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For Inhalation only.

For Inhalation only.

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one remedy, viz., the CARBOLIC SMOKE BALL.



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The CARBOLIC SMOKE BALL will not only cure all diseases caused by taking cold, but will, if used in time, positively ward of colds.

One CARBOLIC SMOKE BALL will last a family several months, making it the cheapest remedy in the world at the price -10s., post free.

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27, Princes Street, Hanover Square, London, W.

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Telegraphic Address—“ INHALATION, LONDON."


diatoms and other minute algæ can be seen in various stages of digestion. The pseudopodia are excessively delicate, and require a nice adjustment both of focus and of the light, to clearly distinguish them. The artist has drawn the pseudopodia too dark. In all cases, the sarcode entirely fills up the delicate, membranous shell. The figures will show the general arrangement of the pseudopodia, which are almost constantly moving, though sluggishly, from side to side, or lengthening and shortening in the same slow, deliberate manner. A large nucleus is generally visible. My specimens were procured in great numbers, from the ooze of a clear pond. Although there was a constant though slow movement of the pseudopods, I never noticed any of the animals to move from

pole ; it is of various shades of brown, approaching to black. All my specimens were much more active than those of Pamphagus, among which they were numerous ; indeed, many of them would have been quite overlooked, had it not been for the bobbing about of the shell, as they were so very much like an aggregation of flocculent dirt. I think it very probable that the form is much more common than supposed, but that its inconspicuous character causes it to be overlooked ; or if seen, to be confounded with a minute Difflugia.

Fig. 198. Small specimen of Pamphagus gracilis.


Fig. 198.–Pamphagus.

Fig. 199.–Pamphagus.

Fig. 203.-Cyphoderia ampulla.

Fig. 204.-Cyphoderia.

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the position in which they were first seen under the microscope ; it is quite possible, however, that in summer they may show a greater activity in this respect. Like all other Rhizopods, they vary greatly in size, but the majority of my specimens averaged about the sto of an inch.

Figs. 199 and 200. Larger forms with extended pseudopodia ; sarcode granular with yellow patches.

Fig. 201. Side view of another, showing neck, and the extension of the pseudopodia through the mouth.

Fig. 202. Pseudodifflugia gracilis, with test of brownish dirt.

The agentes Pseudodiflugia differs from Pamphagus | St Cyphoderia ampulla is another Rhizopod, not un

only in the fact, that its chitinoid shell is incorporated or encrusted with sand-grains or dirt; in other words, it has the test of a Difflugia, but the delicate, filose, pseudopods of Pamphagus. There is only one species, P. gracilis, and in this the test is more or less void, with the mouth at the narrow

common in this district. I have found it in fair numbers in one clear pool, in several wells, and amongst Sphagnum ; from the latter, the specimens have been larger, and, I think, more active. The test of Cyphoderia is very elegant from its graceful curves, and its minute pitting in all its varieties. It is generally of a straw-colour or pale yellow, occasionally colourless and transparent, of chitinoid membrane. It is a long oval, or retort-shaped shell, with a cylindrical neck curving down to the mouth. The fundus, or top of the shell is either evenly rounded, or drawn out in the form of a nipple-like prolongation. When the pseudopodia are extended, and the animal is moving, the mouth is directed downwards, and the body of the shell is directed backwards and upwards, as in Fig. 205. Many of the shells exhibit minutely hexagonal markings arranged in spiral rows; others seem, even under high magnification, entirely destitute of this; while in others again, the markings are so coarse as to appear pitted. I have frequently dipped from my marine aquarium, a Rhizopod in every point like the one described, so I presume this species is both lacustrine and marine. The sarcode does not ordinarily fill the shell, though this is sometimes the case. There is a large clear nucleus, generally visible and one or more contracting vesicles. The pseudopodia are long and delicate, often radiating from the mouth, for a distance equal or even exceeding the length of the shell, in fine, thread-like branches. There is considerable variation both in form and size ; average specimens here are about ado of an inch in length, though I have seen others as small as the ad of an inch.

Fig. 203. Empty, colourless test, showing mark. ings.

Fig. 204. Pale straw-coloured individual, with sarcode encrusted. No pits visible.

Fig. 205. Large yellow specimen, from Sphagnum, with no visible pitting, showing nucleus and contracting vesicle. Devouring a filament of conferva.

J. E. LORD. Rawtenstall.

clutch of five. I give the measurement of the latter, as I have never known it equalled—it being quite the exception to meet with specimens fully an inch in length-1'0 by 65–10 by 65—98 by •62—98 by 65—92 by 65. The clutch of six-the only genuine clutch met with, which I have preserved-consists of exceedingly fine eggs, with the “odd egg” very pronounced. I must mention a clutch of five pygmean eggs, two being infertile. I think they would puzzle an old oological hand to recognize them. The eggs of this season were as a whole much more uniform in size than those of 1890. In that season many of the clutches contained a small but perfect egg, but this season this irregularity was quite exceptional. The smaller end marking only cropped up in one specimen, and that in the fourth clutch taken. I thought by its appearing so early in the season that more would be seen of it, but I have seen no further trace of it in any of the specimens brought under observation. There can be no doubt that the extreme rarity of these specimens is owing to the eggs being so large in proportion to the size of the birds.

Having examined such a large number of these eggs without meeting with anything like a double one, I began to think the sparrow to be quite exempt from this phenomenon ; however I am able to say it is not the case, and I now place on record—I believe for the first time—that an egg has been found containing two chicks. The egg in question was one of a clutch of five, very ordinary-looking, and very uneven in size, so much so that had I not known them to be a genuine clutch, I should have placed them on one side. This egg having somewhat the appearance of a double one, by its being so much broader than the others at the smaller end, made me examine it carefully. This I did by dividing the shell, and found an embryo in each end. These I removed, and by a little manipulation I placed the pieces of shell together, which show a very good specimen of a double egg, which I believe to be unique.

As this investigation was going on I occasionally met with an egg in which the embryo was dead, whilst the other eggs of the clutch contained healthy chicks. I knew it to be impossible for eggs to get chilled in such a warm nest as the sparrows generally build, but I thought it quite possible that their sharp claws might puncture the delicate shells. This I found to be the case. Having no wish to give the impression that I am shooting at these birds “ with a long bow," I have preserved some specimens to corroborate the fact. It is curious that such a slight injury should destroy the embryo in nearly any stage of incubation, and also curious that these birds-considering the number of enemies they have-should assist in destroying their own eggs, from what may be called, hygienic neglect.

At the commencement of the season I expected it would prove a worse one than any I have recorded,




say after reading this paper, “What is the use of bothering about the sparrows ? Kill them all !” Others will say “Very disgraceful taking sixty clutches of their eggs !” I

say that sixty clutches are but a very small portion of those annually destroyed in this locality by those who consider them a pest. I have now for the sixth season paid considerable attention to their nidification and added another sixty clutches to my collection. They have not been collected, examined and prepared without considerable trouble, for which I have been duly rewarded by their revealing some facts which I believe have not been previously recorded.

They began nesting about the usual time, but in one locality they were quite ten days earlier than in another three miles distant.

Occasionally these birds produce some very beauti

ful clutches of es, but this season none of particular

merit came to hand, except a clutch of six and a

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owing to the great infertility of the eggs, and the line from the Lizard to the Manacles, the question shortness of the clutches, 10 per cent. only contain- turned on the effects of these rocks on the mariner's ing five eggs, against 20 per cent. in the previous compass. Mr. Fox read some interesting extracts year. But as the season advanced, matters greatly from the philosophical transactions of the Royal improved, bringing the season up to that of 1889, Society of 1890, which showed that Messrs. Rücker when the average brood was three young birds. In and Thorpe, after five years' close study of the my report of last year I mentioned that very many question, seemed confident that the effect of highly young birds are turned out of the nests either dead or magnetic rocks was practically inappreciable at a to die, and that so many more of these little outcasts distance of two hundred yards. Mr. Fox said the were seen towards the close of the season than in influence of the serpentine forming the Black Head the early part, is fair presumptive evidence that could be easily tested by sailing close to the point in the fertility of the eggs improved as the season and out of Kennack Bay, and steering by marks on advanced.

shore independent of the compass. The magnetic The following figures show the slight variation in rocks exhibited by Mr. Clark, he contended, had the brood during the past six seasons :-

much less influence on a mariner's compass than on 1886, average brood, 3young birds

a delicately suspended bar magnet, and he considered 1887

that, though Mr. Clark had proved that many of the 31

rocks in the Lizard district were strongly magnetic, 1888

3) 1889

until fresh evidence was forthcoming they must take 3

Rücker's and Thorpe's investigations to prove that 1890

31 1891

magnetic rocks had no appreciable effect on the 3

mariner's compass at a distance of two hundred yards. There can be no doubt that the stock of sparrows The report of these two gentlemen on the magnetic at the present time is below the average, owing to survey of the United Kingdom extended over two the severity of the late winter, and the objectionable hundred and seventy-five pages of the quarto volume, practice of placing a price upon their heads.

and was now the standard authority. They found

Joseph P. NUNN. that the most highly magnetic rock was the basalt in Royston.

the Island of Canna, in the Hebrides, and concerning this they have written : “Although a compass will,

within a foot or two of the basaltic columns around THE LIZARD ROCKS AND THE

the summit of Compass Hill, in the Island of Canna, MARINER'S COMPASS.

in the Hebrides, so disturb the needle as to cause a

deflection of over 25°, this 'disturbing influence 'HE favourite problem of Mr. Thomas Clark, of diminishes very rapidly at a distance. At an hori.

Truro, and Mr. Howard Fox, F.G.S., of zontal dis ce of eighty yards from the eastern side Falmouth, on the magnetic rocks of the Lizard and of this bill the disturbance diminishes from 33° from district, was ably ventilated at the recent annual the top of the hill to 1.6° from its base.” On exhibition of the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society. leaving Canna in 1884, they sailed as close as possible Both these gentlemen have been laborious workers on to the north of the island, and frequently took the subject, and, as a consequence, their remarks carry compass-bearings and points of Skye, but were weight. But while on the one hand Mr. Clark unable to detect the smallest deflections of the needle. considers he has proved, by carefully conducted In 1888 they approached the island in a yacht from experiments, the magnetic properties of some of the the north, and when about three miles distant the Lizard Rocks, Mr. Fox, cautious scientist that he is, yacht was directed to a mark on Rum, by which its is inclined to doubt that these rocks have any course could be kept without reference to the appreciable effect on the mariner's compass at a compass. They passed Compass Hill within two distance of two hundred yards. At the Polytechnic hundred yards without observing any deflection of meeting Mr. Clark demonstrated that the most highly the compass, and they were quite certain that if there magnetic rocks were those in the neighbourhood of was any, it was less than 105o. Coverack and Black Head. The Manacles Rocks, In the discussion, Mr. Henderson, C.E., mentioned stretching out into the entrance to Falmouth Bay, that in Botallack mine, situated near Cape Cornwall, exerted very little influence on a magnet suspended it was a most difficult matter to secure a bearing, by a silk thread. Mr. Fox also proved to the owing to the magnetic rocks, and he had had to go audience, by a series of skilful experiments on down to one hundred and forty-five fathoms before he specimens of the gneiss and porphyritic diorites could get a bearing. The debate was the most which compose the outer Lizard Rocks, that they instructive one Cornwall has been favoured with on were only magnetic to a small degree. Both gentle- this subject. At the close Mr. J. H. Teall, F.R.S., men having conclusively demonstrated the more or expressed a hope that Mr. Clark would continue his less magnetic influence of the rocks forming the coast. investigations and give them greater quantitative


results. He would like to know the effect from equal masses at given distances. He considered Mr. Clark's method of determining the percentage of magnetic power extremely ingenious, and further experiments were highly desirable.

FRED. H. Davey. Ponsanooth, Perran-ar-worthal, Cornwall.

stems present a very beautiful appearance, a definite
circulation being visible in every part of the growth.
Granular particles are visible in a colourless fluid,
which flows up to the extremities of the pinnä and
back again to the main stem. Whether it is true
protoplasm which is revealed, or merely the particles
absorbed by the polyps into a water circulation, I
am not prepared to say ; perhaps some more advanced
biologist can offer a definite opinion on the point.
In either case the organism is a singularly attractive
one for the live-cell, and I have watched the circu.
lation under the microscope with sufficient interest to
forget my dinner, until recalled to the ebb of time by
one in authority in such matters.

Hundreds of the polyps, meanwhile, were dis-
porting themselves in full expansion, the eight
tentacles grabbing incessantly at particles in the
sea-water. Kick the table, and every polyp imme.

HUNTING FOR ZOOPHYTES. DURING a hasty search for Hydroida and Poly

zoa in the tidal pools of Salcombe Harbour, (vide SCIENCE-GOSSIP, 1890, p. 196), I think that no two species afforded me greater pleasure in the subsequent examination, from the fronds of algæ, than the specimens here figured of Beania mirabilis and Plumularia Catherina ; both were new to me, and

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both possessed characters which appeared to be diately contracted, to expand again, however, in less worthy of observation.

than two minutes. The stem is jointed or ringed Plumularia Catherina is quite visible to the naked between each unilateral cell. The intermediate small eye. The fronds develop from creeping rhizomes, buds on each stem appear to have a tiny orifice, some of the pinnate branchlets being upwards of an connected, perhaps, in some manner with the circuinch in height, fragile in texture, and pale yellow in latory system referred to. The vesicles are somewhat colour. It is probably the most graceful of all the pear-shaped, with circular rim slightly on one side. Plumulariæ, as the pinnä wave in the flowing tide. The habitat of this elegant zoophyte is on the stems Examined beneath a low power, the transparent of Fuci and Laminaria, in pools of the low-tide zone.

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