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speech, said, that a mutual confi. not to counsel.

Lord Mulgrane dence between the sovereign and his said, that if William III. or George Servants, appeared so indispensable I. had said to any of the ministers to the good conduct of the public employed by them, “ I have no ob. business; that when once there was jections to your principles in gene so little confidence on cither side, ral, except that I think you are at that the ministers were reduced to tached to the house of Stuart; and demand a pledge from the king, therefore unless you give me a or the king from his ministers, there pledge in writing, I will not employ was little other option than either you as my ministers,” he appre

. for him to dismiss them, or for them hended there would have been noim. to resign. Lord Boringdon con. propriety in ministers signing such a sidering that the motion included pledge. The earl of Limerick re. an inculpation of the king for the probated the practice of goverving exercise of an undoubted perogative, Ireland by a faction, and recomcouid by no means assent to it, and mended not to discourage loyalty therefore concluded a speech against or to practise on the people for party it, by moving, that the house do purposes. The question being uninow adjourn. Lord Sidmouth said, rersally called for, at seven o'clock that neither the dispatch of the oth in the morning, the house divided February to the lord lieutenant, on the motion of lord Boringdon, por the reasoning on which it was that the house do now adjourn. recommended, was calculated to

Contents

171 convey to his majesty's mind, a Not contents

90 knowledge of its extensive import : nay, and that the wonder would

Majority 81 have been, if it had been understood The same subject, or rather sub. by his majesty, in any other than in a jects, the circumstances that led to limited sense.

The earl of Lauder. the removal of the late ministers dale, from a retrospective view of the from their places, and the conse. parliamentary conduct of the leading quences that might be apprehended members of the present cabinet, to follow, the responsiblity of the concluded, that either there was no advisers of the crown, and the ca. principle of cement or union among tholic claims, the ground-work, as them, or that they had agreed to it were, of the whole, were again give up every doctrine and opinion introduced into the house of com. to which they were most sacredly mons, April 15. The first branch pledged. The present ministers, of the marquis of Stafford's motion he said, had come into office in dié in the house lot peers, it will be re. rect violation of the principles of collected, was not included in Mr. the constitution; and unless the Brand's, in the house of commons. house marked that act with its disap- The honourable W. H. Lyttleton, probation, the constitution would after stating the reasons why he be lost. Lord Holland observed thought it necessary that the hous that sir William Temple had told the should express its approbation king, that he doubted whether it were the conduct of the late ministers not a contradiction to suppose that moved the resolution, “ That that he could make counsellors that were house considering a firm and efti 2

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cient administration as indispensa. tended for the support of a system bly necessary, in the present impor. of national education, to have been tant crisis of public affairs, had seen perverted for purposes of personal with the deepest regret, the late aggrandizement, and for the further. change in his majesty's councils.”' ance of the most criminal views. The This motion was seconded by Mr. evils of the misapplication were laHibbert, and farther supported by mentably felt in the decline and de. the honourable John W. Ward, gradation of those establishments Mr. Macdonald, Mr. Tighe, Mr. for the uses of which those funds Roscoe, Sir J. Newport, Mr. Tier. were originally appropriated. Funds ney, lord Howick, earl Percy, so appropriated, were absorbed in and Mr. Windham, It was oppo. private expenditure, calculated on sed by Mr. Milnes, who concluded as parts of the family estate, and tis speech by moving the order of bequeathed to the descendants as the day, Mr. H. Browne, Mr. Ro. parts of the patrimonial inheri. binson, Mr. Gore, Mr. Bankes, tance.*_Of these charges lord Cas. lord Castlereagh, Mr. Bathurst, tlereagh did not take any notice. the chancelier of the exchequer, and The master of the rolls observed the master of the rolls. Among the that many ministers had been dis. most impressive speeches in support missed from office, without any of the notion was that of sir John cause assigned, but that never un. Newport, among the most convin. til now had a mioister come to par. cing on the other side, was that of liament to complain of his sovethe master of the rolls. Sir John reigo. Lord Somers was removed Newport, among a variety of re. without the shadow of a complaint; marks, observed, that when the late did he demand an investigation of administration directed their atten. the cause ? When the celebrated tion to an amelioration of the sys. Whig administration was removed ten of education in Ireland, the by queen Anne, did they breathe a Erst act of necessity was, to enquire whisper against their royal mistress into the state of those funds, in either house of parliament? In which were grossly misapplied. 1757, the dismissal of Mr. Pitt, and This charge of gross misapplication Mr. Legge, produced a great fer. be stated, not either without suffi. ment. But was any thing said ant grounds of justification, or about that dismissal in parliament3 with any inclination to avoid the If a minister were to secure to him. responsibility of his statement. He self the right of enquiry into the spoke it in the face of the noble lord cause of his removal, he would apopposite (Castlereagh). He char. proximate his situation to that of ged bisa with having known and a judge, or any other officer for suffered those funds which were in life. Of a change in administration,

* These animadrersions are also, with singular propriety, applicable to the eristieg ahuses in the antient and most nobly endowed university of St. Andrew's; kive present chancellor of which is lord Melville. Into those abuses it was underHoud, the late administration intended, had it been continued, to institute an enquiry. They were not more indifferent to office and emolument than other men. But it was certainly a fortunate circumstance for the public, that they rested, in pail their daim to acceptation and popularity, on the correction of public abuses.

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parliament had 10 constitutional mittee be appointed to take into knowledge, and on such change consideration the several acts could found no inquiry. The per. parliament relating to the building, mission given to a noble lord, to de- re-building, and keeping in repair, * tail the transactions that led to the churches and glebe houses in Ire

dismission, was unconstitutional, as land, and to the purchase of glete - it was publishing the proceedings of houses and lands there, and requi. the privy council, which ought to be ring certain returns to be made con. kept sacredly secret. Aster six cerning the sufficiency, state, and o'clock in the, morning, a division condition, of such churches, for the took place. The numbers were, regular performance of divine ser. For passing to the order of the vice therein ; together with the day,

244 several reports and papers, relating Against it,

198 thereto, and to the unions of pa

rishes, that were laid before this · Majorit; in favour of ministers, 46 house in the years 1803 and 1806

respectively; and that they do con. In the mean time the Scotch jule sider the said acts and papers, anit dicature bill was not neglected, but examine how far the said acts, or after it had undergone several alter. any of them, have been found ina. ations, while others were in con: dequate, and in what respect, for templation, it fell to the ground, for the purposes thereby intended; and the present session, through the do report the same, together with suudlen prorogation of parliament. their observations and opinion: As something was thought wanting thereupon, to the house." Afts for the promotion of general edu. conversation respecting th cation in England, and to the due population of Ireland, the necessity administration of justice in Scot. of consolidating livings in some inland, so something was found want. stances, but the enormous exten ring in Ireland, to the support of re. to which a consolidation of parishe ligion. A motion was made on this and livings had been carried in sulject, in the house of commons, others, Mr. Wickham's motion wi April 201h, by Mr. Wickham, who agreed to, and a select committee ap. asserted that the population of Ire- ' pointed accordingly. Lord Hawkes. land was half that of South-Britain ; bury, April 16th, having described that the number of parishes in South- the circumstances of the capture a Britain exceeded 10,000, while in Monie Video, moved the thanks a Ireland, the number of parish's the house of peers to brigadier. which had been originally only general sir Samuel Auchmuty, for 2, 136, by subsequent consolida. that glorious achievement; apt tions, was, in 1791, reduced to lord Mulgrave, after a warm pane 1,120. This reduction was highly gyric, thanks in like manner to rear injurious to the protestant religion admiral Stirling, and the officers an and interest. In the late troubles under his coinmand.-'These in Trilaud, rebellion raged most motions were carried nem. (liss.violently in those districts in which On the same day lord Castlereazly the reduction fail been the greatest. after a suitable introduction, mored He then moved, " that a select com. " that the thanks of the bouse 3

common

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men

Commons be given to brigadier. warmly supported by Nr. Matthew, Pneral sir Samuel Auchmuty, for and sir Johu Doyle, who had him. ite skill and gallantry displayed by self raised the 87th regiment, one tin, in taking the important fortress of those engaged in the expedition of Monte l'ideo.” The military ex. against Monte Vidio.--Mr. Vat. colleact displayed in this achieve- thew took notice that three of the Hot was not less justly than elo.' four thousand inen composing the Cuentis and ingeniously displayed by expedition, were catholics. Lord Vr. I indhar, latesccretary of state, Castlercagli's motion being carried - the war department, who second- unanimously, the thanks of the d the motion. The concluding house were then also voted to bri. part of Mr. Windham's speech, gadier-general Lumley, and the of. 2.' fars to have been prophetical. ficers and men; and also, to admiral ** The merit of our soldiers (he Stirling, for his distinguished skill said) was greatly enhanced by the and ability in effecting the landing; plant defence made by their op. and also to the captains and officers neats. At the same time that of the foot, for timir co operation, this powerful resistance enhanced and to the seamen and marines. tie glory of the conquest, the va. On the 27th of April, the parlia.' lour, be trusted, displayed by the ment was proro ued by a speech from Spanish troops, would inspire their the thrope, delivered in his majesty's countrymen in Europe, with a kin. name, by the lord chancellor, one dred spirit in resisting the common of his majesty's commissioners. The Premy: an enemy who, though other two were lord llawkesbury, approaching them under the mask and the earl of Camden. The com. of friendship, was more dangerous missioners had it also in charge to than we were, though in open bos. 'state, that his majesty was anxious tiity. If a little of this spirit were to recur to the sense of his people, displayed in Old Spain, it would be while the events which had recently attended with consequences, at taken place, were yet fresh in their which all Europe would have reason recollection.* Thus ended a very to rejoice.” The motion was also short, and very busy parliament.

Sec the whole speech.

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CHAP. CHAP. X.

Fragility of Confederations.-Victorious career of Buonapurte :

yet his continued offers of Peace.-Circumstances that induced him to make such offers.-Miserable state of France:-Conscripts.Campaign of Ten Days -Battles of Heilsberg and Friedland. Pacification of Tilsit.-War with Sweden.--Evacualion of Stralsund.

WHILE

com.

in war.

TAILE the British parliament what concerned France in relation

was employed in debates to foreign countries, he professed respecting the means of quieting, or an ensulation of only great ac. of opposing, the growing ambition tions, and useful enterprises; and of France, Buonaparte pursued his was determined to perpetuate : career of conquest, triumphing peace, that should constitute the over the vanity of subsidies, the happiness of the French, and the fotility of detachments, and expe. happiness of humanity.* This ditions, sent at different times, to indeed would have been true policy, different places, against one and true glory. And there were pacted and mighty power, and the not a few who entertained sanguine imbecility of coufederation; and hopes that Buonaparte would have shewing to all nations, that it is on exhibited as illustrious an example the direction, not the existence, of of moderation and justice, as he had military force, that the issue of cam. done of bravery, skill, and surces paigns, and fate of empires turns.

But it soon appeared that When Buonaparte was raised to he was actuated only by the vulgar the dictatorship of France, it was spirit of domination, as we have aldoubtful whether he would pursue ready observed, in a former volumet, a system of war and conquest, or which he pursued, both by arms and of conciliation, peace, and all good political intrigue. Peace was always in arts. He was at first careful to ap- his mouth, war in his heart. Where pear in the light of a good, as well the interests and the rights of men as a great man. He was solicitous are consulted, the war may be the to be considered as the patron of sorted to in cases of necessity, the religion, good morals, the arts and uniform end is peace. sciences, and all manner of improve. ranny and the lust of conquest pre ment: nor, in his own personal vail, though peace may occasionally conduct and deportment, was be be made the means, the end con. deficient in the observance of all stantly in view is war,

This sys: the decencies of life. And for tem, unfortunately for the nations of

• View of the Republic presented in the legislative body at Paris, 23d d November, 1801. + See Vol. XLIII, 1801, HISTORY OF EUROPE.

Europe

When ty.

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