« EelmineJätka »
deposits or layers of shale of decidedly Permian age and yielding a few characteristic remains generally very much distorted. The upper seam of limestone is a magnesian rock, yielding on analysis about 40 per cent. of carbonate of magnesia and 55 per cent. of lime. The lower limestone on the contrary is of carboniferous origin and consists of thick blocks containing at least 90 per cent. of carbonate of lime, separated by thin layers of red shale. The general dip of the strata is to the N.E. at an angle of 10°. The interest attached to this exposure arises in a great measure from the mineralogical nature of the rocks which vary so much in colour and general appearance from those previously described. Indeed, but for the organic remains entombed we might almost imagine that by some means or other we had wandered into and were examining a Permian exposure in Durham, though the subordinate mammillary or botryoidal concretions so commonly and typically exhibited
An excellent exposure occurs at Kellhead, a little to the north-east of Annan where there is an outcrop about 50 feet thick on the top of a hill or ridge overlooking the Solway Firth. This place is certainly worthy of a visit, not for the sake of its geological interest alone, but also for the commanding view of the surrounding district which can be obtained from it. Nor is it possible to find a better or more typical example of the true“ Mountain Limestone" in respect of its physical aspect, and a day spent in and about this quarry and hill will do more to impress upon the mind the distinctive features of the formation than weeks of reading or class-room work. The red colour still prevails, but the rock in many parts is very friable, owing to the fact that it is chiefly made up of Encrinites, held together by a binding of clayey-looking lime. Want of space prevents us from describing at length the various remains found at Kellhead, and for the present we must only name those which occur inost abundantly and perfect in this very interesting
Fig. 52.-Map of Dumfries District, showing Limestone
there are entirely absent in the rocks under our notice. The fossils, however, soon show the true nature of the deposit and all doubt is quickly dissi. pated by the presence of Productus giganteus and P. semireticulatus. These characteristic fossils are very common and fairly perfect, but other species, Zaphrentis, Euomphalus, Bellerophon, and Spirifera are rare, badly preserved, and their identification is often a matter of considerable difficulty.
Better exposures are found further north at New Cumnock, near Muirkirk, in which locality the car. boniferous limestone is very extensively quarried. The total depth of rock obtained here is 70 feet, while the colour is again of the red tint imparted to it by its proximity to magnesian strata. The fossil list is a fairly long one and the diligent student should have no difficulty in obtaining from the various quarries of the immediate neighbourhood satisfactory specimens of Orthis resupinata, Productus semireticulatus, Rhynchonella pugnus, Spirifera bisulcata, S. glabra, Bellerophon urii, Poteriocrinus
(parts), Lithostrotion irregulare, Cyathophyllum turbinatum, Athyris roysii, A. ambigua.
quarry. Productus giganteus are again numerous, and owing to the soft nature of the rock are not difficult to extract. Euomphalus pentangulatus appear very perfect and in diameters varying from if inches to 3 inches, while Bellerophon urii, and Nautilus dorsalis are also frequently found indeed ; the writer remembers seeing, nine years ago, a garden walk adjoining one of the workmen's houses almost paved with them. The siphuncled and chambered Cephalopod, orthoceras is present in two or three species ranging from 24 inches to almost 5 feet in length.
Compared with the Carboniferous limestone of England, we cannot help being struck with the many points of contrast rather than of agreement which present themselves to our notice. In the Carboniferous limestone of Scotland the beds and quarries are by comparison poor in respect of depth or thickness, and this is the chief reason why so many of them have been and are being abandoned. Wherever the beds dip at an inconvenient angle, it is unremunerative to follow them into the earth. And with regard to organisms too, there is a remarkable paucity of species, while even such as are to be found are generally far behind their southern contemporaries in regard to symmetry of form and state of preservation.
sometimes on horses' heads, or of the favours worn CONCERNING MARIGOLDS.
The scent of the marigold is not at all unpleasant; towards the planting of yellow or orange flowers it resides chiefly in the leaves and stalksı; but the in English gardens. A railway journey round any stickiness (doubtless a protection against undesirable London suburb will illustrate this : the little back insect visitors) of the common kinds makes the gardens in the dingier streets are often ablaze with gathering of a posy a disagreeable operation. The sunflowers, and cottage gardens in purer air follow juice has its virtues, for have we not in our pharmasuit. The marigold, under one or other of its varie. copoeia “Calendula," of healing virtue to wounds of ties, seems to be an especial favourite, and that not the skin ? Lastly, the name is a sweet reminder of in our own country alone. Cross to France and you the Blessed Woman to whom so many of our English will find the common orange one figuring as a pot. flowers are dedicated, and in whose honour this herb, and its petals introduced under the name of sojourner bears its English name. "soucis” into your soup. In the Channel Isles the
M. E, POPE. same use is made of it, and it is so nearly wild as to be seen growing in waste places or by roadsides, while children make wreaths of the flowers to adorn the “cheap tripper" as he rides in the “cars” round
NOTES ON NEW BOOKS. the island. It's a pity that such a flower should be DS IN PRACTICAL GEOLOGY, by so vulgarised.
Grenville A. J. Cole (London: Charles But truth to tell, it has a certain tendency towards Griffin & Co.). This is a most valuable and very gaudiness, a sort of rollicking behaviour, arising from welcome book to geological students. The subject is its rapid growth and sprawling habit (I speak of the treated on lines wholly different from those in any common, juicy kinds), which causes one to banish it other manual, and the book is, therefore, very from one's choicest flower-beds, and to relegate it to original. Indeed, it should really be considered the shrubbery or to the kitchen-garden. It has rather in the light of a companion vol. to the higher some tendency to become a weed, and is treated as class of geological text-books. A large space is such. But for getting rapidly a blaze of colour with devoted to the best and readiest methods of plenty of luscious green to back it up, for covering examining minerals, both with the wet and dry square yards of unsightly soil or rubbish-heap, com- processes ; how to examine rocks and rock-structures mend me to our friend marigold. It is sensitive to physically and chemically; whilst the concluding light, like many of its comrades in the great compo- part is devoted to the examination and determisite family, and ere the dew falls shuts its yellow nation of fossils. There are twenty-eight chapters eyes, as if it were a magnified, glorified daisy. altogether, and one hundred and thirty-six illustra
One variety which is now before me, seems to tions, mostly of fossils. We cordially commend illustrate Mr. Grant Allen's theory of the develop- Professor Cole's book to all zealous students of ment of colour, for its ray-florets—the outer circle- geology. besides doubling or semi-sterilising themselves, have The Geology of the Country around Liverpool, attained a broad stripe of yellowish white up each including the North of Flintshire, by G. H. Morton strap-shaped corolla, the original orange being rele- (London : Geo. Philip & Son). Twenty-eight years gated to a tiny margin up each side, producing in the ago Mr. Morton wrote a small book on this subject, whole flower-head the prettiest effect.
which was much welcomed by field-geologists, more refined member of the genus is the little inasmuch as it was the result of personal observation French marigold with its stiff, slender branching and exploration. Moreover, the author was well stem and delicate, strongly-scented, pinnate leaves. known as accurate, able, and painstaking This kind seems to be aiming at a further stage in geologist. Since that period other equally able colouring, for it is striped with dark brown, which, I geologists have explored the same area, and Mr. take it, is only red overlaid with orange. Some- Morton has himself, of course, added considerably to times the disc-florets of the common kinds take on the subject. The result is the publication of the this brown velvety tint, as if they were aping their present well-printed and neatly got up volume; it is big kinsfolk, the sunflowers.
modestly entitled a Second Edition, but it is in Side by side with these tiny flowers gardeners reality a larger and altogether differently got up have produced those huge, unwieldy, double mari- | book, illustrated by twenty plates and fifteen woodgolds, which send up a juicy stem-admirable pasture cuts of sections, &c. We congratulate Mr. Morton for slugs and snails-crowned with a solid mass of on the excellent work he has turned out. glaring orange or sickly yellow flowers ; no shape, The magnificently got up vols. of the United no beauty, that I can see, though I have known the States Geological Survey are always welcome to flower-heads used effectively in harvest decorations. English geologists, to whom they are presented with Still, they always remind me of the rosettes seen a generosity which is in striking contrast to the
niggardliness with which the equally valuable memoirs of our own Geological Survey are sent out (or rather not sent out) for press notices. These American volumes are aided by the best of illustrations and maps. The paper is good and hotpressed ; the type large, clear, and bold; so that it is a pleasure to turn over the pages.
The Ninth Annual Report of the U.S. Geol. Survey for 1887-88 is a large volume of over 700 pp., and contains lengthy papers, abundantly illustrated, on
The Earthquake at Charleston,” by Carl McKinley ; “ The Geology of Cape Ann, Massachusetts,” by N. S. Shaler ; and on the “Formation of Travertine and Siliceous Sinter by the Vegetation of Hot Springs,” by Walter H. Weed. We have also received a splendidly got up monograph of over 400 pp., crowded with maps and woodcuts, on “ Lake Bonneville," by Jerome K. Gilbert. The annual vol., dealing with the “Mineral Products of the United States," is, for the year 1888, by David T. Day. It deals with the working of numerous natural productions, including, besides all the metals, coal, petroleum, natural gas, asphalte, ozokerite, fertilisers, salt, mineral paint, and almost every kind of material put to use, which the rocks of the earth's crust naturally contain. These vols, are highly useful. In addition to the vols. we have received “ Bulletins," Nos. 58-66, each devoted to a special geological or paleontological subject.
An Explanation of the Phonopore, by G. LangdonDavis (London : Kegan, Paul & Co.). This work is printed in double columns, French and English, and deals in a very clear manner with the details and structure of the phonopore.
There are numerous illustrations.
Electricity; the Science of the Nineteenth Century, by E. M. Caillard (London : John Murray). We have previously noticed favourably a book by Miss Caillard on “The Invisible Power of Nature." In the present work she gives a clear, readable, and easily-understood outline of modern electricity, chiefly for the benefit of general readers. With such a book as this at their service, no intelligent person need be ignorant of the most important and pregnant of the physical sciences. It comprises four parts, each having a series of chapters, devoted respectively to “ Static Electricity” (or Electricity at Rest), “ Magnetism,” “Current Electricity," and the “ Practical Appliances of Electricity." There are numerous illustrations.
A Class Book on Light, by R. E. Steel (London: Methuen & Co.), with 123 illustrations. This is not only one of the best little treatises we have lately seen on “Light,” but on the elementary principles of optics and optical instruments as well. The contents contain eleven chapters as follows :-“ The Nature, Source, Intensity, and Velocity of Light," “Reflexion from Plane Surfaces," “ Ditto from Curved Surfaces,” Single Refraction at Plane
Surfaces,” “Refraction at Curved Surface-Lenses," “Dispersion,” “Optical Instruments,” “The Eye,” “ Interference-Diffraction,” “
," “ Double Refraction and Polarisation,” and on “Interference of Polarized Light.”
The Foundations of Geometry, by Edward T. Dixon (Cambridge : Deighton, Bell & Co.) This is practi. cally a new system of geometry based more or less on psychological data. Ity is a work calculated to stimulate criticism, and the author boldly invites it.
The Naturalist of Cumbrae. Being the Life of David Robertson, by his friend, the Rev. Thomas R. R. Stebbing (London : Kegan Paul & Co.) It is not every man who has such a “Life” of himself as this written whilst he is still living. Dr. Smiles set the example of raising literary statues to living heroes. Nevertheless, this book is altogether a delightsome one, relating the early and brave struggles of a worthy man, who stuck to business with such perseverance that for years past he has been able to devote himself wholly to natural history pursuits. David Robertson is one of the most amiable and modest of men; a quiet, unassuming, but indefatig. able worker, who will, we sincerely hope, live for many years to come. Our readers should not fail to procure this entertaining and instructive book.
The Book of Aquaria, by the Rev. Gregory C. Bateman, and Reginald A. R. Bennett (London: L. Upcott Gill). We have already noticed Mr. Bateman's book on Fresh-water Aquaria. It is here reproduced, with Mr. Bennett's treatise on Marine Aquaria added, so that the two make up a handy book of reference for all aquarium keepers.
Pasteur and Rabies, by T. M. Dolan (London: G. Bell & Sons). Dr. Dolan herein
"crusher" against Pasteur's experiments connected with hydrophobia, which he not only disbelieves but absolutely condemns. He heartily declaims against what he calls “ Vaccinomania." Readers of Pasteur and other similar experimenters will here find all that can be strongly stated on the other side.
The Honey Bee : Its Natural History, Anatomy, and Physiology, by T. W. Cowan (London : Houlston & Son). The author is a well-known writer and authority on the subject which this prettily got up book deals with. The part devoted to the anatomy of the bee will interest all naturalists. There is an abundance of original illustrations; and although Mr. Cowan has found himself obliged to deal with the subject in a very concise manner, it is not the less clear and highly readable on that account. We are pleased to draw the special attention of all bee-keepers to this excellent little manual.
The Natural Food of Man, by Dr. Emmet Dens. more (London : Pewtress & Co.), is a brief but clever statement of opinion against the use of bread, cereals, pulses, and all kinds of starch foods. We cordially recommend the book to all our vegetarian readers, many of whom will find new arguments therein.
very much alike in colouring, but if the eggs of the past season had been of a lighter.colour I should have considered my theory of fertility and colour running together to have fallen through ; however, I have the eggs to corroborate my statement.
I fail to understand why these birds are so erratic in their nidification ; they appear to have no fixed type of nest, like nearly all other birds, but the nest is made to suit the site selected for it. The nearest approach to a fixed type is when the nest is built in a tree or bush, then it is of a domed bulky structure with an entrance at the top. Then, again, they have no fixed type of egg : the eggs vary very much in size, shape and colour. I know of no bird belonging to its family which lays such a large egg in proportion to its size, some of them measuring nearly one inch in length. Many will measure '98, but I have never found a perfect egg fully an inch long. They prefer the society of man more than any other bird, and although greatly persecuted and maligned they can hold their own against all comers.
I read with much regret the sentence passed upon them in this Journal by Mr. C. Parkinson. However, it is to be hoped that it will not be carried out.
The following figures give the average of the broods for the past five seasons. 1886 Young birds .
31 Every one must know that it is almost impossible to get at exact figures, but the foregoing give the full average ; however, I have not the slightest doubt if more exact figures could be obtained that the average of the broods for the past five years would not exceed three young birds.
Popular opinion—which is always wrong—is that the sparrows have large broods, but as my investigation has been going on several of my sceptical friends find that they have been labouring under a very false impression as to the number of young birds in each brood.
Having seen my little friends breaking up various kinds of beetles, I thought I would see what they had to say to some fine fat cockroaches, so I turned some on the lawn ; they were very soon amongst them. Some of the birds appeared at first afraid to attack the largest of these black-looking insects, but only one escaped by reaching cover, and he would have shared the fate of his companions had not the birds been frightened away.
Joseph P. NUNN.
heading of this paper, surely enough has been said about this bird. What more can be wanted ? Nevertheless, the fact is, that not half its true history has been written. It is not my intention to write anything like a history, but I wish to state the peculiarities in the bird I have met with during the past breeding season.
and the four previous seasons, I was inquisitive enough to look into the domestic arrangements of these birds, and found that each season gave a different result.
The clutches of eggs of last season, 1890, were larger or longer than those of 1889. In that season I did not obtain a clutch of six eggs, but in the season just passed I obtained four clutches containing six eggs each, and five eggs very commonly formed the clutch. Taking the season all through, the clutches gave an average of four and a half eggs each, and the average of the broods was not quite three and a half young birds; this is the highest average I have met with. The discrepancy between the eggs and brood was not caused by the infertility of the eggs, for the eggs, as a whole, showed a very high percentage of fertility, but in many cases by incubation ceasing after the embryo was well formed, and also by some of the young birds dying in the nest. The former I found when examining a number of clutches in a very advanced state of incubation. The dead or dying young birds are as a rule carried out and dropped at a short distance from the nest. I saw an unusual number of these little outcasts last season, owing, I believe, to the great fertility of the eggs.
A curious feature exhibited itself in the eggs. In many of the clutches there was a small egg, not pygmean, but perfect; in previous seasons I have met with one or two like instances, but last season it was of frequent occurrence. In the sixty clutches I have preserved it is quite conspicuous. I also met with what I consider to be a very great curiosity, that being a genuine pygmean egg ; it is about the size of a blue tit's egg, it weighed sixteen grains and contained a small quantity of albumen. It is the only specimen I have ever seen or heard of. It was in a nest with three others of the ordinary size, two being of a light colour, the third of a slaty-grey like the pygmy. In the July number of this Journal I see recorded, by Mr. Tracy, of Ipswich, that another sparrow's egg had been found marked at the smaller end. I have not been fortunate enough to obtain a specimen, neither did I see any trace of smaller end colouring amongst the four hundred sparrow's eggs I examined during the season. Nevertheless, the peculiarity showed itself in the eggs of several other birds. The eggs of 1890 and 1889 showed a greater percentage of fertility than those of the previous seasons, and comparing the clutches of the two seasons they are
We are sorry to notice the death of Mr. Wm. Davies, F.G.S., lately of the British Museum, to whom many old students of geology were indebted for assistance.
THE SQUARE-TAILED WORM.
tailed worm. Dugès the same year gave an account of it in the Annales des sciences naturelles under the title of Enterion Amphisbana. His reason for
BY THE REV. HILDERIC FRIEND, F.L.S. President of the Wesley Scientific Society, Author
of Flowers and Flower Lore.' anyone except an enthusiastic lover of nature
the idea of grubbing among the grass, stones, mud and rubbish in search of such unattractive creatures as worms must be perfectly monstrous, and we quite sympathize with those matter-of-fact folk who take the worm-hunter to be a candidate for the lunatic asylum. We do not exactly see, however, why it is worse to dig for worms for scientific than for piscatorial uses, and in all fairness the angler and the naturalist should be made to sail in the same boat in this respect; if indeed the knight of the rod, who merely sacrifices the poor worms for his own delectation is worthy a place beside the knight of the scalpel whose aim is to further the interests of scientific research and extend our knowledge of God and His works.
Among our native worms there is one with a square tail (Allurus tetraedrus, Eisen) whose story has never yet been fully told by any English author so far as I am aware. It has been somewhat fully studied on the Continent, and at least one English writer has given us details of its anatomy, but so far all has been of a technical, unpopular character. When I speak of Allurus as the square-tailed worm I wish it to be understood that the term must be used in a modified sense, as we have one or two other worms which sometimes present this peculiarity, but not in so marked a degree. It was on account of the peculiar
shape of the hinder halt or posterior end that the worm, when separated from the old genus Lumbricus, because of the male pore being on the thirteenth segment, and made the type of a new genus, was named Allurus from the Greek words allos, another or different, and ouro, tail. I shall endeavour to present what I have to say to the reader under three heads, in which the History, Description, and Distri. bution of the worm will be set forth.
I. THE HISTORY OF ALLURUS.
Allurus was apparently unknown to Linnæus, the father of modern science, who was very poorly in. formed in worm-lore. Savigny, who discarded the Linnean term Lumbricus, and adopted the Græcised word Enterion (from the Enteron of Aristotle), is the first author to give us any information respecting it. In Cuvier's Histoire des progrès des sciences naturelles, he calls the worm Enterion tetraëdrum, or the square
Fig. 57.-Allurus: segments 1-18. a, parasitic vorticella ;
de dorsal pores; cr, crop; cg, calciferous gland; pr, prostomium; gs, gizzard; mp, male pore.
adopting the latter name is to be found in the fact that the worm can go as readily backwards as forwards, after the fashion of the serpent of which