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dour. Then, right and left, far and near, the sea looked like molten silver, tinged with amber, and rich with gold. The far-off horizon was one long bar of glorious light, and as the waves broke upon the rocks, and the surge dashed upon the white pebbles of beautiful Babbicombe Bay, showers of phosphorescent spray were hurled high into the air, producing a spectacle grand in the extreme. The phosphorus which produced this magnificent sight was caused by the surface of the sea being covered with the spawn of the common mussel. When the tide was out, rocks, pebbles and sand were coated with a thin film of transparent gelatine, which speedily vanished with the light and heat of the noontide sun. What renders the phenomena peculiar is that I could find no trace of mussel-beds in the neighbourhood. The phos. phorescent effects were greatest on the third night after the spawn was seen upon the water. In another forty-eight hours it had completely disappeared.Thos. S. King, F.G.S., F.R.M.S.

TARDIGRADES. - Would any of your readers kindly inform me of the size of the tardigrade in comparison with the rotifers, cyclops, and such-like ordinary microscopical objects, and if they are visible to the naked eye? Also in what seasons and locality may they be looked for 2-H. 3. T.

OPTICAL EFFECT.— Can you give me the true explanation of the following optical effect, which I was shown the other day? Hold a lighted candle, in an otherwise darkened room, three inches below the eye, and two inches from the face, waving the light gently backwards and forwards while fixing the eye steadily upon the darkest portion of the room. Soon will be seen a black branched object which has been popularly likened to the ramifications of the brain.H. 7. T.

SNAIL-WATER.—Take garden snails cleansed and bruised six gallons, earth-worms washed and bruised three gallons, of common wormwood, ground ivy, and carduus each one pound and a half, penniroyal, juniper berries, fennel seeds, aniseed, each half a pound, cloves and cubebs bruised each three ounces, spirit of wine and spring water of each eight gallons ; digest them together for the space of twenty-four hours, and then draw it off in a common alembick. This is admirably well contrived both for cheapness and efficiency, and for persons whose circumstances and manner of living have not habituated them to any delicacy. It is as good a snail-water as can be made, used for consumption.-From an old Dispen. satory of St. Thomas's Hospital, 1746.

WHITE HEATHER.-In the · July number Mr. Irving informs a correspondent that he had seen this variety at Wellington. In some of my rambles I have met with it in England and the Highlands of Scotland. While staying with a friend at Ilkley (Yorks.), a few years ago, we walked over Rumbolds Moor, which lies immediately to the south of Ilkley, and we came upon two large specimens in full bloom. I brought a sprig home, thinking it might be uncommon; but the landlady, with whom my friends were staying, assured us that there was plenty of it on the north side of Wharfedale also. Two years ago I came upon a very large bush in perfect bloom near Aberfoyle (Perthshire) --one solitary bush among a dense mass of the purple variety. The flowers were so profuse that, looking up hill face, it looked like a big white boulder at half-a-mile's distance. Some years ago, in climbing a two-thousand-seet hill at Moy, between Inverness and Fort William, I found several plants of it in rather isolated positions

-not growing beside the purple variety as I have since found it. In the many “weed-gathering wanderings” I have had in the south of Scotland, I have never come upon one bush of white flowers. — Geo. Murray, Edinburgh,

TREE-FROGS IN WINTER.-M. A. Y. wishes to know if any of the readers of SCIENCE-GOSSIP could tell her the best way of keeping green tree-frogs during the winter, when they are asleep and do not require food. Could any one also tell her how croaking sound is produced ?

SQUIRRELS IN WINTER.—Some interesting remarks on squirrels are made by various writers in “The Zoologist.” It is often said that squirrels are torpid during winter, but there is no really sound evidence for this view. Mr. Masefield, writing from Cheadle, Staffordshire, says (“Nature,” March 12th): “I have seen squirrels abroad on fine days in, I think I may say, every one of the winter months; and while pheasant shooting near here on a sunny day (January 6th last), which was about the middle of the most severe frost we have had for many years, with several inches of snow on the ground, I saw a squirrel jumping from tree to tree, before the beaters, in the most lively condition.” Mr. Blagg, also writing from Cheadle, has " frequently seen squirrels abroad in the middle of the winter, when there has been deep snow on the ground and a keen frost in the air. I remember," he adds,

once seeing a squirrel abroad during a severe storm of sleet and rain in winter time, and he appeared to be not at all inconvenienced by the rough weather." Mr. Blagg's idea is that the squirrel probably does sleep a good deal more in winter time than in summer, as do many other wild animals, but that he has to be continually waking up and taking nourishment. The period of reproduction is unfavourable to the notion of an almost complete state of torpidity. The editor of "The Zoologist" records that he has notes of “finding newly-born squirrels on March 21st (three young), April 9th (three young), April 26th (four young), and April 29th (two young). . Those found at the end of March and beginning of April were naked and blind; those taken at the end of April were about three-parts grown.” According to the editor “the old squirrels, in case of danger, remove the young from the nest, or 'drey,' to some hole in a tree, whither they carry them one by one in the mouth, just as a cat carries her kitten. One of the prettiest sights in the world is to see an old squirrel teaching a young one to jump."

MR. H. BETTANY, of New Zealand, desires me to inform those correspondents who sent him parcels of shells in reply to his notice in these columns, that he will send return parcels as soon as possible.-F. W. Wotton, Cardiff

ARION ATER.- For the last four years I have been engaged in working out the lise-history of Arion ater, with the view of learning whether or not it is selfsertilizing. I have now proved conclusively that it is. I purposely refrained from reading any works on this species during my observations, therefore do not know whether this fact has been placed on record before. 1 shortly intend publishing the whole results of my experiments and observations.-F. W. IVottoni, Cardiff.

SNAILS AS A CURE FOR CONSUMPTION.-I can fully corroborate Mr. Rundle's testimony to snails being used by consumptives. Not long since there died at this place a young man who in early lise sell a victim to this disease, but who, by careful attention to personal habits, managed to drag along to his twenty-second year. During the first two or three years of bis illness the skill of all the local, and at least two or three metropolitan practitioners was called into requisition, but without avail, and eventually, on the advice of friends, who boasted of being competent to give a corporeal as well as an ocular demonstration of the virtues of the treatment, he entered heartily on a course of snail eating. The animals were eaten in moderate quantities twice per diem-morning and evening-and were collected for him while the dew yet bathed the herbage. The creatures consisted chiefly of Helix nemoralis and hortensis, and a small, slimy, shelless animal desig. nated in this neighbourhood “the dew snail.” Gruesome as the treatment may appear to our refined tastes, for three years it proved in this young man's case the only antidote to the ravages of consumption. I have a yet more remarkable case before my eye, this time that of a middle-aged man who has so far freed himself from the grip of consumption as to be able to carry on his business engagements. Several years since he was totally prostrated by this disease ; in fact, his case was such as to excite the most alarming apprehension in his family. A course of vegetable diet and the snail treatment was prescribed, and adopted, and to-day, although not the strongest of men, as a merchant and general business-man he has no rival in his immediate neighbourhood. I may say that nearly twenty years have elapsed since he became free of his enemy. As in taking cod-liver oil, so in eating snails; what was at first a repulsive experiment becomes in time a toothsome pastime. Those who have undergone the snail-eating treatment, though the disease may have been successfully removed, and their case necessitates no further use of the animal, will eat them in quantities and with apparent relish. Like tomatoes, they seem to im. prove on acquaintance. I have never before heard of snails being used as "eye applications,” but, as a remarkable fact, I have long known them to be used, and with unequivocal success, as poultices for gatherings. The snails are pounded into a jelly with a pestle of some kind, spread on a piece of clean linen, and applied like any other poultice.—Fred. H. Davey, Ponsanooth.

United States. Two thousand students of this great institution have been subjected to scientific measurements, with the result that although the average male is found to be only just over seven per cent. taller than the average female, in length of trunk he exceeds her by eleven per ceni. In the length of the lower limbs there is a difference of nine per cent. in favour of the male. Where the female really outtops the male is in the head and neck.

White HEATHER.–Last year I procured two little white pieces of the true heather (E. tetralix) on a small expanse of moorland in N. Staffordshire. It may be of interest to readers to know it can be found in this county."-B. C. Robinson.

Coccus CATAPHRACTUS.-H. A. asks (SCIENCEGossip for July, 1891) where this scale insect is to be found. Search among bog mosses in June. Ireland, Scotland, and Cumberland are good localities.-C. Brooksbank, 5 Longridge Road, Kensington.

The Cost of FIDELITY.—“Sweep” is a collie some three years of age, very affectionate, and a great favourite. His attachment and fidelity to his mistress are very great. During a prolonged illness last year he scarcely ever left her room. Neither food nor water would tempt him, and neither nurse nor servant could drive him from a position underneath the sick-bed which he had appropriated to himself. A short time ago the poor brute's fidelity cost him dear. His mistress was Idenly called away by train. In the bustle of starting he escaped from home and found his way to the railway station. He attempted to enter the railway carriage, but was prevented and driven some distance off, where he remained until the train had started. He then came bounding down the platform, eluded the porters who tried to stop him, caught the train after it had left the platform, and looked up for his mistress. Failing to find her, he darted under the train, where he was seen to roll over several times, but eventually escaped on the opposite side with a smashed tail. The decision of the veterinary surgeon was that the tail must be amputated or the dog destroyed. Poor Sweep had been very proud of his tail, and used to curl it up over his back. He now has a stump about two inches long, and he may often be seen looking, round as if anxious to discover what has become of the missing caudal appendage.-F. T. S., Worcester.

ABNORMAL FLOWERS.-I enclose flowers of the common Canterbury bell, having all the sepals coloured like the corolla. The whole of the blooms on one large plant resemble those enclosed, and I may note that last year I saw in a friend's garden several plants of the same campanula, on which the sepals, also coloured, were joined at the edges, so as to form second and outer bells. - Francis Brent, Plymouth.

Dogs OF WAR.-In France, Italy, Germany, and Austria, as well as in Bosnia and the Herzegovina, so-called war-dogs have been kept, in order to test their watchfulness for the benefit of the military service. According to general report, the plan has answered excellently with the outposts as well as with the patrol. But to the German army belongs the merit of having made use of the dog's sagacity for humane purposes in time of war, and it is probable that before long a number of fresh canine recruits will be permanently attached to the regiments, their office being to search for the wounded. The Prussian Jäger battalions have already a number of such dogs on trial, all of them being thoroughly

FROGS AN ANTidote for BRONCHITIS.– While the question of rustic recipes for virulent diseases is on the tapis, I would mention that in this neighbourhood the virtues of a young frog in alarming cases of bronchitis, like Cæsar's wife, has long been “above suspicion.". The animal chosen for the occasion is generally about one inch and a half in length. The operator seizes the frog by its fore-legs, opens his own mouth to an alarming gauge, places the slimy creature in position, and heigh, presto! it disappears down his csophagus! The philosophy of the treatment was an obscure point to me until a few weeks since a rustic lifted the veil by explaining that the frog in its endeavours to free itself from its urcomfortable position, “clawed away the phlegm from the windpipe, and thereby made breathing much easier.” I have friends of unquestionable integrity who declare they have seen frogs thus eaten alive, with marvellous results to the health of the operator. - Fred. H. Davey, Ponsanooth.

PHYSICAL HUMAN MEASUREMENTS.-The common belief that woman has a proportionally longer trunk than man is not confirmed by the researches of the Professors of Hygiene at Amherst College,

trained to seek out wounded soldiers in the field. The experiments so far have had excellent results. A number of men hide in a wood or behind hedges, lying on the ground face downwards and with orders not to move. As soon as the dogs are let loose they begin the search. When they find one of these men they place their fore-paws upon the prostrate body and begin to bark, an exercise which is continued till the bearers appear and carry the man off, whereupon the dog starts afresh. Each company of the Lübben Jäger has about twelve of these dogs. Hunting-dogs cannot be relied upon on account of their love of the chase, and therefore sheep-dogs or Pomeranian Spitzhunde are chosen for the work.

FLOGGING MACHINES IN RUSSIA.-Flogging is so indispensable in Russia that some inventor has perfected a machine which saves the human arm the infamous labour of blows. Under the flagellation of the machine taxes and arrears are to become speedily collectable. “These latest fruits of Russian civilization catch the arm and feet, allowing the head to repose on a kind of Japanese pillow, while that portion of the body which is to be operated on is raised to a convenient position for the executioner.”

FATALITIES IN THE CRATER OF VESUVIUS.—The brief period of quiescence in the eruption of Vesuvius has been followed by renewed activity and an increased discharge of lava. A few days ago, two Brazilian tourists, accompanied by a guide, ascended the mountain, and advanced to the mouth of the crater. They were soon enveloped in smoke, and when it had cleared away it was seen that one of the two had fallen into the crater, and that the other was in danger of doing so when he was rescued by the guide. It is probable that these gentlemen were overcome by the noxious fumes of the smoke by which they were surrounded.

FORMATION OF A DEAD SEA IN CALIFORNIA.-A geological phenomenon of considerable importance is stated to have appeared in San Diego County, in the extreme south of California in the almost sudden formation of an inland sea. A few weeks ago, a trickling of water was observed to damp the ground around the Salton Salt Works, and now it has expanded into a lake ten miles square, and from three feet to eight feet deep. Then at Indian Wells, sixty miles south of Salton, another new sea, forty miles square and from three feet to five feet deep, has been formed. It appears possible that these bodies of water may unite, and form a lake fifty miles long and 400 feet deep. Indian runners have been employed to go round the rising waters, and as they have failed to find any surface inlet, a boat has been provisioned for a week, and started to explore and try to discover the connection with the Colorado River, whence the water is believed to come, whether above ground or by a subterranean communication. The so-called Colorado Desert, lying to the east of the new lake, resembles the bed of a dead sea. It has an area of 3,000 miles, and lies 270 ft. below the ocean level. Shells and other marine deposits abound. Engineers have often planned to make this area fertile by rrigation, after the manner of the Valley of the Nile, which would add two million acres to the State, but all their efforts so far have been in vain. The Southern Pacific Railway crosses the Colorado River at several places 160 st. above the ocean. For twelve miles near Yuma (Arizona City) only a loose water-sodden ridge nine feet high and a mile wide, separates the district from the Salton Sink. All the district

appears now to be reverting to the condition described in Indian tradition. The stoppage of several artesian wells conflicts with the theory of a subterranean ocean, having a current running inland. The very idea of a “Subterranean Ocean” shows how much such engineers have yet to learn from geologists.

WOOD-PIGEONS IN LONDON.-A great increase has taken place within the last few years in the number of wood-pigeons frequenting the London parks. Formerly a few pairs bred there every year, Kensington Gardens and the grounds of Buckingham Palace being their favourite nesting-places; but a few years since their numbers began to increase, and they are now-sparrows excepted, the commonest of London birds, and are certainly, without any exception, the most noticeable. Curiously enough, the greatest increase has taken place in the most frequented parts of the park. One of the most noticeable characteristics of the park pigeons is their excessive tameness, which seems to have grown as their numbers increased. They walk about unconcernedly within a few feet of the constant stream of pedestrians; and, especially in St. James's Park, are ever on the alert for the food which is often thrown to them ; indeed, four or five may frequently be seen, in company with a small army of sparrows, almost at the feet of some person who is seeding them with pieces of bread or grain. The increase in the number of wood-pigeons has added a charm to the parks, as they are beautisul birds, whether seen on the ground or on the wing, and, though the London smoke and grime darkens the brightness of their plumage, it cannot destroy it. At this time of the year many young birds are about, which may easily be distinguished from their parents by their duller tints and by the absence of the white ring on the neck from which the bird obtains one of its names-the ring. dove.

FLYING MACHINES.—Mr. Maxim's experimental flying machine is really a steam kite, thirteen feet long by four feet wide, and propelled through the air by a light screw making 2,500 revolutions à minute. When properly inclined and the screw going at a certain speed the kite moves horizontally through the atmosphere. With a higher speed it ascends, and with a lower it descends. The inventor is now engaged in building a much larger kite for practical purposes. It will be 110 feet long, by forty feet wide, and be driven by a screw eighteen feet in diameter. The power is to be supplied by a petroleum condensing engine weighing 1,800 lbs., and capable of raising 40,coolbs., of load along with the kite. The estimated weight of the flying machine complete with two engineers on board is 11,800 lbs. Mr. Maxim therefore calculates on being able to carry ten or twelve tons of freight or passengers through the air.

WOOLLEN CLOTHS AND DYES.-A technical journal describes the practice of the Donegal people in weaving woollen cloths which possess a grey colour derived solely from the natural colour of various grades of wool, being thus independent of dyes. This cloth stands the weather admirably, and is not encouraging for the tailor who sees in shoddy or mungo the means of a livelihood. The manufacturing appliances of the region are, however, very limited, and no large supply of such cloth is possible. Such market as exists for the production of such cloth is no doubt welcome to these primitive people. A similar practice exists on the Isle of Man of

making use of black wool for home manufactures. The farmers in the hilly districts use the wool of the black-faced sheep for stockings, which are usually firmer, closer, and warmer than can be procured in any shop.

SIR GEORGE Arry, the “doyen” of British scientists, has just completed his ninetieth year. Sir George is in excellent health, and takes the keenest interest in all matters connected with the astronomical and mathematical sciences to which he has devoted his life, and especially in the Observatory at Greenwich, over which he presided for nearly half a century. He tells a story, and repeats a ballad, as well and lively as if he were half a century younger.

TORPEDO IMPROVEMENTS.—The torpedoes now being made at the Austrian port of Fiume run below water at a rate of thirty-five miles an hour, and carry a charge of two hundred and forty pounds of gun-cotton, the explosion of which is só irresistible that probably no ship could endure it. What is more, the crinoline of steel rings which has been successful hitherto in keeping at a distance all smaller torpedoes yields, it is asserted, at once to the weight and impact of the large Whitehead imple



The Rarest METALS.-Iridium, a very heavy metal of the platinum group, so named from the iridescence of some of its solutions, and well known in connection with its use for the points of gold pens, may be bought to-day at approximately £140 per pound. The present price of platinum, the betterknown tin-white, ductile, but very infusible metal, is on a par with that of gold, namely, about £70 per pound. But generally its value fluctuates between its more popular brothers, gold and silver. The rarest metal-and it is so rare that recent discoveries have thrown doubt on its elemental character-is didymium, and its present market price, if one may thus term the quotation of an article that never appears on the market, is £900 per pound. The next costliest metal is barium, an element belonging to the alkaline earth group; its value is £750. Beryllium, or glucinum, a metallic substance found in the beautiful beryl, is quoted at £675.

To CORRESPONDENTS AND EXCHANGERS.-As we now publish SCIENCE-Gossip earlier than formerly, we cannot undertake to insert in the following number any communications which reach us later than the 8th of the previous month.

To ANONYMOUS QUERISTS.-We must adhere to our rule of not noticing queries which do not bear the writers' names.

TO DEALERS AND OTHERS.-We are always glad to treat dealers in natural history objects on the same fair and general ground as amateurs, in so far as the “exchanges" offered are fair exchanges. But it is evident that, when their offers are simply DISGUISED ADVERTISEMENTS, for the purpose of evading the cost of advertising, an advantage is taken of our gratuitous insertion of “exchanges,” which cannot be tolerated.

We request that all exchanges may be signed with name (or initials) and full address at the end.

SPECIAL Note. There is a tendency on the part of some exchangers to send more than one per month. We only allow this in the case of writers of papers.

To Our Recent EXCHANGERS. We are willing to be helpful to our genuine naturalists, but we cannot further allow dis. guised Exchanges like those which frequently come to us to appear unless as advertisements.

not uncommon.

EXECUTION BY ELECTRICITY.-Four criminals were put to death by electricity in New York few days ago. No reporters were present, but it has transpired that death was instantaneous in each instance. The only witness who gives an account is the gaol chaplain, who says: “I was fully convinced that execution by electricity was a failure, but now I am equally convinced of the contrary. Every one of the men went to the chair calmly, and died easily without pain or contortion, death being instantaneous.' The apparatus used was the same as that of last year, with improvements suggested by experi. ence. There is no further question in New York about the method being in every way an improvement upon execution by hanging. The tested voltage of the dynamos used was 3,000, while the estimated voltage turned into Kemmler's body was only 750. The medical men present agree in saying that the executions were completely successful. Dr. Southwick says that death resulted instantly in each case, and was painless. There was not a burn or mark of any kind left on the bodies of the victims. Dr. Daniels says that the execution was highly successful from a scientific and from a humane standpoint. Every man is said to have died instantly and painlessly.

A. V. BENNETT.-We received your exchange for insertion and also your note, but neither contains your address.

F. TYNDALL.-Get Stark's “British Mosses," with coloured plates and descriptions; or Hobkirk's “Synopsis of British Mosses” (no illustrations, but clearly-defined characters of all our species of mosses, which are much more instructive and lasting). You will then hardly require to trouble anybody. Or, if you can afford it, get Dr. Braithwaite's . Descriptions of British Mosses " (with plates, &c.) now being issued. T. B. COWAP.-Your specimen of malformation in fuchsia is

It is due to the usually scarlet calyx being transformed into a true green leaf, possessed with a mid-rib, veins, &c.-a genuine reversion. It may be observed in any garden just now, especially among the commoner and more neglected roses. That it is the calyx parts which return to their ancestral leaf condition before any other floral organs, is just what we ought to expect on the theory of floral whorls, suppression of internodes, foliar transformations to floral, &c.

T. M. P.-You cannot do better than procure the late P. H. Gosse's “Marine Zoology" of our coasts, if you want to go down to the seaside for pleasurable work. It is numerously, although sketchily illustrated, -enough, however, to help a student and would be worker. We have no sympathy, in these days of abundant manuals, with those embryonic naturalists who send up the first, simplest, and commonest specimens they deign to gather to “be named." A million such recruits will never make one naturalist. They had all best stick to tennis.

B. C. R.-The “Botanical Gazette" is an American journal, published monthly at Crawfordsville, Indiana.

M. J. Taylor.—The tiger beetle (Cicindela campestris). I

A BEGINNER.-1. It is not uncommon to find the feet of Dytiscus in the condition you describe. 2. Perhaps the pond which contained most duck-weed had most drainage leading into it.

S. A. B.-The “caterpillars” in the abnormal buds of Cardamine pratensis appear to be a form of red planarian, entirely new to us.

H. G. W. B.-It is exceedingly difficult to give you any account of where to find books, &c., relating to the entomology of Sierra Leone. You had best get Dalton's “Art of Travel, and the vols, relating to tropical butterflies and beetles in Jardine's “ Naturalists' Library."

TROUT AND VIPER.-Mr. Clay and Mr. Mead, two London gentleman, residing at Altnacealgach Hotel, in Sutherland, while fishing Loch Veyatie in the same boat, made, in one day, a total basket of twenty-six trout, aggregating ten pounds. The heaviest fish weighed a pound and a half, and on being opened it was found to contain a viper measuring eighteen inches in length.

Miss C.- Address Mr. Charles Bailey, F.L.S., Ashfield, College Road, Whalley Range, Manchester, re

· Botanical Record Club.

A. BODINGTON.-Your paper is duly to hand, and (although lengthy) shall appear in due course.

H. D. G.-Mr. Harcourt Bath's little book on British dragonflies does not possess coloured plates. It is a very cheap and good book, although the woodcut illustrations are not of the best kind.

A. V. BENNETTO.-Your offer of exchange is inserted just as it came ; but, as you will see, there is no address. Please send it to the Editor.

R. R. T.-Get Gosse's “Marine Zoology," in two vols. ; also Landsborough's “ British Zoophytes” (coloured plates).

T. W. X.-Spencer Thomson's “Walks and Wild Flowers is an excellent and exciting book of its kind, leading many to botanical studies of a more serious character.

JAMES P. DIXON (Northampton).-Mr. Beeby Thompson has published an excellent and important geological work on the geology of your neighbourhood.

(or Aylward's), writing diamond, histological or other mounted slides, also a dissecting microscope with instruments; a fair exchange given if in good serviceable order.

I shall be very happy to communicate with subscribers of SCIENCE-Gossip to exchange ideas or material.-W. F. Crews, c.o. F. F. & Co., Rangoon.

WANTED, rare British birds' eggs, side-blown. Will give in exchange a very nice aquarium, “The Entomologist," from 1883 to 1890, the "Field Club" for 1890, also British butterflies and moths, and several good breeding.cages for same.-T. Mottershan, 11 Manchester Street, Nottingham.

POLISHED geological specimens, rare British shclls, rock specimens, thin sections of corals and sponges ready for mounting, recent objects. Wanted, Isocardia cor, and well. mounted slides of rock and diatomacæa.-T. E. Sclater, Bank Street, Teignmouth.

Will exchange five hundred different monograms for eggs of sea birds.-Fred. Soydell, 19 Chaucer Road, Acton, W.

Would any one having any duplicate natural history speci. mens or curiosities to spare, towards the formation of a small school museum, kindly communicate with J. A. Ellis, 1 Pomona Place, Fulham, S.W.?

Aclis unica, Eulima bilineata, Eulima polita, Eulima distorta, Pleurobranchus membranacea, Scalaria clathratula, Cyclostrema serpuloides, Cyclostrema Cutlerianum, Odo. stomia interstincta, Venerápis iris, Spiralis retroversus, Odostomia spiralis, Odostomia nivosa, Adeorbis subcarinatus, Rissoa Zetlandica, Rissoa calathus, Rissoa fulgida, Tornatella fasciata. Mytilus edulis, var. pallida, Skenea planorbis. What offers ?-A. J. R. Sclater, M.C.S., 23 Bank Street, Teignmouth.

WANTED, books on literary history, or biographies, in ex. change for Dana's “Text-Book of Mineralogy," and Strickland's “Memoirs and Scientific Writings," by Jardine.-R. McCully, 53 Ling Street, Kensington, Liverpool.

Wanten, good mineral specimens ; volcanic rocks, Cambrian and silurian fosils given in exchange.-W. H. Banks, Ridgebourne, Kington, Herefordshire.

LARVÆ of lepidoptera wanted, all kinds, for purposes of examination.-J. K. Homer, Townshend House, Sedgley, Dudley.

WANTED, “The Quarterly Journal of Microscopic Science" for October, 1886; also fresh or spirit specimen of Coronella lavis.-R. McKenzie Skinner, The Hollies, Shornden, St. Leonards-on-Sea.

WANTED, a few specimens of Helix pisana, lapicida, obo voluta, any Vertigo, Clausilia biplicata, Rolphii, Acine lineata, Cæcilianella acicula, Cary, minimum, and any vars. of same; offered in exchange, "The Conchologist" for 1891.-W. E. Collinge, 108 Woodsley Road, Leeds.

EXCHANGES. Net, setting-boards, collecting and store box, books, &c. What offers in useful exchange?-W. I. Weston, Beckley, Sussex.

Helir lamellata, Pupa ringens, and numerous other species offered for varieties of British land and freshwater shells. Also wanted, Continental and foreign land and freshwater shells.- Rev. John Hawell, Ingleby Greenhow Vicarage, Northallerton.

Wanted, eggs of raven, heron, puffin, teal, sea-mew, land. rail, golden plover, in exchange for British shells and seaweeds, or eggs of lesser black-backed gull, moorhen, pheasant, partridge, jackdaw, carrion crow, kestrel, hawk, and others. A. V. Bennetto.

New micro-spectroscope, by Browning, 71. Also dissolving apparatus of best construction, including oxy-hydrogen microscope, 251., including slides, &c. Particulars to intending purchasers. Address-Capt. S., Godstone, Surrey.

The following starfish with several crustaceans, also land, fresh-water, and marine shells (Palmipes membranaceus, Astrony. Loveni, Cribella rosea, Cribella oculata, Solaster papposa, Goniaster equestris; ditto, with 6 rays, &c. &c.), in good condition, ready for cabinet, in exchange for small insect cabinet duplicate cases, good works on British insects, or what offers ? Send lists 10 W. D. Rae, 9, Claremont Terrace, Alpha Road, Milwall, London, E.

ANNE Pratt's “Flowering Plants, Grasses, and Ferns of Great Britain,” 6 vols., published by Warne & Co., what offers ?Linden, New Brompton, Kent.

WANTED, SCIENCE-Gossip, from commencement to 1889 inclusive.-E. Pratt, Worthendene, Streatham Common, S.W.

WANTED, an entomological cabinet with six to ten drawers. -W. F. K., 33, London Road, Maldon.

What offers for 60 micro slides, also for an electrical plate machine, 12 in., complete, with fittings? Wanted, good mammalian remains from any formation.-Geo. E. East, jun., 241, Evering Road, Upper Clapton, N.E.

OFFERED, shells, corals, polyzoa, serpula, sponges, banded flint, wood, geodes, chalcedony, spiculis, rotalia, lituola, and other micro objects from the chalk, in exchange for minerals, recent corals, &c.-W. Gamble, 2, West Street, New Brompton, Kent.

WANTED, the vols. for 1869 and 1870 of the “Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science," and any other odd volumes. Will give a collection of 300 or more British mosses in exchange.-J. Cash, Hereford Street, Sale, Manchester.

A NUMBER of botanical and histological micro-slides in exchange for others on zoology, or cash.-Apply to R. J. S. Wood, Seaview, Rosscarbery, co. Cork, Ireland.

OFFERED, Xylophaga dorsalis. Wanted, T. cranium, Argiope (all), Lepton (all), Cardium papillosum, Astarte compressa, Psam. costulata, Donax politus, Neæra (all), Venus casina, V. striatula, Aclis (all), Eulimella (all), Styliser, Adeorbis, Torellia, Triton, Columbella, Marginella, Ovula, Acera astyris, Bulla, Aplysia, Pleurobranchus.-J. Smith, Monkredding, Kilwinning.

LANTERN slides, illustrating geology, microscopy, &c., wanted for nicely-finished micro slides of whole insects, &c.J. W. Neville, Wellington Road, Handsworth, Birmingham.

The undersigned would be glad to communicate with anyone who has done some work among Desmids.-C. 0. Sonntag, 38. Maxwell Road, Pollokshields, Glasgow.

WANTED, exchange for rough materials, insects, snakes, &c., of Burmah, sor books on microscopy. Beck's turn-table

BOOKS, ETC., RECEIVED FOR NOTICE. “Handbook of the London Geological Field Class” (London: George Philip & Son).-"Our Country Flowers," by W. J. Gordon (London: Day & Son).-"Among the Butterflies," by B. G. Johns (London: Isbister & Co). -"Outlines of Field Geology,” by Archibald Geikie, 4th edition (London: Macmillan & Co).-"A Summary of the Darwinian Theory of the Origin of Species," by F. P. Pascoe (London: Taylor & Francis).-" Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society," June." Journal of the Quekett

Microscopical Club," July "The Human Epic,” by J. F. Rowbotham (London : Kegan Paul).--" British Cage Birds,” Parts 13, 14. and 15 (London : Upcott Gill).-"Annual Report North Staffordshire Field Club."-"President's Address to the Royal Society of New South Wales.”—“The Microscope."-" The American Monthly Micro. Journal."-"American Naturalist."-"Canadian Entos mologist.”-“The Naturalist.”—The Botanical Gazette."“The Gentleman's Magazine."-"The Midland Naturalist.”. "The Essex Naturalist.” -“The Garner."-"Feuille des Jeunes Naturalistes."-" Journal of Microscopy," &c., &c.

COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVED UP TO THE 12TH ULT. FROM: J. S.-A. M.-R. C. C.-I. C. S.-M. E. P.-W. T. L.H. G. W. A.-H. R.-J. E. L.-H. J. T.-F. P. P.-H. D. T. -C. O. S.-J. H. G.-D. B.-T. S. K.-W. 0. W.-A. M. W. M.-H. R.-J. T.-C. B.-E. A.-J. W. N.-H. D. F. F. S.-W. P.-W. D. R.-B. C. R.-J. S.-F. H. D. F. B.-R. J. S. W.-F. W. W.-J. C.-E. M.-E. P. W. F. K.-G. E. E.-W.G.-R. E. S.-G. S. S.-M. A. Y.J. K. H.-F. J. P.-T. E. S.-A. J. R. S.-W. F. C. G. E.C.-R. Mc C.-W. H. B.-A. J. J.-G. M.-J. A. E. A. L.-W. W.-Dr. A. J. H. C.-E. B.-F. B.-J. M.H. G. W. A.-F. S. H.- Rev. H. F.-G. D.-F. T.-A. H.S -A. L.-R. McK. S.-R. C. C.-W. E. C., &c., &c.

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