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is the common resin sometimes called rosin, which is applied to a variety of uses. There are several kinds of turpentine, viz., Venice turpentine, procured from the Abies larix; Strasburg, from Abies pecti. nata ; Bordeaux turpentine, from the Pinus pinaster ; and Chio turps, from the Pistacia terebinthis.

Gum thus or frankincense, an odoriferous product of the Boswellia serrata. It is of slight use except for its odour, which the Roman Catholics turn to account in their churches. Employed also by the ancient priests of Egypt, its odour destroying the foul emanations from the sacrifices. It is imported from India and sometimes the Levant.

Asafætida (Narthex asafætida). This flows from incisions made in the root of the tree. In colour it is milky white, but after it has been dried it takes on a pinkish tint and is curiously mottled. It has a most unpleasant odour. Afghanistan and Persia is the home of the tree. It is used medicinally as an anti-spasmodic in cases of asthma.

probe timber for wood-boring larvæ, in which to lay its

eggs. Can any of our correspondents say to what extent these saw flies are injurious to fir timber? Will they attack healthy standing trees, or only the sickly ones, fallen timber, and fir-fencing? Some years ago I had an old fir post brought me completely honey-combed by larvæ of S. gigas; and towards the outside of post were specimens of the saw fly ready to emerge. To all appearance the saw fly had laid its eggs in the post. I am quite aware that it is the opinion of some, that the fly does not attack the healthy trees, but only the dead ones. If those of our correspondents who live close to fir plantations would make a few observations, and make them known through the medium of SCIENCEGossip, we should get a good bit of valuable information.



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Hants, of two fine specimens of the saw fly, (Sirex juvencus), male and female. The female was taken September 1888 in Mr. Monk's chemist's shop, and the male on the ground in the High Street last summer. Both specimens were kindly given to me by the captors, and were alive at the time. This species of saw fly does not appear to be very abundant, and certainly is not so numerous as Sirex gigas. This is the first, and only two specimens of S. juvencus I have had the pleasure of seeing, although I have been on the look-out for them some time.

At the same time, my opinion is that S. juvencus is British, and probably in some localities is more plentiful than in others. Sirex gigas, the largest of these saw flies, is frequently taken in this neighbourhood, and many specimens (all females) I have had brought and sent to me by friends, for the hornet. I found one pinned on my front door ; and on another occasion one was sent me securely fastened up with string in a paper box labled “Mind the sting." “Well,” thought I, “what now ?-hornet ?”

I carefully opened the box, peeped in, and-oh, my!—not a hornet, but a fine female S. gigas, with her long needle-like ovipositor, which had been taken for the sting of a hornet. The male of this species I have never seen alive. At the same time S. juvencus was taken in the chemist's shop, Rhyssa persuasoria, one of the Ichneumonidæ, was captured in the grocer's shop of Mr. Butler, in this town; and this came into my possession.

It is very fine specimen measuring from head to extreme point of ovipositor 2 inches. The ovipositor alone is 13 inches long, a fine instrument to

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H.R.H. The Duke of Edin- Earl Granville, K.G.

Sir A. Armstrong, K.C.B..M.D.
burgh, K.G.
Earl Spencer, K.G.

Sir Andrew Clark, Bart.,M.D.
H.R.H. The Duke of Con- Earl Cadogan,

Sir Oscar Clayton, C.B., M.D.
naught, K.G.

The Earl of Westmorland. Sir Dyce Duckworth, M.B.
The Duke of Argyll, K.T. The Earl of Wharncliffe. Sir Joseph Fayrer, K.C. S.I.,
The Duke of Devonshire, K.G. The Lord Chancellor.

M.D., F.R.S.
The Duke of Fife, K.T.

The Lord Chief Justice. SirAlfred Garrod,M.D.,F.R.S.
The Duke of Manchester. Lord Wolseley.

Sir P. G. Hewett, Bart., F.R.L.
The Duke of Newcastle. Lord Tennyson.

Sir Joseph Lister, Bart.,
The Duke of Norfolk.

The Rt. Hon. W. E. Glad- LL.D., F.R.S.
The Duke of Portland.
stone, M.P.

Sir Morell Mackenzie, M.D.
The Duke of Rutland.

Lord Randolph Churchill, Sir James Paget, Bart., M.D.,
The Duke of Richmond and M.P.

LL.D., F.R.S.
Gordon, K.G.

The Archbishop of Canter- Dr. B. W. Richardson, M.D.,
The Duke of Westminster, bury.


The Archbishop of York. Sir W. Scovell Savory, Eart.,
The Duke of Wellington.
The Bishop of London.

The Marquis of Salisbury, The Bishop of Durham. Sir E. H. Sieveking, M.D.
The Bishop of Ripon.

Sir Henry Thompson, M.D.
The Marquis of Ripon, K.G.


W. Ackland, Sir T. Spencer Wells, Bart.,
The Earl of Derby, K.G.
K.C.B., M.D.

His Eminence Cardinal Manding, Archbishop of Westminster.


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