotoma striolata. P. nivalis, Jeffreysia globularis, Arca pectenculoides, Odostomia fenestratus, 0. dia. phana, .0. minima, Aclis Walleri, A. gulsona, Velutina plicatilis, lanthina exigua, Buccinum Humphreysianum, Nassa nitida, Cylichna nitidula, Vertigo Moulinsianth V. pusilla, and Pecten niveus. Lists exchanged; correspondence invited.-A. J. R. Sclater, M.C.S., 23 Bank Street, Teignmouth, S. Devon.

WANTED, second-hand machine for preparing slides of rocks for microscope. Exchange in fossils, rocks, shells, books, &c. Rev. John Hawell, Ingleby Greenhow Vicarage, Northallerton.

WANTED, rock and diatom slides, trilobites, coal ferns from coal-measures, also British and foreign stamps, in exchange for rare marine, land and freshwater shells, and microscopic objects, &c.-T. E. Sclater, Bank Street, Teignmouth.

WANTED, unbound, the “Zoologist" for 1880, and for January and February, 1881. State condition and price.Chas. Oldham, Ashton-on-Mersey.

I Have Meyer's “Modern Theories of Chemistry,” Foster and Balfour's “Embryology," Howe's “ Biological Atlas," and MacAlpine's " Zoological Atlas." Will any one give me geological literature, fossils, minerals, rock-slides, or botanical slides in exchange!-Wilmore, Trawden, Lancashire.

OFFERBD, Zonites excavatus, Ancylus lacustris, Helir pygmai, and many others. Wanted, Helix nemoralis, vars. castanea, olivacea, roscolabiata, albolabiata, hyaloyonata, also vars. (named) of many other land shells.-A. Hartley, 8 Cavendish Road, Idle, near Bradford, Yorkshire.

LARVÆ, pupa, and imagos of Tussur silk moth (Mylitta), and American moth (Promethea), for exchange. Wanted, exotic pupæ of imagos of moths, butterflies, or beetles.—Mark L. Sykes, Eldon Place, Patricroft, near Manchester.

WANTED, a cheap second-hand microscope, with one eye. piece; no objectives needed; rack motion and fine screw adjustment, with case. Send particulars to-Rev. A. C. Smith, Crowboro Cross, Sussex, or state requirements.

COLLECTION of British .coleoptera, in four cases, on cards, first-class setting, about 200 species, four in a series. Exchange photographic apparatus, or offers.-F. Emsley, 98 West Street, Leeds.

To osteologists. Offered, jaws or beak of parrot fish (can supply part of spiny skin), also beak of albatross. Will exchange for a few exotic shells.-W. Jones, jun., 27 Mayton Street, Holloway, London, N.

BOOKS, ETC., RECEIVED FOR NOTICE. “Botany, a Concise Manual for Students,” by Alex. Johnstone (London and Edinburgh: Young J. Pentland).- The Medical Annual, 1891."-" The Fishes of North America,” Part 1.-" British Cage Birds," \Part 12.-" The Spectrum," No. 3, Vol. I.--". Annual Report of Museum of American Archæology:"-"Memoir and Letters of Sydney Gilchrisa Thomas," by R. W. Burnie (London: John Murray).“Plochionus and Scymnus," by I. C. Duffy:-" The Essex Naturalist.” July to September.- Wesley's “Nat. Hist, and Scientific Book Circular. American Microscopical Journal." -"American Naturalist.”-“Canadian Entomologist."-"The Naturalist."-"The Botanical Gazette."-"The Gentleman's Magazine." -"The Midland Naturalist." -"Feuille des Jeunes Naturalistes.' —"The Microscope."-"Nature Notes." -"The Naturalist's Annual and Directory for 1891."“Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales,” &c., &c.

COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVED UP TO THE ROTH ULT. FROM: H. W. D.-E. B.-W. G.-L. E. A.-J. S.-W. H. H.F. W. F.-W. S.-L. E. A.-W. G.-H. G. D.-I. G.J. E. L.-G. W. R.-H. T. B.-W. I. S.-Dr. A. C.-Dr. A. I. - J. J. W.-B. W.-F. C. B.-G. A. H.-W. E, W.-R. S.J. H.-H. W. D.-M. E. P.-J. A. E.-R. C.-E. E.W. W. R.-T. W.-J. E. L.-J. A., jun.-H. M.-W. H.A. T.-W. E.-T. E. S.-A. J. R. S.-T. R.-W. H. N.J. C.-W. J.-I. W. M.-I. W.-G. D.-R. de H. S. S.M. E. T.-W. J. A.-J. I.-R. M. L.-T.J.-A. F.-H. P. -A. E. L.-E. C.-J. W.-W. A.-J. H.-H. G. W.-A. H. -H. E. G.-S. P.-J. E. G.-M. L. S.-A. W.-A. C. S.E. de C.-F. E.-Č. 0.-G. A. H.-B. L. H.-J. W. W.F. J. B.-H. W. B.-A. M.-&c., &c.

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