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a repetition of names and references. It is, however, proper to acknowledge, in general terms, that the authors to whoin the grammatical part of this compilation is principally indebted for its materials, are Harris, Johuson, Lowth, Priestley, Beattie, Sheridan, Walker, and Coote.

The Rules and Observations respecting Perspicuity, &r.contained in the Appendix, and which are, chiefly, extracted from the writings of Blair and Campbell, will, it is presumed, form a proper addition to the Grammar. The subjects are very nearly related ; and the study of perspicuity and accuracy in writing, appears naturally to follow that of Grammar. A competent acquaintance with the principles of both, will prepare and qualify the students, for prosecuting those additional improvements in language, to which they may be properly directed.

On the atility and importance of the study of Grammar, and the principles of Composition, much might be advanced, for the encouragement of persons in early life to apply themselves to this branch of learning; but as the limits of this Introduction will not allow of many observations on the subject, a few leading sentiments are all that can be admitted here with propriety.

As words are the signs of our ideas, and the medium by which we perceive the sentiments of others, and communicate our own; and as signs exhibit the things which they are intended to represent, more or less accurately, according as their real or established conformity to those things is more or less exact; it is evident, that in proportion to our knowledge of the nature and properties of words, of their relation to each other, and of their established connexion with the ideas to which they are applied, will be the certainty and ease, with which we transfuse our sentiments into the minds of one another; and that, without a competent knowledge of this kind, we shall frequertly, be in hazard of misunderstanding others, and of being misunderstood ourselves. It may indeed be justly asserted, that many of the differences in opinion amongst men, with the disputes, contentions, and alienations of beart, which have too often proceeded from such differences, have been occasioned by a want of proper skill in the connexion and meaning of words, and by a tenacious misapplication of language.

ONE of the best supports, which the recommendation of this study can receive, in small compass, may be derived from the following sentiments of an eminent and candid writer

on language and composition. “ All that regards the study of com" position, merits the higher attention upon this account, that it is intimately connected with the improvement of our intel. " lectual powers. For I must be allowed to say, that when we are employed, after a proper manner, in the study of compo

* Blair.

*

sition, we are cultivating the understanding itself. The study

of arranging and expressing our thoughts with propriety, *“ teaches to think, as well as to speak, accurately.”

BEFORE the close of this Introduction, it may not be superfuous to observe, that the author of the following work has no interest in it, but that which arises from the hope, that it will prove of some advantage to young persons, and relieve the labours of those who are employed in their education. He wishes to promote, in some degree, the cause of virtue, as well as of learning; and, with this view, he has been studious, through the whole of the work, not only to avoid every example and illustration, which might have an improper effect on the minds of youth ; but also to introduce, on many occasions, such as have a moral and religious tendency. His attention to objects of so puch importance will, he trusts, meet the approbation of every well-disposed reader. If they were faithfully regarded in all books of education, they would doubtless contribute very materially to the order and happiness of society, by guarding the indocence and cherishing the virtue of the rising generation

Holdgate, near York, 1795.

ADVERTISEMENT

TO THE NINTH EDITION. The eighth edition of this grammar received considerable al[erations and additions : but works of this nature admit of repeated improvements; and are, perhaps, never complete. The author, solicitous to render his book more worthy of the encouraging approbation bestowed on it by the publie, has again revised the work with care and attention. The new edition, he hopes, will be found much improved. The additions, which are very considerable, are, chiefly, such as are calculated to expand the learner's views of the subject; to obviate objections; and to render the study of grammar both easy and interesting. This edition contains also a new and enlarged systein of parsing; copious lists of nouns arranged according to their gender and number; and many notes and observations, which serve to extend, or to explain, particular rules and positions.*

# The author conceives that the occasional strictures, dispersed through the book, and intended to illustrate and support a number of important gram, matical points, will not, to young persons of ingenuity, appear to be dry and useless discussions. He is persuaded that, by such persons, they will be read with attention. And he presumes that these strictures will gratify their curi: Osity, stimulate application, and give solidity and permanence to their gram natical knowledge. In the Octavo edition of the grammar, the reader will find many additional discussions of this nature.

Holdgate, near York, 1804.

The writer is sensible that, after all his endeavours to elucidate the principles of the work, there are few of the divisions arrangeinents, definitions, or rules, against which critical ingenuity cannot devise plausible objections. The subject is attended with so much intricacy, and admits of views so various, thai it was not possible to render every part of it unexceptionable ; or to accommodate the work, in all respects, to the opinions and prepossessions of every gramınariao and teacher. "If the author has adopted that system which, on the whole, is best suited to the nature of the subject, and conformable to the sentiments of the most judicious grammarians ; if bis reasonings and illustrations, respecting particular points, are founded on just principles, and the peculiarities of the English language; le bas. perhaps, done all that could reasonably be expected in a work of this nature; and he may warrantably indulge a hope, that the book will be still more extensively approved and circulated.

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