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for a subsequent article. The two species of Nebela The other species Nebela flabellum, was not I will now describe, literally swarmed in every drop nearly so numerously represented in my collection. of water examined.
I do not think that this form ought to have been N. collaris, which was the most numerous form, has elevated to specific rank, the only difference being the shell a compressed pyrisorm, longer than broad, one of general outline ; and I think I have seen a though the proportion varies considerably in different few specimens that fairly connect the two. N. specimens ; indeed so much is this the case, both in flabellum is broadly pyriform, or spheroidal, comform and constitution, that it is rare to find two pressed, as in the previous species, generally broader specimens exactly alike. I give drawings of a few of than long, though some of the tests are about equal the chief varieties I have found, but it would be in this respect. There is also a short neck in all the quite impossible to give them all. Some of the Rossendale specimens. In size, colour, constitution forms I have seen are very obscure, and it is ex.
of shell, condition and character of the sarcode and tremely difficult to determine their structure ; this is pseudopodia, and in its habitat, like the preceding particularly the case in those specimens which have
form. both plates, diatoms and sand-grains intermingled in N. collaris. Fig. 190. Test composed of irregularly varying proportions, in their construction. Although rounded plates evenly distributed over the basal it is one of the characters of the genus that the basal membrane. Sarcode ; with brown food-balls, enmembrane is colourless, I have on several occasions cysted ; a laminated operculum at the mouth. seen specimens of a yellow colour, which yet ex Fig. 191. A large, handsome form, of large circular hibited all the other characters of Nebela. Most of plates, with the intervals filled-in with smaller ones ; those which came under my observation were either sarcode encysted. empty shells, or the sarcode was encysted, in the Fig. 192. Small empty test, entirely of small, form of a round ball; occasionally, in the latter round plates.
Fig. 196.- N. flabellum (of yellow chitinous membrane
covered with hexagonal pit). Fig. 195.-N. flabellum (large oval plates, regularly disposed).
Fig. 193. Another variety of irregular hexagonal case the mouth of the shell was closed by a plates, which appeared sunk in the basal membrane. rude operculum, I presume of chitinoid material Fig. 194. Side-view. mixed with ejected food, generally in layers. The N. flabellum. [Fig. 195. Test of large oval plates, shell itself, has, I take it in all cases, a basal mem- regularly distributed ; sarcode with yellow foodbrane, superimposed on, or embedded in which are balls, encysted. numbers of silicious plates, round, oval, or rod-like, Fig. 196. Of yellow chitinoid membrane, cancelvariously but symmetrically arrayed. These are of lated, or reticulated, apparently without plates. different sizes, but this has no sort relationship
J. E. LORD. with the size of the shell, as a large shell may have Rawtenstall. small discs, and a small shell large discs. The drawings will give an idea of this variation, so it will be unnecessary for me to enlarge upon this point. THE WOLF AND THE LAPPS IN SWEDISH The sarcode is colourless, but there are frequently LAPLAND, AND INCIDENTALLY IN numerous yellow or brown food-balls. The nucleus
OTHER PARTS. is impossible to make out, owing to the constitution of the shell, and the coloured food-matters; but two
By John WAGER. or three contracting vesicles may be seen in favour- T was remarked once to the present writer by a able specimens. The pseudopodia are finger-like, and rarely more than two or three in number. Lapland, bordering upon Norway, that the reindeer Leidy gives the average size as zoo of an inch long, has many enemies. He instanced among the rest só broad, and zoo thick ; most of my specimens were man himself ; for, though less frequent than formerly, about that size, though occasional ones were as there are, as he said, men even, besides others, of large as y, and others as small as the so in length. Lappish race, who do not scruple when opportunity
offers, to rob the much-enduring nomad by shooting one of his deer, perchance from a boat, as it is grazing on the margin of a river or lake. Yet more persistently, if less fatally hostile, is the broms, a fly whose larva, hatched from eggs laid in the deer's skin, fill it with perforations; and even worse are the attacks of the myggs, or mosquitoes, whose hosts, armed with tormenting, blood-imbibing stings, as the summer advances gather in clouds, and drive the herds and their masters up to snowy altitudes for refuge and relief. The eagle, soaring on ampler wing, snatches not rarely a fawn for its nested young ; the ponderous bear, lying in ambush, secures at intervals an elder of the herd; and far more frequently, by similarly lurking under covert, the crafty, insatiable glutton, with claws and teeth hard and sharp as steel, succeeds in springing upon the neck of an antlered victim and drinking its blood. Next to the wolf, and even in some times ard places more than the wolf, it is the most destructive northern beast of prey; for it is, more than other beasts, the plague of the cattle-farmer as well as the Lapp. Nevertheless, the wolf is the arch-enemy of the reindeer, and as such is held in utter detestation by the Lapp, who seizes every chance of wreaking vengeance on the ravager of his herds. According to old Lappish traditions, this ravenous beast was not created by a beneficent being, but by Perkel the devil, who endowed it, above all other animals, with swiftness of foot. God, however, to check its speed, added the bushy tail, by throwing after it a twig of spruce fir.
The bitter exasperation of the Lapp against the wolf is not to be wondered at when we consider the labour and the loss to which from time immemorial his hereditary enemy has subjected him, and still subjects. Summer and winter, day and night, he with his faithful dog must be on the alert, guarding the herd. “ Indescribable,” says Professor Früs, “what the Lappendures thus watching. When darkness is deepest, cold bitterest, snowstorm fearfulest, he must be on the watch. At least every quarter of an hour he must take his round, hallooing, screaming, and making all manner of loud outcries ; for thus the wolf, though only when not very hungry, can be kept aloof.” Should he once sleep at his post, the wolf, more watchful than himself, would presently wet his fangs with the blood of a deer. A single wolf, slaughtering like a fiend incarnate, for the love of slaughter, far beyond the needs of appetite, has been known to kill thirty deer in one night; and, as stated by the above-named author (En Sommer i Finmarken, Russisk Lapland og Nordkarelen), from two or three, up to that number, may be lost in a night notwithstanding the strictest watch ; while possibly a man, rich in the even. ing, with several hundred reindeer, may in the morning be a beggar; his herd destroyed, hunted over precipices, and dispersed far and wide by a
numerous pack of wolves, some falling into the hands of thieves, and the rest of the living never, by the most strenuous efforts, to be wholly collected together again.
Consideration of such facts leads us to excuse the implacable animosity, if not the barbarous cruelty, directed by the Lapp against the wolf. Not only does he give no quarter to the enemy when it falls under his power alive, but, like a cat playing with a mouse, he tortures it awhile before killing it outright. Fleet as the wolf is on firm ground—and its name in Lappish is synonymous with quick-when deep and loose snow impedes its progress, it is often outrun by the gliding Lapp, who thereupon strikes with his heavy staff a blow on the small of its back, which compels it to sit instantly and immovably on the ground. A sudden thrust at the heart, with the spear-end of the staff, would now terminate the creature's misery ; but that were scarce sufficient gratification for the heated and exasperated pursuer's love of revenge. If there are other wolves to be followed, he perhaps leaves his victim awhile, secured by its broken back, and renews the chase ; if not, he awaits bis lagging comrades, and with them, when they gather round the deliquent in a ring, arraign him in open court, constituting themselves accusers, witnesses and judges all in one. His doom is predetermined, and they have only, as executioners, to enjoy the pleasures of the wild justice called revenge. They denounce him in the most violent of abusive terms; they beat and pommel him, and prick him with the point of their spears ; they swear at him ; they ban him with the most fearful curses their language, copious in such phraseology, can supply; they upbraid him with all the mischief he and his progenitors throughout all time have ever wrought ; and finally, amid shouts of exultation, they put him to death in a manner most calculated to inflict severest pain.
Such, till recently, was a common practice among the Mountain-Lapps : but the present writer was informed a few years since, by a Swedish clergyman, on the authority of a section of those nomads, with whom at intervals he comes in contact, that the custom was greatly on the decrease, passing away before the more genial influences and superior enlightenment, which for some time past have been brought to bear on the raw, untutored minds of these hardy, isolated children of the mountain wilds.
The Lapp rarely shoots the wolf, in Sweden never ; he prefers, as a surer weapon than the gun, the use of the staff with which he propels himself on his snow-shoes; and which, to serve both purposes, is formed of a very stout and straight branch of birchtree, barked and smoothed, provided--in one case seen by the writer-at the upper end with a long, pointed iron spike, firmly secured by a large and strong brass ferule, enclosed in a sheaf of reindeer horn ; and at the lower end with an iron spike eight
inches in length, being two inches shorter than the another opportunity of approaching the herds. To pike at the other end. In pursuit of the wolf with devote himself for several successive days, even such a weapon the hardy, active and enduring skid- weeks sometimes, to this severe exertion, craves a runner, gliding and bounding on his skidor, or snow- power of endurance on the part of the hunter, which shoes, often strains his energies to a degree which is rare indeed. His recompense consists in the injures health and shortens life. It is a great honour enjoyment experienced when, after so many arduous among the Lapps to outrun and destroy a wolf; and toils, he at last thrusts' his spear into the body of his among the Lapp mountains, as among the seats of foe; but also in that regard, that acknowledgment learning, and the mouths of cannon, there are spirits of merit awarded him by all his kin." who leagerly seek the bubble reputation, and are The work entitled Hos Lappbónder, by P. A. sensitive to the spur of fame. All Lapps, and most, Lindholm, also contains a graphic description of a if not all, the peasants of Lapland, man and woman, wolf-hunt in the south of Swedish Lapland, a can run on skids—the narrow, flat snow.shoes, or translation of which may interest the reader. In late skates, of rather thin but tough wood, from ten to autumn perhaps, traces of the depredating wolf have sixteen feet in length, with upturned points in front; at intervals been observed in proximity to the herds; but, though all are adroit at their use, it is not though in consequence of strict watch, loud outcries every man, and perhaps no man except a Lapp, who of dogs and men, and vulpine knowledge of the could put salt on the bushy tail of a wolf, or could penetrative quality of the herdsman's spear, little or crack his backbone with the skidstaff, as impelled by no mischief has hitherto been done. But prevention terror he flits at his utmost possible speed.
is better than cure—if cure there could be for a Such chase can only be successfully accomplished slaughtered reindeer. “Soon," therefore, “as deep on the lower forested tracts, where the wolf's fleet snow falls, the quickest skidrunners in the district limbs are hampered by sinking into the deep, loose accoutre themselves for a general hunt. The wolf snow, usually lying there during winter; or when the meantime suspects danger, and takes a start, not crust, which sometimes forms over it, is too thin to seldom of fourteen miles. That helps him little ; bear his weight without breaking. Then let him his spoor is seen in the snow, and soon his pursuers beware of showing his grim visage, or his spoor, in are within hearing. Now it behoves him to flee for the neighbourhood of the herds he has stealthily his life and his skin; and that he does at the best. followed from the mountains. Soon as seen Over stocks and stones, through densest forest, and • denoted, by the vigilant watchers and their dogs, the ruggedest tracts, usually traversible only at the notice that the wolf is afoot is carried with all speed gentlest pace, the hunt Aits now at an astonishing to the tent, or tents, and the skidrunners are quickly speed. When the wolf has not recently fed, he ready for the hunt. “The wolf,” says H. A. runs not only with rapidity, but also with great Widmark, in a communication to Professor von persistence ; nevertheless here his efforts fall short of Düben's important work on Lapland and the Lapps, the emergency. His pursuers are no common men.
“ from his great capability of persistent exertion, That train of short-grown mortals, clad in kilted coats taxes to the utmost the pursuer's powers and pre- and sugar-loaf caps rustles past like a gust of wind. tensions. He must be followed almost continuously One verily grows dizzy at the sight of them, speeding day and night, and so constantly disturbed, that like the flight of an arrow, down steep hills; bound. at last he becomes exhausted and outrun. Many ing from fathom-high escarpments, or rushing through Lapps therefore take part in a woll-hunt, although the closest thickets, where tree branches permit no only one or another is properly the hunter. In cap to be kept on the head. In the course of this Jokkmokk at present there are only two who can onward rush the party becomes separated; all make
hold out till the wolf is reached. The ability to superhuman efforts, but one naturally wins and takes .“ränne upp" a wolf is not given to many Lapps, the lead; each of the rest striving to come as little and they who have the luck to possess it, destroy as possible in the rear of him, and especially to avoid
their health soon enough by these feats. Through- the dishonour of being last. Sometimes, but very out the whole day to have no rest, to cast off, for seldom, a Lapland peasant joins in the hunt; but his lightness sake, while running one article of clothing class rarely attain the proficiency in skidrunning after the other, leaving them to be picked up by possessed by the Lapp. less rapid pursuers, and to suffer, perhaps, dis- “His mortal enemy is soon in the power of the fore. appointment after all effort-such is the wolf-hunter's most hunter, with no mercy to expect ; so he turns experience. For it often happens, that when the towards him with a grin, while a cloud of warm hunter has quite nearly approached the wolf, he is vapour issues from his throat. The Lapp laughs at obliged to relinquish the chase, because his game
has his victim's spite, and gives him in return a violent had the good fortune to attain at that moment, the blow on the loins with his skidstaff, which seats him open treeless mountain-lands, where the snow is on the snow. If the wolf was not alone in the chase, firm, and towards which, when it is not too distant, he kills him at once and pursues his companions ; The always steers his course, thence keeping watch for but otherwise he sets himself before the wounded
animal, and gravely dilates on all the delinquencies he and his relatives have perpetrated against the Lapps ; then, at the end of this denunciatory sermon, he puts the culprit to death. It has occasionally happened that the Lapp at the moment of striking the disabling blow, has himself also dropped down, in a swoon caused by over-exertion; in which case the wolf, though not respited, is saved the extra infliction of a death-sermon, the victor's comrades being sufficiently occupied with his restoration to conscious life.
“The wolf is not stripped of his skin till all the hunters arrive at the place of his death. Then the slayer, beginning the operation, flays the head ; the second in at the death flays the next ; and so on till it comes to the last, who gets leave to draw the skin from its tail.
“After the completion of the Aaying, the hunters return in the order they held at the end of the chase; the foremost bearing the skin as a trophy of honour ; and on arriving at home they are entertained with the best."
In Norway, as appears from Professor Früs's account of a wolf-hunt, the skidstaff of the hunter is not commonly furnished with a spear-head; and the wolf, as he sits with his back broken by a blow with the staff, is after due denunciation of himself and his forefathers, finally despatched with the knife which every Lapp and peasant carries suspended from his belt; or by a ball from the rifle which the Lapp hunter there frequently carries on his back. To strike at the head of the wolf with the skidstaff, says Friis, is of no avail, for the wolf knows how to parry and seize it with his teeth. Yet O. R. Hederström, in the Swedish Sporting Society's Journal for 1879, states that in Tornelapmark, the most northerly part of Swedish Lapland, an inch-thick skidstaff, without spear, is the only weapon used ; and that a blow or two with it, after it has broken his back, is usually enough to kill a wolf-there a cowardly animal, rarely showing fight in self-defence. But, as Malm, quoted by Dühen, relates, a slightly wounded wolf will sometimes turn upon his assailant, especially if he chances to stumble ; then a fierce fight ensues, in which however, the Lapp's thick skin coat affords better protection against the wolf's fangs than the woll's against the Lapp's strong, sharp-pointed knise.
Outside the boundaries of Lapland wolves are not numerous in Sweden ; nor even within the lower forested tracts those boundaries enclose, except during winter, after some portion of them have followed the reindeer herds thither from the Lapp mountains, which are their proper resort. They infest chiefly the three northernmost provinces of Sweden, Norrbotten, Vesterbotten, and Ostersund, south of which they are rarely found. Ostersund, the most southern of these provinces, includes the wild mountainous tracts of Jemtland and Herjedal, and
though ranged by a few Lapps along its Norwegian border, has no part of its area nominally included within Lapland proper, yet is apparently far more infested by wolves than Vesterbotten, whose lappmarks adjoin it to the north. But these, though of great extent, constitute the smaller part of Swedish Lapland ; and it is in the lappmarks of NorrbottenPite, Sule, and especially Torne—that both wolves and reindeer most numerously abound. Thus in Norrbotten's län, and of course chiefly in its threelappmarks, there were, according to the premiums paid by the State for the destruction of predaciousanimals, during the four years of 1876 to 1876 inclusive, sixty-nine wolves killed ; in Ostersund's, fifty-six ; in Vesterbotten's, sixteen ; and throughout the rest of the kingdom, only six, comprising a total of one hundred and forty-seven. During the five years of 1881-1885, the number destroyed throughout all Sweden was one hundred and seventy-one ; and during 1871-1875, two hundred and twenty-nine ; but during the ten years terminating with 1865, no fewer than four hundred and thirty-seven wolves were killed in the province of Norrbotten alone. There also in the course of the same period seven hundred and eighty-seven gluttons, and two. hundred and fifty-seven bears were destroyed ; while on the other hand, the number of reindeer slaughtered in the same time and place by such beasts of prey, was stated at about five thousand.
The part of Norrbotten most exposed to the ravages of wolves is Tornis lappmark, which comprises the two parishes of Enontekis and Jukkasjärvi, where, says Herr Hederström, the Jagtmaster or chief ranger of the district, the wolf may be considered to have its especial resort. This wide territory, the largest of the lappmarks, with an area of 7612 square miles, consists mainly of high, bleak, treeless and comparatively level table-land, ranged over during winter by nomadic Lapps, with their great herds of reindeer, but vacated on the approach of summer by both, who pass over into Norway, and remain there till the autumn, thus reversing the usual custom of the more southerly Swedish Lapps, who during: summer graze their herds on the mountains, and towards winter begin their descent into the forests below, where they remain till spring. In winter therefore, the highlands of Tornis are numerously bespread with the returned herds; the number of reindeer belonging to it exceeding that of any other lappmark ; its share of the 123,000 which alli Norrbotten contained in 1879 being 55,000, although Tornis forms only a fourth part of the entire area of the province's lappmarks; while the total number of reindeer throughout the whole of Swedish Lapland has been estimated at only 220, 800.. This, abundance of reindeer during winter in Tornis. lappmark is evidently a chief reason why their natural enemies, the wolves, also abound there at that time, for they numerously follow the hards both
into Norway and back. They are savoured also by the nature of the country, over whose unsheltered plateaus the winds sweep with a force which compresses the snow, so that it gives firm footing to the wolf, and thus precludes the possibility of overtaking it on snow-skates. Also the Lapps are accounted incompetent marksmen and their rifles equally inefficient.
Encouraged by such conditions, and also, it appears, by the apathy and neglect of the Lapps, in 1879 the number of wolves on this tract, or part of it, had so greatly increased that, as stated by Herr Hederström, they ran in packs from fifteen to forty, and destroyed thousands of reindeer, as they had done during the previous two years-packs more numerous and destruction greater than had been heard of sor some years before. The report of enquiry respecting the prevalence of wolves in Enontekis, made about the same time at the instance of the Jagtmaster, supplies some interesting particulars on the subject of these ravenous aniinals. Six years before few wolves were found there, but they had since greatly increased, and it was estimated that at least a hundred prowled over the parish ; packs of three to fifteen had been seen since the middle of September.
They remain within the parish all the year through, following the reindeer herds on their way to Norway up to the mountain ridge, but not over it; supporting themselves bounteously during summer on other prey, in the valley of Kumajoki, close under the ridge; forming quite distinct footpaths there, and extending themselves along the banks of Könkämä river quite down to Kellotijarvi, a lake about sixteen miles above Enontekis church. It is said that lairs of wolves are sometimes found burrowed in the sandhills, like those of the sox.
During the three preceding years it was calculated that each year over a thousand reindeer had been killed in the parish by wolves. The flesh of a deer thus killed acquires a taste so very disagreeable that people are very reluctant to eat it. Yet it is said by Castren, quoted in Düben's work, that the Fjelllapps of Finland have no need through all the winter to slaughter deer for their own use ; they eat only the reindeer killed and in part eaten by the wolves, which choose the daintiest portions, and especially the blood, which those Lapps, like the wolves themselves, prefer to drink raw.
When the wolf, says the writer of the report, on giving chase has overtaken a reindeer, he seizes it by the thigh, and soon as its speed slackens, grips it in a twinkling by the throat, presently causing its death, and consequent fall. He then tears out and eats its tongue ; next he strips the flesh from the loins nearest the root of the tail, and after eating that continues bis repast on the rest. If very hungry, and undisturbed, he gorges the whole deer, its horns included.
The reindeer, as stated by Düben, has the worst
chance of escape from the wolf on dark autumn nights when the surface of the snow is sufficiently frozen to bear the weight of the wolf, but not of the deer. The assailant, however, instead of light, sometimes meets with resistance and a repulse ; examples being given of stags, and especially does with calves, goring a wolf to death; or even successfully defending themselves with horns and hoofs against a couple of bloodthirsty foes. Indeed it is said that the wolf seldom ventures to rush upon a compact herd, but when sear has dispersed it, pursues a deer that has separated from the rest.
Wolves do not always remain continuously in the same locality, but in many intervals from one tract to another, so that the Lapps may sometimes, in certain parts, relax considerably the constant watch of their herds. Östgaard, a Norwegian writer, says that wolves sometimes flock together in great numbers, and especially when about to migrate to another forest tract. Such a gathering is there called a wolf-skred.
Except under the pinch of huoger, the wolf is cowardly; as Bishop Pontoppidan remarks, he is like the arch-enemy of mankind, resist the brute and he will flee from you ; a cow or even a goat, by such action has put him to fight. It is very rarely, therefore, that he ventures to attack a man ; but it is recorded that a soldier, when returning from parade across the ice over the great lake Storsjö, in Jemtland, was killed and eaten by wolves, his skeleton being found several days afterwards. Previous to that occurrence, namely in 1821, nine or ten children suffered the same fate in Dalecarlia and Gestrictland, which adjoins it, from one and the same wolf, which it was believed had been kept tame. Cases of children being killed by wolves appear to be more frequent in Finland ; two were reported by the newspapers in 1881, as occurring within the province of Abo; the one, that of a boy ten years of age, who had been sent to fetch a horse from an enclosure within a forest adjacent to the cottage where he dwelt.
Much superstition has been associated with the wolf by Scandinavians as well as Lapps. The malign glare of his eyes, his grin of rage and fear, bis reputed habit of tearing the dead from their graves, his revels on battle-fields, and the strange, unearthly howlings to which he gives utterance on dark winter nights, all suggest the idea of a fiendish nature, a being pertaining to the nether world. In the old Norse mythology, he played, in accordance with this character, a conspicuous part. Odin, the god of battles, was attended by two wolves, and doomed at length to be devoured by the great Fenris. wolf (offspring of Loki, the Evil One), when the flames of Ragnarök consumed the world. Two ravenous wolves, personifications of the dark side of nature, born of a hag who dwelt in Iron-wood, the abode of witches, constantly pursued the sun and