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expected to rise in price. Locusts multiplied in 1812 Israel and horseman thereof.' Two arrows fly to and 13, 1822, 1834, 1843 and 44, 1865, 1868 and 69, glitter in the sun, five or six blows are struck on the 1877–79, that is at the period of fewest sun-spots, land of milk and honey, though the medieval ala rule that appears to hold good for the entire chemist would have transmuted all to gold from Northern Hemisphere. I once endeavoured to ascer. spirits four and bodies seven, and Josephus thinks. tain the destructive species, but could meet with no that the arrows were necessarily three. Is this thy corresponding enthusiasm in the matter. According place, sad city, this thy throne, where the wild desert to Toaldo, the price of wheat in Lombardy was rears its craggy stone, while suns unblest their angry highest in 1685, 1690, 1693, 1696 and 1700, 1709 and lustre fling? we feel ever ready to exclaim, inured to 1715, 1722, 1729, 1735, 1739, 1743 and 47, 1756, the smooth, uneven, star and planetary stops of a. 1759 and 63, 1766, 1773, 1778; dates which will serve brilliant millennium, that warms in the refreshes to show how a general law locally varies.

in the breeze, glows in the stars, and blossoms in the Horace hears the winter breakers pounding the sea trees; though even in our green native lanes, far cliffs, and scolds Leuconoe for trying the Babylonian remote from throne or senate, we do all unawares numbers, and chaunteclere has been known to twit encounter the white-winged angel as our destiny, in Madame Pertelote as being at the root of the matter. the shape of a barking cough, bronchitis, rack of But when the air grows soft on the springing corn we nerve or muscle, prelusive of the end. On the 29th need no longer sigh over the hidden fate of Romulus, of April, 1882, it was truly painful to behold the seared Tullus, or Ancus, for these dire numbers stand in the and blooming cheeks of nature, the greenwood margin of everybody's Bible, could anyone suggest scorched and withered on its southern aspect, as how to consult them to any profit. Certainly if we though scathed with flames, or languishing in the commence B.C. 588 and add eight and three alter- breath of autumn that benumbs the bumbles on the nately we may calculate out a very perfect table of thistle tufts. The aristocratic elms stood like ragged destiny for the kings of Judah and Israel, so that like foresters rayed half green, half umber; the horse some warning prophet we might have loomed on each chestnuts and hawthorns showed piteously their white in turn and propounded the alternative of a seven china flowers from among sienna leaves; the oaks in years' war, a famine, a distemper or an abdication ; flower and leaf looked as though hung on the sunnier or we may if desirable begin B.C. 1014 and compute side with charred paper, leprous with an orange by adding the sevens, but in this case the dates will fungus; the limes and sycamores had their leaves. be less nearly approximated. Proceeding by either shrivelled. In the neighbourhood of the tropics these method, we infallibly arrive at one or the other of the stormy winds whirl the dust-storms over hot sands, in cardinal dates of the Prophet Daniel employed in their surnace breath the top of Carmel withers, there astrological predictions, and continuing down to our is a galloping in the trees, the locusts teem, and the: own times, it will become self evident that the Jubilee five-and-twenty prophets come forth to gaze at the dates of the Bible, taken as they stand, represent the sun arising on Olivet, and exclaim, “This is the mean series of most and fewest sun-spots. Possessing

cauldron and we are the flesh,' The Indian statistics such a table, we shall awake to the same dark shadows show that behind a drought does not necessarily stalk playing everywhere over the open page of history, a famine, but Mallet's tables render it perfectly clear notably embodied in the rush of the barbarians over that eruptions and earthquakes occur in spells at the the rustling corn-lands of the west at the decline of the epochs of most and fewest sun spots. In vain was Roman Empire, a battle-cry of famine, nowhere so Catherine mangled and borne through mid-air to saint photophoned as in the burden of the valley of a Sinai that does not glow, for the gentler sex remain Jehosaphat, when the earthquake roars and the sun of opinion that a blazing mountain admonishes the dons its noontide sackcloth ; ' Hamonim, harmonim, earth ; Proserpina has left us a nosegay, and Agatha bemek hacharutz,' whose refrain as the moon arises her veil, such were ever the resort of the prophet and red we catch in .canes ululare


the seer in evil times. According to an author We are seven,' said Wordsworth's smart school- quoted, Julianus states that in the reign of king. girl : they are seven, was then the dark song of fate; Theodoric, when his wife's grandfather was returning * the child sneezed its seven times. But there must have by sea from Sicily to Italy, the ship stopped at one of been room for a range of opinion, for on one of the the Lipari islands, where a hermit told him that Assyrian signets the king stands before his burning Theodoric was dead. The hermit knew the fact from tree crowned with the seven-rayed sun, which has the having seen the king, on the previous day, dragged adjunct of eight pomegranate-like side cressets, and between John the Pope and Symmachus the patrician, so very confident is he in his arrangement, that he ungirt, unshod, and in chains, and thrown into the holds what looks like a bell-rope communicating crater of the volcano. The kinsman of Julianus made with the Deity, in apparent disregard of a priest a note of the day, and found, on his arrival in Italy, opposite, who tugs just such another ; the reverse is

that Theodoric had died at the time of the appearance seen in the resourceless monarch who weeps over the described by the hermit. It may be remarked that face of the prophet exclaiming, 'O thou chariot of John and Symmachus had been put to death by Theodoric ; albeit the date 526 A.D. is fatal, and the coincidence certainly striking. It is a little singular

SCIENCE-GOSSIP. that Professor Sayce, in translating the allegory of Bel and the Dragon, should not have recognised in it

We would draw the special attention of our readers

to an article in the last number of the “ Annals and a base version of the Jewish lawgiving, the Assyrian tables being of moral import and not of moral weight,

Magazine of Natural History,” by Professor Ruken

thal, “On the Adaptation of Mammalia to Aquatic the shadow and fruit of that golden tree whose gay

Life." He believes the toothed whales and the whalevisions of the earth's childhood are still the bane and

bone whales have each had a separate origin and perdition of our modern culture. The meteorology

development. and geology patched together infallibly outlines in barbarous hauruspid style the ruddy clouds, the The last number of the Fcuille des Jeunes Naturalightnings, the belching, the red lava, and the terrific listes has a capital and comprehensive article by M. reflexion of the volcano. “None among the gods Billet on “ Notions Élémentaires de Bacteriologie." surpasses thy power; as an adornment he has founded the shrine of the Gods, which is become thy home,

We are pleased to announce that the valuable notes O thou that avengest us. May thy destiny, O Lord,

and memoranda of the veteran Norfolk geologist, the go before the gods, and may they confirm the destruc

late Mr. John Gunn, will shortly be published, under tion and the creation of all that is said. Set thy

the title of “Memorials of John Gunn.” It cannot enouth, may it destroy the plan; turn, speak to him,

fail to be a deeply interesting book. and let him produce again his plan. Go, they said, Part 10 of “The Canary Book,” by R. L. and cut off the life of Tiamet; let the winds carry her

Wallace, and part 10 of “British Cage Birds,” by the blood to secret places. They showed his path and

same author, are to hand (London : L. Upcott Gill). they bade him listen and take the road. He made

Both parts are well up to their high mark. the club to swing, the bow and the quiver he hung at his side; he set the lightning before him, with a

We have received number 106 of Wesley's glance of swiftness he filled his body. She recites an “Natural History and Scientific Book Circular," ancantation, she casts a spell. Bel made an evil wind containing 48 pp., all of which are devoted to works to enter, so that she could not close her lips. The on Botany. . wiolence of the winds tortured her stomach, and her

A work of 'much labour as well as of love is the heart was prostrated and her mouth twisted. He

Rev. E. N. Blomfield's Ibrochure on “ The Lepidopswung his club, he shattered her stomach, he cut out

tera of Suffolk," published by W. Wesley & Son. her entrails; he mastered her heart. The elevenfold

It runs to 60 pp., and is a model of careful exactness, offspring are troubled through fear. And he took from him the tables of destiny. He lit up the sky,

due to vast painstaking. the sanctuary rejoiced. Bel measured the offspring At a meeting of the Institut de France (Académie of the deep, he established the upper firmament as des Sciences), Paris, held on December 29th, Dr. A. his image.' In Syria during a famine when a change B. Griffiths, F.R.S.E., F.C.S. (an old contributor of dynasty was contemplated, a prophet, we are told, to SCIENCE-Gossip), was awarded an “honourable resorted to a cave in Mount Horeb. A strong wind mention" in connection with the Prix Montyon l'ent the mountains and brake in pieces the rocks which is given annually for researches in experimental before Jehovah ; after the wind came an earthquake physiology and physiological chemistry. and after the earthquake a fire ; when Moses ascended Sinai at the delivery of the law, “the smoke thereof

An interesting addition has just been made to our ascended as the smoke of a furnace, and the whole

British Pleistocene fauna by Doctor Leeson's dismountain quaked greatly.' It is the precedent to

covery of a portion of the skull of the Saiga antelope cast dates from an Astronomical canon : that of the

(Saiga tartarica) in the Thames graves at TwickenAlexandrine astronomers gives the follosing dates for

ham. Its remains had previously been found in the the kings of Assyria, commencing at Cyrus, B.C. 538,

caverns of France and Belgium. 555, 559, 561, 604, 625, 647, 667, 680, 688, 692,

A NEW fossil wading bird has been found in the 693, 699, 722, 724, and 729 ; the one enclosed will

cretaceous rocks of Sweden, and named Scaniornis cast with but small deviation and error those of

Ludgreni. Israel and Judah. If winds and earthquakes are regarded, then, as an expression of the Divine will, The next International Congress of Geologists and these are found to be in turn caused by the sun ; will assemble at Washington, U.S.A., on the 26th it is difficult to see how the sun and stars can be ex- of August, after the meeting of the American Assocluded, save there exist some incomprehensible dis- ciation for the Advancement of Science, which will tinction between judicial cosmology and judicial be held the week before. It is expected that the astronomy.

committee will be able to obtain from the ocean A. H. SWINTON. steamship lines very favourable terms for foreign

members. The secretaries are Messrs. H. S. Williams and S. F. Emmons, Washington.

the Floridæ,” by T. H. Buffham ; “On Lacinularia, and a New Rotifer from Guildford," by G. Western ; “On a New Diatom from the Estuary of the Thames," by W. H. Shrubsole; “Note on Dinops longipes,by C. Rousselet ; “On the Human Spermatozoa,” by E. M. Nelson, &c. The plates are numerous and good.


MR. E. H. HANKIN, of St. John's College, Cambridge, is said to have discovered a cure for anthrax, to the study of which disease he has devoted himself many years.

He based his investigations upon the principle of lymph inoculation, which Dr. Koch has so successfully applied in the case of tuberculosis. The glycerine extract in Mr. Hankin's process is precipitated with alcohol and re-dissolved in water. The experiment has been repeated on a number of subjects with gratifying success.

This discovery derives additional interest from the fact that anthrax is not the only disease from which rats (the spleen of which animal produces the protective proteid) enjoy immunity.

A FRENCH chemist, according to the “Daily News" of February 11th, claims to have discovered the true process of photographing in correct colours.

We are glad to see that the “Oological Expedition ” to the Shetland Isles, projected in Birmingham, will not be allowed to take place. The question came up in Parliament on February 17th. Vandalism of this kind ought to have no mercy shown it.

We are sorry to record the death of an old contri. butor to our columns in Dr. H. B. Brady, F.R.S., &c., of Newcastle. Dr. Brady was distinguished for his large and specialistic knowledge of the Foraminisera, and Fossil and recent, on which he wrote several monographs, including the two superb quarto vols. on the Foraminifera of the “Challenger" expedition. He died at the comparatively early age

of 55.

THE MIMICRY OF MANTIS.-An insect which is not uncommon in India is a medium-sized mantis, between three and four inches in total length. It is one of those mantises which have a long slender thorax, and which, owing to the second and third pairs of legs being very long, carry their thorax and head very high. In this insect the thorax is about half its entire length, and is of a bright grassgreen colour without any markings, and it obviously mimics a grass stem.

The abdomen is also some. what slender, the wing-covers are of a grass-green colour, without markings, and it obviously mimics a grass blade. But in both these cases the mimicry is obvious, as also the reason for it, and it is not what I wish to call attention to. The first joint of the fore-legs is widened and flattened; it is also green, and the posterior surface is marked with a large ocellus. When the insect is undisturbed it remains generally in one place, but is not perfectly motionless; it sways perpetually and uniformly from side to side. In this position it looks very harmless, but if it is startled or alarmed its aspect instantly changes; it partly opens the wings, turns its head and thorax so as to face the terrifying object, makes a noise like a sudden, sharp puff of wind, very like the noise made by a startled snake, and raises its sore-legs so that the first joint lies along the thorax, and the inside margin of the expansion being nearly straight, it looks as if the fore-legs and thorax were connected. In this position the ocelli are very conspicuous, and with the small, triangular head, and the slender thorax, the effect is to produce a ludicrous resemblance to a diminutive cobra. Now, what puzzles me is this exact resemblance. The insect could not possibly be taken for a cobra on account of its small size and green colour ; while if the object is only to appear formidable it could have been obtained without imitating a cobra so exactly. It may be suggested that there is no direct imitation, but that the same causes which have led to the development of the eye-spots in the cobra have also led to the development of ocelli in this insect, viz., that the apparent possession of a large head gives the animal more formidable appearance; but this explanation is apparently negatived by the pecular noise made by the insect, which certainly seems to indicate that a snake is imitated. Possibly the object of the noise is to suggest that it is some kind of snake, and then the

MICROSCOPY. THE VERTICAL CAMERA. --Referring to a note I sent you about the use of the Vertical camera, I have received a letter from Messrs. Beck giving me full instructions. It only came to hand by last mail, and I see from it that the use of a slope is what they recommend. This I did not know when I wrote to you, and a notice in an old number of the “ American Monthly Microscopical Journal ” (on the distortion, apparently irremediable, incidental to one of the American forms of camera) rather served to mislead

There is nothing new in the slope, and if you have not already consigned my note to the waste paper basket, pray do so.-W. 7. Simmons, Calcutta.

THE QUEKETT MICROSCOPICAL CLUB. — The January number of the Journal of this well-known club contains the following papers :-“On the Vibra. tile Tags of Asplanchna,” by C. Rousselet ; “On the Stridulating Organs of Cystocelia Florida,by R. T. Lewis ; “On the Reproductive Organs of some of


logical Observations in Hertfordshire in 1889 ;" | 15

ocelli may suggest that it is one of the cobra kind. me know to whom he refers ; amongst my own books May be, some of your readers may be able to suggest I could find no reference to it, except as growing in a better explanation. Anyhow, the thing is curious, the Scilly islands. I therefore sent it to the Secretary and I think worthy of note.-7. R. Holt.

of the Natural History Society at Folkestone, but for HERTFORDSHIRE NATURAL History SOCIETY.—

this and other specimens I have sent him I have had We have received the May, July, September, and

no acknowledgment. I presumed it was not considered

of sufficient value to be mentioned. In future I will December parts of the Transactions of this well-known

record all my finds in your columns as Mr. Haydon society, containing the Anniversary Address by the President Lord Clarendon, on “Field Sports and

suggests.-G. Abbott, Tunbridge Wells. their bearing on National Character," and the follow

PLANTS FOUND IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF ing original papers—“Seeds and Fruits, their Structure

OXSHOTT, SURREY, SEPTEMBER 27TH, 1890.and Migrations," by A. E. Gibbs, Meteorological

The following is a short general description of the Observations," by John Hopkinson ; “Record of

district of Oxshott Heath, Surrey, and a list of plants Water Level in a Deep Chalk Well at the Grange, St. observed there on the afternoon of September 27th, Albans,” by H. G. Fordham ; “ Local Scientific

1890, when the writer formed one of the members of Investigation in Connection with Committee of the

a natural history excursion-party. The plants have British Association,” by John Hopkinson ; all been recorded for the county, and so, scientifically, “Geological Photography in Hertfordshire," by John

their present mention is of little value ; but to those Hopkinson ; “Some Hertfordshire Well Sections," by

among whom this magazine circulates, who are little Wm. Whitaker ; “Report on the Rainfall in Hert.

accustomed to moorland scenery, they may give some fordshire in 1889," by John Hopkinson ; “ Climato

idea of flowers likely to occur in such districts.

Oxshott Heath is about seventeen miles from the “Half-a-century Rainfall in Hertfordshire;" “ Notes

centre of London-I say centre because the on Birds observed in Hertfordshire in 1889," by

metropolis is only too rapidly pushing out one of its George Rooper, &c.

arms in that direction, and the speculative builder is INFLUENCE OF THE LATE SEVERE WINTER ON

busy at work not many miles off. For so near SMALL BIRDS.-The feathered tribes, especially the

London some of the plants are by no means of insectivorous species, suffered terribly during the in

frequent occurrence, and the writer would urge upon clement weather of December and January. Hedge

collectors to gather their specimens with a sparing accentors, tits, thrushes and blackbirds tried to keep

band. Nearly all this district is in the Bagshot sand life in their poor little famished bodies by coming

formation ; and close to Oxshott railway station there round houses and disputing for stray crumbs with the

is a curious sandy knoll or hill of considerable height; sparrows. The want of food and water seemed to

these sand-hills, many of them clad with Scotch fir, affect birds more even than the cold. In my out

are quite a characteristic of this district. The St. door aviary where the birds had abundance of food

George's Hills, near Weybridge, not many miles and water to drink, but little special protection against

from Oxshott, are another good example. Although the cold, greenfinches seemed quite indifferent to the

much of the Heath is elevated, covered with ling, weather, but I had a few casualties among the other

furze, and clumps of fir-trees, there are peat-bogs birds, especially the linnets. On the whole, however,

abounding in sphagnum-moss, and in these most of the they bore the severe cold very well indeed ; a tame

rarer plants are to be found. The plants noted were moor-hen I have in an out-door aviary seemed

as follows :- Ulex nanus, Forst., very abundant on absolutely indifferent to it.-Albert H. Waters, B.A.,

the sandy open parts ; Scabiosa succisa, L., abundant ; Cambridge.

Sonchus arvensis, L., abundant; Calluna vulgaris,

Salisb., in large masses, and still in full bloom ; Erica LOVERS of Natural History are invited to join the Tetralix, L., fairly abundant in the moister parts ; Practical Naturalist's Society. Beginners may join as the flowers of some plants were very pale, almost Associates. Prospectus for stamp from the Secretary, white, in fact. E. cinerea, L., very frequent ; Willoughby House, Mill Road, Cambridge.

Drosera rotundifolia, L., in fair quantity, growing amongst sphagnum-moss. D. intermedia is known

also to occur, but none was noted on this occasion, BOTANY.

and it is fortunate for its own sake that it is not easy

to find in this locality. Teucrium Scorodonia, L., ORNITHOPUS EBRACTEATUS.—Mr. Haydon, in his very common; Mentha Pulegium, this plant, which note about the Cyprus Spurge, which was published is rare elsewhere, was found in considerable quantity in your January number, mentioned that the Ornith- in the bog.

Scutellaria minor, L., found very opus ebracteatus was found at Folkestone by a visitor sparingly; Verbena officinalis, L., one patch found by in 1888. As I was fortunate enough to discover it roadside. Narthecium ossifragum, Huds. (Lancashire there in the same year, perhaps he would kindly let bog-asphodell), in large quantity in the bog, but only

in seed. These plants were growing in a sheltered position ; but on Sept. 3, 1890, I found plants of N. ossifragum on Ashdown Forest, Sussex, in an equally advanced condition, but these were growing in a bog in an open wind-swept gulley. Can any reader inform me whether an exposed situation causes such plants to flower and mature earlier than those growing more or less under the shade of trees? Lastrea dilatata ; Lomaria spicant (immature), on banks; Lucobrium glaucum, in clumps, abundantly under the fir-trees. Sphagnum squarosum, S. cymbifolium, and S. acutum, in bogs. Marchantia polymorpha, abundant on the banks of ditches. In the case of identification of some of the plants my best thanks are due for help kindly given by some members of the excursion-party.--Archibald Clarke.

never occur.

GEOLOGY, &c. COAL SECTIONS.—What is the best and simplest method to make sections of coal, fossils, rocks, other than by the grinding process ? Such as those made by Professor Williamson or Boyd Dawkins, of Manchester, and in the Museum (? The transparent). I do not know the acid or bleaching agent.–V. A. Latham, F.R.M.S., F.G.S.

taken place, but every sign of very recent elevation. They then described the raised reefs of the island, extending to a height of nearly 1100 feet above sea level in a series of terraces. The thickness of the coral rock in these is seldom above 200 feet, and the rock does not always consist of coal debris. At the base of the reefs there is generally a certain thickness of detrital rock in which perfect reef-corals

The collections of fossils made by the authors have been examined by Messrs. E. A. Smith and J. W. Gregory. Of the corals, five out of ten species identified still live in the Caribbean Sea, and one is closely allied to a known species, whilst the other four are only known from Professor Duncan's. descriptions of fossil Antiguan corals. The authors are of opinion that the whole of the terraces of Barbadoes, the so-called “marl” of Antigua, and the fossiliferous rocks of Barbuda are of Pleistocene: age. The authors proceeded to notice the formations in other West Indian islands which appear to be raised reefs comparable with those of Barbadoes, and showed that these reefs occur through the whole length of the Antillean Chain, and indicate a recent elevation of at least 1300 feet, and in all probability of nearly 2000 feet. It appears improbable that each island was a region of separate uplift, and as a'. plateau of recent marine limestone also occurs in Yucatan, this carries the region of elevation into Central America, and it is reported that there are: raised reefs in Colombia. The authors concluded that there has been contemporaneous elevation of the whole Andean Chain from Cape Horn to Tehuantepec and of the Antillean Chain from Cuba to Barbadoes. Before this there must have been free communication between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, which is confirmed by the large number of Pacific forms in the Caribbean Sea. Under such geographical conditions the great equatorial current would pass into the Pacific, and there would be no Gulf Stream in the North Atlantic.

BOULDERS IN THE MIDLANDS.-One of the best 'and cleanest finished bits of original work we have seen for some time is Mr. F. W. Martin's paper on “The Boulders of the Midland District ” (a second report), reprinted from the “Proceedings of the Birmingham Philosophical Society.” It is illustrated by a vigorously drawn map, showing the distribution of Midland boulders and the parent rocks from which they have travelled. Mr. Martin's paper is the most valuable contribution to local geology we have seen for some time.

THE GEOLOGY OF BARBADOES.-Very few nooks and corners of the globe are more geologically interesting than the West Indian Islands. Mr. J. B. Harrison, and Mr. A. J. Jukes-Browne have just issued a pamphlet on the subject published by the Barbadoes Legislature. The chapters relating to the Physical Geology of the Island are extremely interesting. The sections are instructive. Barbadoes is a typical “ Oceanic Island," and is therefore worth double study. Messrs. Harrison and Jukes-Browne have here turned out good, and well concentrated work.

The GLACIAL Period. We have received a copy of Mr. Dugald Bell's paper, republished from the Transactions of the Glasgow Geological Society, on the “ Phenomena of the Glacial Period,” dealing especially with “the great submergence.” It is one of the most exhaustive papers on the subject we have come across, and is well illustrated by maps, etc. This is Part ii. and we should be pleased if the author would send us Part i.


THE CORAL ROCKS OF BARBADOES.—Messrs. Jukes-Brown and Professor Harrison recently read an interesting paper on this subject before the Geological Society. They first discussed the coral reef growing round Barbadoes, and described a submarine reef, the origin of which was considered. It was pointed out that there is no sign of any subsidence having

RABBIT DYING OF OLD AGE.-In December a male rabbit, which has been in my possession from the age of three months, died, to all appearance of old age ; he would have been ten years old in March next, the claws were considerably over an inch in length. A female of the same litter was so vicious,. though always kindly treated, that it was necessary

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