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which frequented a stubble-field for the littered grains and loose ears of wheat when the rest had been carted away to the barn or stack. Another albino bird, of the finch family, was seen by my cousin on June 6th 1890, who thought it was either a chaffinch or a linnet, but he could not be certain of its species. I have been told by a person of good authority that he saw a white blackbird in his father's orchard a few years ago. Another parishioner said that when he was at harvest-work near Wendover, a few years ago, he killed a white pheasant.-H. G. Ward, North Marston, Bucks.

NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS.

to take a thick stick when feeding her.-W. A. Gain.

Two SIDES OF THE MEDAL.-Surely Mrs. Alice Bodington is labouring under some misapprehension as to what Mr. Wallace and other naturalists mean when they say that the effects of use and disuse are not inherited. I judge this to be so because as examples of the contrary she gives the cases of the inheritance of deafness, supernumerary toes, insanity and other characters which are born with people, not acquired by them either through use or disuse, and because her breath is taken away on reading Weismann's statement that “the inheritance of acquired characters has never been proved.” Let us take the case of two men, A. and B. A. is born with large muscular limbs, while B. is not, but by dint of careful training and exercise he contrives to make his limbs as big as A.'s. Mr. Wallace, and those who think with him, say that A.'s children would be more likely to have muscular limbs than B.'s, since the big muscles of the latter are the result of use, while A's are natural. Again, suppose C. to be born without thumbs, and D. to lose his by accident. Does Mrs. Bodington suppose that D.'s children would be as likely to be born thumbless as C.'s? Wallace and Weismann think that D.'s children would be as likely to have thumbs as those of any one else. My friend Mr. W. P. Ball, in a little book recently published by Messrs. Macmillan, in “Nature Series,” has analysed very destructively the cases which have been adduced in favour of the hypothesis of what he calls “use-inheritance," and I think that those who wish to look at both sides of the medal should read this work carefully.-Charles Bird, Rochester,

Two SIDES OF THE MEDAL.-I think many of your readers would be glad if Mrs. Bodington would explain what third set of renals exist in vertebrates, besides the true kidneys and the Wolffian organs.F. R.

BECHE-DE-MER.-Will some reader of Science GOSSIP kindly inform me where :" Trepang,” “Bèche-de-mer" can be procured in Londoneither by purchase or exchange?—E. H. R., Painswick, Gloucestershire.

NATURAL HISTORY NOTES. On the 11th of August, 1887, a snow-white specimen of the yellow wagtail was observed on Quaiaton Hills (not far from this village) by a friend of mine. On the morning of the next day he saw it again, and got within a few yards of it, and saw it well before it flew away. Its flight and chirrup were quite normal. An albino wagtail I consider to be a rare and somewhat unusual occurrence amongst birds. Several white starlings have been observed in this neigbourhood at various times by different persons, and one was seen on the 16th of July, 1890, and again on the 18th with other starlings by my cousin, Mr. P. H. Ward, who also saw it settle on the back of a sheep, after it had flown from the place where he first saw it. Several white house-sparrows (more or less deficient in colour) have also been seen and shot in this district.

To CORRESPONDENTS AND EXCHANGERS.-As we now publish SCIENCE-Gossip earlier than formerly, we cannot undertake to insert in the following number any communications which reach us later than the 8th of the previous month,

To ANONYMOUS Querists.-We must adhere to our rule of not noticing queries which do not bear the writers' names.

To DEALERS AND OTHERS.-We are always glad to treat dealers in natural history objects on the same fair and general ground as amateurs, in so far as the "exchanges" offered are fair exchanges. But it is evident that, when their offers are simply DISGUISED ADVERTISEMENTS, for the purpose of evading the cost of advertising, an advantage is taken of our gratuitous insertion of “exchanges," which cannot be tolerated.

We request that all exchanges may be signed with name (or initials) and full address at the end.

Special Note.-There is a tendency on the part of some exchangers to send more than one per month. We only allow this in the case of writers of papers.

To our Recent ExchangeRs.-We are willing and helpful to our genuine naturalists, but we cannot further allow disguised Exchanges like those which frequently come to us to appear unless as advertisements.

or

25. 6d.

E. Pratt.—You may procure any of the following works relating to the botany, &c., of Surrey, of W. Wesley & Son, Essex Street, Strand: Brewer's “ Flora of Surrey," with maps, price 75. 6d.; “Flora of Reigate,” by G. Luxford; Brewer's

List of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Fishes, Birds, &c.," price

A. MAYFIELD.-The average length of the slow worm (Anguis fragilis) is from 9 to 10 inches. Your specimen, 174 inches long, is very unusual.

E. PARKER.-Re" Lobster and whelk." It is not a lobster at all, but the hermit crab (Pagurus Bernhardus), which always lives in empty whelk shells, its own body being permanently soft. It is a type of a distinct order of crustacea.

B. C. ROBINSON.-You will doubtless obtain a good secondhand copy of Kirby and Spence's "Introduction to Entomology" of Messrs. W. Wesley & Son, Essex Street, Strand, or Mr. W. P. Collins, 157 Great Portland Street, London, W.

C. OLDHAM.-To preserve frogs, &c., try a mixture of halfand-half spirits and glycerine.

M. J. TEESDALE.-You can prepare your new magic lantern slides by getting the usual sizes of ground glass, similar to those used for childrer's transparent drawing slates, and by placing them over a 2', pook illustration or otherwise, sketching on them with a pencil. The sketches can then be filled in with transparent oil colours.

R. DE G. B.—You are probably correct in surmising that the cases are the cocoons of a coccus. It will be best to wait till they come out. The best Handbook on British Birds is written by Mr. Howard Saunders, and published by Messrs. Gurney and Jackson in twenty shilling parts, illustrated.

Miss Chichester.-The Editor is much obliged for the drawings and photographs of the holly bough, which is ex. ceedingly interesting. The flattening is due to fasciation,” but it is uncommon in the holly.

In the winter of 1885 a sparrow was caught in a trap with the crown of its head pure white, and one was seen on the 6th of last November, 1889, and again on the 18th, in company with a flock of its companions, with its back and tail quite white. So recently as September 24th, 1890, one with a white wing was observed amongst a large flock of sparrows,

EXCHANGES. WANTED, choice unmounted material, polycistina, &c., in exchange for choice microscopic slides of every description.R. Suter, 5 Highweek Road, Tottenham, London. WANTED, fossils from various localities.

Good duplicates offered in exchange.-Thos. W. Reader, 171 Hemingford Road, London, N.

SCIENCE-Gossip from vol. i. (1865) to vol. xvi. (1880), unbound, but wrapped and tied up in vols., with the exception of

nineteen numbers, viz., June to December, 1876, and the Good foreign shells wanted ; need not be named. Offered, whole of 1877. What offers for the lot?-T. Black, 190 Bell nat. hist. and other literature, or suitable exchange. Foreign hagg Road, Sheffield.

correspondence solicited.-W. Jones, jun., 27 Mayton Street, WANTED, dried leaves of eleagnus, deutzia, onosmo, &c., Holloway, London, N. also lepidoptera, Ulysses, morpho, rypheus, &c. Good Wanted, vars. of Helir aspersa, H. nemoralis, H. arbusexchange in micro-slides.-George Read, 87 Lordship Road, torum, H. hortensis, H. cantiana, H. pisana, H. virgata, London, N.

H. ca perata, A. ericetorum, H. rotundata, Bulimus acutus, TWENTY-TWO copper coins, and SCIENCE-Gossip from May &c., H. revelata, type; Clausilia Rolphii and biblicata, to December, 1890, to exchange. What offers in fossils ? - Achatina acicula. Will give darts of helices in return.Walter C. Shield, 36 Garturk Street, Crosshill, Glasgow. A. Hartley, 8 Cavendish Road, Idle, near Bradford, Yorkshire.

STUDENT's microscope by Maw, Son, & Thompson ; rack OFFERED, hardy fern roots, primrose roots, &c. Wanted in and fine adjustments, double nose-piece,'two eye-pieces, t and exchange, store boxes to hold insects, eggs. shells, fossils,

objectives. Want high-power objective, or first-class bino coins, &c.-W. Z. Balmbra, The Cottages, Warkworth Station, cular.—Taylor, 26 Marchmont Street, London, W.C.

via Lesbury, Northumberland. WANTED, eighth and following parts of Braithwaite's “ Moss ACHARIUS's “Lichenographia Universalis," a fine, wellFlora," or "Sphagnaceæ." Dried plants and mosses, or other bound copy, offered in exchange for double nose-piece, bent, books in exchange, including Greene's Colenterata” and Society scre», or for good copy of Leighton's “ Angiocarpous “Protozoa ;" Eyton's “Rarer British Birds" (woodcuts); Lichens."-Wm. Smith, 28 Addison Place, Arbroath, N.B. Carpenter's Microscope," and others. List sent.-J. A. WANTED, Sach's "Text-Book of Botany,” and parts of Wheldon, 32 Langham Street, Ashton-under-Lyne.

Braithwaite's “Moss Flora,” also slides from mosses, tern OFFERED, “Our Earth and Its Story," 3 vols., and “Dic. and hepaticæ. Will give other mounts in exchange.-T. B., tionary of English History,” both in parts, but in excellent 124 Castle Street, Hinckley. condition. Wanted a detective camera.-R. H. Lawton, WANTED, to exchange “Knowledge," vols. i. to v., Car6 Mosley Street, Manchester:

penter's “Mental Physiology" "Nature," various volumes, WANTED, the “Library," vols. i. and ii. (unbound pre and other books (list sent), for micro-slides, microscope appaferred), also “Great Thoughts,” vols. i., ii. and iii., first edition. ratus, &c., or books on botany and microscopy.-G. Freeman, Both must be clean, complete, and in good condition.-Chas. B.Sc., 51 Danby Street, Denmark Park, S.E. Leigh, Library, Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Cromwell Road, Scotch lichens offered in exchange for southern species, London, S.W.

especially from the English limestone districts.-Wm. Smith, Numerous duplicates in carboniferous fossils, especially 28 Addison Place, Arbroath, N.B. ferns and corals, in exchange for trilobites.-P. Wright, Brunt Offered, Helix pisana, rufescens, ericetorum; Planorhis wood, Galston, Ayrshire, N.B.

complanatus and corneus, Bulimus acutus, Limnæa stagnalis, DUPLICATES. - Machaon, cardamines, agon, Adippe lo, Clausilia rugosa. Wanted, Pisidium fontinale, Vertigo antipolychloros, P. chrysilis, 2. filipendula, E. lanestris, L. vertigo, Zonites cellarius and nitidulus, Testacella kaliotidea, potatoria, Cucullia verbasci, in exchange for others.-E. Pupa secale, Dreissena polymorpha.-H. W. D., SouthWilson, 115 St. Martins at Oak, Norwich.

borough Vicarage, Tunbridge Wells. British reptiles and batrachians wanted, perfect adult Will give Flower's “Osteology of the Mammalia," for living or spirit specimens, in exchange for correctly named

living

pupa of lepidoptera, sphingidæ preferred. -Ernest Platt, foreign species or other objects.-G. E, M., 5 Warwick Place West Street, Chipping Norton, Oxon. West, Belgravia, London.

OFFERED, H. alborabris, H. throides, H. fallax and 2: Good specimens of dentaria bulbifera, and Gentiana pneu. excavatus (North America), Pecten tigrinus, Lacuna dir ri. monanthi, in exchange for fossils from the Wealden London cata, L. pallidula, 7. testudinalis, Myra truncata, Unio: clay, and Bournemouth beds.--Curator, The Vicarage, South margaritifer, Cl. laminata, Pl. nitidus, and many others. borough.

Wanted, land, freshwater and marine shells not in collection. OFFERED, good cast of ichthyosaurus from lias of Lyme -P. R. Shaw, 48 Bidston Road, Birkenhead. Regis, 22 X 12. Wanted, any good fossils from any formation. WANTED, a good microscope, with accessories, in exchange -M., 56 Clarendon Villas, West Brighton.

for a safety bicycle fitted with trangent spokes, balls to all WANTED, brilliant foreign coleoptera ; need not be set, but

parts, patent tyres, and all latest improvements.-I. Russon, must be correctly named. Good exchange given in first-class 15 Str. Collegio, St. Julian's, Malta. botanical sections, either mounted or unmounted, or objects of Offered, foraminiferous material, mounted diatoms, or general interest. State quantity of specimens with sample. mounted pathological objects, in exchange for geological liteR. G. Mason, 69 Clapham Park Road, Clapham, S.W.

rature.-I. H. Cooke, Highland House, St. Julian's, Malta. MANY species of marine and land shells from S. Australia, Madeira, Porto Santo, and Gibraltar, for exchange. Any offer of shells-in good condition, and not already in collectionaccepted. Send list of duplicates to-F. W., Lordship House,

BOOKS, ETC., RECEIVED FOR NOTICE. Tottenham.

An Explanation of the Phonopore," by C. Langdon-Davies WANTED, ether freezing microtome, Williams's preferred. (London: Kegan Paul).—“The Lepidoptera of Suffolk," by Will give powerful Quackenbush air-gun, with slugs and darts,

E. N. Bloomfield (London: W. Wesley).-" British Cage almost new, cost 485.-H. Ebbage, Framlingham, Suffolk. Birds," Part 10, and "The Canary Book," Part 10. by Robi.

WANTED, good objective for microscope, or 10 inch, with L. Wallace (London: L. Upcott Gill).-" Transactions HertSocieties' screw; also “Micrographic Dictionary.". Offered, fordshire Nat. Hist. Society," Part 9, vol. v., and Parts 1, 2 three volumes of “Knowledge," and micro-slides.-P. Briggs, and 3 of vol. vi.-"Phenomena of the Glacial Period," by Clayton, near Bradford, Yorks.

Dugald Bell. -—“The Honey Bee: Its Natural History, AnaDUPLICATES.-Harpa ventricosa, Ovulum ovum, Cypræa tomy, and Physiology,” by T. W. Cowan (London: Houlston arabica, Bulla ampulla, Olivancillaria gibbosa. Wanted, & Sons).—“Electricity; a Sketch for General Readers," by other foreign shells.-J. E. Cooper, 93 Southwood Lane, E. M. Caillard (London: John Murray). -" Are the Effects of Highgate, N.

Use and Disuse Inherited ?" by W. Platt Ball (London: WANTED, a copy of the “London Catalogue of British

Macmillan).-"The Book of Aquaria,” by Messrs. Bateman Mosses and Hepatics,” published in 1881.-Ernest S. Salmon, and Bennett (London: L. Upcott Gill). -"Geology of the Clevelands, Reigate.

Country around Liverpool,” by Geo. H. Mortom (London : I shall be very glad if persons interested in conchology, G. Phillip & Son).-“The Naturalist of Cumbrae," by the residing in Exeter and neighbourhood, and willing to co Rev. Thos. R. R. Stebbing (London: Kegan Paul).--"A operate in establishing a local society, will communicate with

Class-Book on Light,” by R. E. Steel (London: Methuen & Address-L. J. S., Monmouth House, Monmouth Street, Co.).-Wesley's “Natural History and Book Circular."Topsham, S. Devon.

"American Microscopical Journal."-"The Microscope."WANTED, any good poultry in exchange for minerals and "American Naturalist.”—“'Canadian Entomologist."-" The geological specimens. — William Hetherington, Nenthead, Naturalist." _“The Botanical Gazette.”—“The Gentleman's Alston Moore, Cumberland.

Magazine."-“The Midland Naturalist."-"The Garner.". Collins' }, new, in fine condition, cost 31. 35. What offers

"Quekett Journal,”. January: -“Feuille des Jeunes Natuin exchange.-E. Wagstafi, 3 Waterworks Road, Edgbaston, ralistes."-"Quarterly Journal,” Royal Microscopical Society, Birmingham.

&c., &c. WANTED, vols. 4-9 of the “Young Naturalist,” bound or unbound ; must be in good condition. State desiderata toF. W. Paple, 62 Waterloo Street, Bolton.

COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVED UP TO THE 12TH ULT. FROM: Saville Kent's “ Infusoria," no further use for it, bound in M. J. T.-J. A. W.-E. H.-W. C. S.-C. 0.-G. R.half-green morocco cloth, excellent condition. What offers ? D. W. B.-R. S.-T. W. R.-T. B.-A. H.-J. W. B.-T.-E. Wagstaff, Waterworks Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham. E. H. R.-S. B.-E. A. M.-F. H. W.-L. C. H.-W. M. W.

For slide of starch grains from bulb of spider orchis, for the -A. H. W.-W. P.-J. E. L.-R. H. L.-J. A.-E. H. W. polariscope, send other slide.-John Boggust, Alton, Hants. -W. J.-F. W. P.-W. L. B.-E. P.-J. B.-J. L.-E. W.

WANTED, fossils from all formations, in exchange for coal. W. H.-F. R.-B. C. R.-L. J. S.-J. E, C.-R. G. M.measure fossils, Spirorbis, Anthracosia robusta, A. acuta, A. E. S. S.-H. E.-P. B.-F. W.-F. C. M.-F. W. F.-C. B. elongata, scales and teeth of megalichthys, rhizodus, &c. - Miss C.-E. P.-W. J. S.-E. B.-T. B.-W. S.-E. W.Address-John Laycock, 20 Botany Lane, Ashton-under P. R. S.-G. F.-H. W. D.-G. A.-H. D.-W. G. K.-S. J. Lyne, Lancashire.

-T. G. B.-I. H. C.-J. S. N.-R. de G. B.-&c., &c.

me.

THE COLOUR AND BANDING IN LAND AND FRESH

WATER SHELLS: A REPLY TO MR. FRYER.

By J. W. WILLIAMS,

[graphic]

as

SINCE forwarding for with my conclusions. Throughout Mr. Fryer does

publication my not seem to attack the main points in my theory, and
reply to Mr. Pace's our greatest difference seems to me to be this :-that
strictures on my he does not recognise the fundamental law of Hæckel,
article which was while I do:
printed in the
August number, nising to some degree Von Baer's law, he appears
Mr. Fryer has, on to totally set at naught the very law, on the principle
Pp. 241 and 242 of which the grandest contributions of embryology
ante, published a and palæontology have been furnished to the hypo-
very interesting thesis of evolution, viz., that “ Ontogeny is a brief
and courteous cri- epitome of phylogeny." And even more does it
ticism to which I appear a pity since the majority of our biological
may be allowed to teachers in this country give it as forming the ground-
reply. His open work, with that of Von Baer, on which the whole
ing remarks to a superstructure of the evolution hypothesis has been
large extent I ap raised. In my reply to his several headings, I shall
preciate, but then count on the validity of these two laws, and I
shown by my con imagine legitimately in the present day teaching of
cluding remarks of science.

the article in ques (1.) This sentence seems to me somewhat tion I gave the theory as a tentative one only, ambiguous, for to me Mr. Fryer appears to directly and certainly it will be conceded that no matter contradict himself in one breath. He uses the words what our present knowledge may be, yet the pro “chitinous plug,” and afterwards speaks of it as mulgation of a theory on such grounds, and as a composed of “conchiolin, not chitin.” I have working one merely, is perfectly legitimate. There replied to this criticism in my former note on Mr. would be no harm done even if with further re Pace's strictures, and made reference to Balfour. I search it led to no good and stable result ; for it cannot see how it invalidates my theory if I believe certainly would not allow us to vegetate. With the in Hückel's law. qualification to Von Baer's law (italicised by Mr. (2 and 5.) The nuclei of my specimens of H. Fryer), I do not agree, simply because it is a well virgata are brownish horn-coloured, and not black. known fact and law that no matter whether retro Possibly, there is a fallacy here ; if a little of the gression has occurred or not in our present day forms, digestive gland be left behind in cleaning, the nuclei evolution has progressed primarily along a line may appear black. But even were it so, it would leading from the simple to the complex. My critic not negative the general conclusion to which I arrived, says that if this is what I intend to convey, it simply because it may but prove an after-extension or certainly does not accord with the views of evolution development of colour. That there is a law of as laid down by Darwin, Wallace, and Spencer ;” extension of colour appears to me proved by the but this statement is plainly negatived by the fact following sentence quoted from Eimer : “ Würtemthat Mr. Wallace (in litt. September 7, 1890), agrees berger finds that in Ammonites all structural changes

No. 316.—APRIL 1891.

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show themselves first on the last (the outer) whorl (7.) Answered in my reply to Mr. Pace. of the shell-as in living animals, c.g. in my lizards In his concluding remarks, Mr. Fryer leans at the tail—and that then such a change in the towards the suggestion of Mr. Cockerell that the following generations is pushed farther and farther colour of our Hyalinæ is probably due to the towards the beginning of the spiral—as e.g. in my suffusion of darker band colours. But if so, banded lizards towards the head-until it prevails in the reversions would occur not only in one but in all the greater number of the whorls” (“ Organic Evolu species, and this is known not to be the case. The tion,” p. 31). This may explain the coloured nuclei question of H. cantiana, H. cartusiana, &c., as of H. maritima and H. syriaca, but I cannot say equally and more legitimately (I think) supports the anything of these as I have not any specimens of opposite conclusion to that at which Mr. Fryer these species by me. And if there be such a law of seems to arrive. I look upon banded specimens as after-colour extension, as suggested by Eimer, the more advanced in colour development than those reader will see that it has other bearings on my theory which are unbanded. Banding means a specialisation than the one here indicated.

of pigment-secreting cells in the mantle edge. And (3.) Mr. Fryer, while recognising the fact that the were Mr. Fryer's remark true, the bands in this case Limnæas are horn-coloured, mentions the banded of Hyalina should be lighter than the ground-colour ; and spotted Chiliniæ, and the members of the families but in the varieties he adduces, they are darker ! Paludinidæ, Neritidæ, Cerithiadæ, &c. With these (i.) Answered by ontological facts, von Baer's exceptions other conditions I imagine come into play, law, and the law of Hæckel. but it is a patert fact that in all of them the young (ii.) This is more an extension of my theory than secondary shell is horn-coloured and unbanded. a contradiction. It shows that, in some cases, unWhat these other conditions are is not known, but colourous specimens may be produced by an interit is a pity that those exceptions which Mr. Fryer mingling of bands, though ontology negatives this adduces are in the main foreign and cannot be for horn-coloured and white specimens. Evidently observed by us in their natural and living state under castanea is an advance on the clearly banded forms of their own peculiar environment or surrounding. H. nemoralis. Considering the fact italicised by me and remem (iii.) I cannot see how these observations, interbering Hæckel's law, I cannot see how this criticism esting in their way, affect my general theory. Again can invalidate my theory.

I stand behind the fortress of Von Baer and Häckel, (4.) The fact that white“ may be due to the and to those who understand the full bent of the laws molecular structure of the surface " rather, it appears which were formulated by them it will appear that I to me, upholds and substantiates my theory. Mr. shall not use much powder and shot. Fryer would not then allow a unicoloured white (iv.) This also becomes intelligible in the light of specimen any pigment secreting cells at all, that is on the development of the shell. And I think more the grounds of theoretical reasoning ; more of this legitimately. What, again, I ask about the horndeduction shortly. But if the primitive shell was coloured and whitish primary shells of the embryo, horn-coloured, as he appears to admit, but that an and the persistent ones in Arion, Amalia, and advance to white was not next made, how does he Limax? explain the fact that the primary shells in the shell (v.) Replied to in my answer to Mr. Pace. But gland are sometimes white, though more generally Helix aculeata and H. pygmea are horn-coloured horn-coloured, and that the persistent primary shell also ! But besides what I have before said, what in Arion, Amalia and Limax is always white ? Mr. Fryer adduces as regards shrews and ants rests Remember in this connection the law of Hæckel, on probability and not actual observation. See the and do not forget it in re-reading the query which

references which he gives. Mr. Fryer gives directly afterwards. But what does Mr. Fryer mean by atrophy of the pigment glands in

“ BIRDS OF THE WEST." this relation ? Does he really mean that nature finds it easier to differentiate cells than to let them FEW notes on birds observed by me, in the remain in statu quo ? It appears to me, that con

west of Co. Mayo, during the months of August sidering the ontogeny of the shell was from horn and September, may be of interest to some of your colour to white, pigment-secreting cells were only readers. I saw no particularly uncommon ones : in differentiated when pigment was needed, that during fact, my observations merely comprise the results of the horn and the white periods pigment cells were a few desultory walks from time to time, most of not in existence, and had never been developed. my attention being occupied with fishing.

(6.) I cannot see how the criticism affects my At the beginning of August, on the sandy sea theory. If its “ light appearance seems to be due to coast, golden plovers were in some numbers and the absence of band-colour,” etc., as most assuredly very tame: grey plovers did not seem to have it does, or it would not be var. exalbida, then why arrived yet; dunlins also were exceedingly plentiful ; may it not be a "reversion ” ?

they breed in the neighbourhood. Curlews and

A

whimbrels were to be seen both by the sea, and plentiful about some of the inland lakes, amongst especially inland, flying over the bogs, and arresting them being a great many immature birds. one's attention by their mournful cries : associated I saw a skylark with almost pure white body, with them on the coast, were oyster-catchers, whose A good many rare birds have been recorded from black and white plumage rendered them very

time to time in Co. Mayo, but, of course, to get any, conspicuous. All three birds are exceedingly wary one must be constantly on the look-out, and collect and difficult to approach : in the open it is almost systematically. impossible to get within shot of them ; the only A barred warbler is recorded in a recent number of chance of success is to hide behind banks and stalk "The Zoologist” to have been procured near them, often on hands and knees.

Belmullet in 1884, and to be now in the possession Whimbrels are called here “May-birds," as in of Dr. Birkett of that town. many other parts of the kingdom, from the fact of The natives have some curious beliefs : on asking them arriving in May : most of the natives consider one of the men who work the salmon nets whether them young curlews.

he was not very liable to rheumatism from constant Knots and sanderlings were in large flocks : there wading in the water, he informed me that at the were a good many redshanks, but I saw no godwits. beginning of the season, he ate salmon every day for

At high water, large flocks of ringed plovers were a fortnight, and that in consequence, the water ran to be found on the sand, just above high-water mark : off his skin as from a duck's back. Another legend most of them appeared to be asleep in the sun; at was, that all the rats which entered the precincts of a any rate, they allowed me to approach within half-a ruined abbey, used as a burial-ground, immediately dozen yards before taking to flight; a few, however, dropped down dead. I took the trouble to visit the in each flock were more restless, running about place, but saw no rats, dead or alive. On one of among their comrades in an aimless fashion.

the graves were dozens of long “church-warden" On the marshes near the sea, one could always pipes, it being the custom at a funeral for each of find herons (hibernicè cranes), on the look-out for the mourners to deposit one on the tomb: do any of crabs, I suppose ; for crabs were the only animals I your readers know of a similar custom in any other could find there. Later on, in the same place, I saw part of the country, or the origin of the practice ? a good many snipe, and some small ducks. I could

H. J. W. not get near enough to the latter to determine their species, but I think they were golden-eyes. I am told that the west coast of Mayo is a great resort of ducks

THE CARBONIFEROUS LIMESTONE OF and geese in winter : the people say that the geese

SCOTLAND. are principally barnacles, but I think this is a mistake,

By CHAS. WARDINGLEY. as the name is very generally misapplied in Ireland

[Continued from p. 64.) Hooded crows and rooks were very common : 'URNING now for a short time to the consideramagpies, although very numerous and tame in most

tion of the carboniferous limestone as it occurs parts of Ireland, were conspicuous by their absence in the Dumfries district, it may be remarked at the here: probably the want of trees in the district outset that good exposures such as may be obtained accounts for this.

in quarries and railway cuttings are rather limited in I was surprised to see so few hawks : one or two number. Of these, the best and most accessible are kestrels, a single peregrine, and another that I shown in the accompanying sketch-map. took to be a sparrow-hawk-it was some distance off The village of Closeburn is situated about twelve ---were all I noticed. Report says, however, that miles north of Dumfries, and the quarries are a mile to there are a pair or two of golden eagles on the cliffs the south-cast of the railway station. These have been of Achill Island : I regret that I could not find time worked almost continuously since 1770 and the vast to go to look for them.

amount of rock laid bare affords an excellent Inland, I saw a few common buntings ; yellow opportunity for its study. Here the limestone has hammers, linnets and meadow-pipits swarmed, but of blue-grey Silurian strata for its base or foundation, goldfinches, tolerably plentiful in other seemingly and the total depth or thickness, excluding the top similar parts of Ireland, I saw none.

rubble, is a little over 60 feet and is divided as under. On my pointing out a kingfisher to my gillie, he

Feet. told me that he had never seen the bird before.

Permian shales and sandstone . 8 Water ousels were common on the mountain

Red magnesian limestone

Red sandstone and shales streams, and as I fished, fitted from rock to rock,

Massive red limestones. and on settling bowed gravely to me in their comical way.

Total Wheatears were fairly numerous in September, there were very few swifts and swallows; terns were Over the red magnesian limestone are thin

to brent geese.

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