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he had established his head quarters, The Russian and French details of pushing his out-posts to the distance the battle of Mohringen, though difof a league, that is, about three En- ferent, were not very inconsistent in glish miles from the town on the any material point, except that both road to Liebstadt.

parties claimed the victory. But judg. The Russian general Markow, with ing from the immediate result of the a division of the corps under the action, we must conclude that it was command of the counts Pahlen and in favour of the Russians. The French Gallitzin, attacked the French at do not pretend that the Russians Mohringen, January 25. After a fell back beyond Liebstadt, which very sharp action in which the was only six or seven miles from the eagle of the 9th regiment of the field of action; whereas, Bernadotte, French infantry was taken, the according to their own accounts, re. , Russians were repulsed. But being treated to Strasburg, on the Driafterwards reinforced by a division bentz, which is situated at the dis, of caralry under general Anrep, the tance of 60 miles from Mohringen. battle was renewed. In these ac- The writer of the French bulletions at Mohringen, the French, ac. tins, Maret, Buonaparte's military cording to the Russian accounts, lost secretary, in concert with the état. more than 1,000 men, in killed and major, or generals on the staff, ac. wounded; the Russians, according to counts for the retreat of Bernadotte the French accounts, left 12,000, in another manner : “ After the bat. dead on the field of battle, and tle of Mohringen, in which the Rus. aroong these, general Anrep, whose sian advanced guard was defeated, death was greatly deplored by the the enemy retreated upon Liebstadt. whole Russian army.

But the corps of general Van Essen, During the action or actions near which was at first destined for Mol. Mokringen, prince Michael Dolgo. davia, and also a number of fresh roski, with his regiment of dra. regiments from different parts of the goons, went round to the rear of the Russian empire, having joined the enemy, made his way to head.quar. Russian army in Poland, the enemy ters without being perceived, and again, so early as the 27th of Jan. carried off the French marshal's equi- advanced in great force, with the depage, his plate, some ladies, and a sign of removing the theatre of the large sum of money, part of the war to the Lower Vistula. The empillage of Elbing. A great number peror, being informed of these e. of prisoners also fell into the hands vents, ordered the prince of Ponte. of the Russians, among whom Corvo to retreat, and also to favour were three generals, including the offensive operations of the enc. general Victor, who was taken by my, in order to draw them towards a small party belonging to the the Lower Vistula*,” As it was alPrussian garrison of Colberg, as together unnecessary to make use of he was on his way to take the any feint to engage the Russians in command of the army besieging a design which they had already Dantzig.

formed, and were indeed in the act of

bined with that of Bernadotte; but Buonaparte was unwilling to acknowledge that any design of his had been frustrated; and therefore explaius matters in bis own way, as just stated. 56th bulletin of the grand French arıy. Arensdorf, Feb. 5.

B4

accomplishing,

accomplishing, the bulletin is plainly Buonaparte collected and concen. at variance with itself. The French trated upon one point, the flower appear evidently to have received a of his forces, determined to attack check from the Russians at Mohrin- the centre of the Russian army. The gen : and the design of surprizing corps thus concentrated, were those Koningsberg by the combined move. of the marshals Davoust, Ney, Soult, ments of the marshals Ney and Ber- and Augereau, computed to be a. nadotte, was frustrated. By the re, bout 80,000; the imperial guard treat of Ney and Bernadotte, general under marshal Bessieres, 15,000 Bennigsen was enabled to concen. strong, and the cavalry of reserve, trate his forces in the town and en. under Murat, or, as the bulletins virons of Mohringen. The right styled him, the grand duke of Berg ; wing of his army rested on the Vis. which, at the opening of the cam. tula between Elbing and Culm*. paign, consisted of 240 squadrons,

The defeat of the plan, intended that is, 36,000, but which must to have been executed by a detach. have been greatly diminished, per. ment of the army under Bernadotte, haps by one third, during its proin concert with Ney, and the conse- gress. This force of about 120,000 quent advance of the Russians on horsemen and foot, exceeded the the Vistula, roused Buonaparte from army to which it was opposed, by a his temporary repose at Warsaw, and much greater number than what called into exertion all the energies might be supposed to be necessary to of his character. The corps under so consummate a leader of such gal. general Van Essen, that covered the lant and well-disciplined troops. But left flank of the Russian army, was Buonaparte was not more distin. posted at too great à distance from guished by any qualities than pru. its main body to answer the pur. dence and precaution. He was care. pose for which it was intended: ful to provide rather a redundance and Buonaparte, with his usual than a bare sufficiency of means for decision and promptitude, took ade the accomplishment of his ends. He vantage of this circumstance. He provided against reverses, and though broke up his cantonments on Janu. he always boasted of the favour, ary 29th and 30th.

A corps under he never, if he could help it, trust. the command of general Savary, was ed to the caprice of fortune. ordered to watch the movements of It was a prevailing maxim with Van Essen, who was posted at Wi. Buonaparte, to out-flank, if possible, sochi Massawick on the heights of the army opposed to him, or by the Bug; and another under marshal any other means get into its rear, le Febvre at Thorn, to keep in check and cut it off from its resour. the Russians and Prussians at Culm, It was to this maneuve that and Maricnwerder : thus to secure

he owed his success at Narin. for Buonaparte a safe retreat across got, at Ulmț, and at Jenas. It the Vistula, in the case of a failure would appear that the same maneuin his attempt on the main body of vre was attempted against the Rus. the Russian army.

sians on the present occasion.

es.

* Relation officielle faite par le général Bennigsen de ce qui l'est passé à l'armée Russe, depuis son arrivée en Prusse, jusqu'au 31 Janvier, 1807.

+ See Vol. XLII. (1800.) p. 193. Vol. XLVII. (1805.) p. 150.
Ø Vol. XLVIII.(1806.) p. 191.

The

The Russian army was on its imperial guard as a body of reserve. march to the Vistula, by the way of He gave orders to marshal Soult to Wildenberg, a town 60 miles N. E. advance by the way of Gulstadt, and of Warsaw. At this place, the ren. make himself master of the bridge dezvous of the French, Murat had of Bergfried, that he might fall on assembled all his cavalry on the the rear of the enemy with the whole 29th; in the neighbourhood of force of the army. which the rther corps were also Marshal Soult dispatched general concentrated, and where Buona- Guyot wish his light cavalry, to parte, in person, arrived from War. take possession of Gulstadt, the saw, on the 31st. It was his object centre of the Russian magazines ; to penetrate between the centre and which he effected, thongh not withthe leit o. the Russians, and to take out an obstinate resistance on the such positions between them and part of the enemy. Oi the Russians the Pregel, as should enable him to 1,600 were made prisoners. The cut off their retreat.

Russian magazines at Liebstadt and The French army began its march Allenstein were also taken. In the on the 1st of February, taking its mean time marshal Soult, with the route from Wildenberg to Passen. other two divisions of his corps, bein, a town which is the key to the hastened to the bridge of Bergfried. great road that passes between the - The Russians who were sensible of ertersive lakes which form the the importance of this place, for prosources of the river Alla, above. tecting the retreat of their left wing, mentioned, which falls into the Pre- defended the bridge with twelve gel five leagues above Koningsberg. of their best battalions. At three At Passenheim the French fell in in the afternoon; a cannonade was with the Russians, who had hitherto opened on both sides. The Russians persevered in the system of making, after a severe conflict, and a heavy instead of receiving the attack. But loss in killed and wounded, were the grand duke of Berg fell upon driven from the bridge. But they them with several columns of the retreated in good order. They were cavalry, and entered the towo sword followed by marshal Ney, and some in hand. On February 3, in the skirmishing took place. But night morning, the Russians were on the overtook the French and Russiau Lower Vistula, which they had de. detachments facing cach other. termined to pass, but where they On the morning of the 4th of Fenow found that they had been turned bruary, Murat, at the head of his caon their left flank: their left wing' valry, reconnoitered the position supported itself in the village of which the Russians had occupied the Moudtken, and their centre was preceding day, and found that they placed at Jowkowo on the great had employed the night in retreating, road to Liebstadt.

and had left behind only the rearBuonaparte having repaired to guard, which followed, and which the village of Getkendorff, formed was fiercely pursued, fighting all a part of his forces in order of bat. the way for six hours. The difficulty tle, placing the corps of marshal of the ground, according to the Augereau in the centre, that of French accounts, prevented their marshal Soult on the right, and the cavalry from doing the enemy much

injury. injury. In fact, the French cavalry The grand duke on the heights were repulsed ; though an attempt Waterdorf, fell in with seven oreigh was made to veil the discomfiture, by thousand of Russian cavalry ; which ascribing their want of success to after sustaining and repelling serera the nature of the ground.

charges, were at last forced to re. In the mean time,general Van Essen treat. harassed the French corps that was Ney came up at Deppen with the opposed to him by frequent detach- advanced guard of the column just ments; and though the country occu. mentioned, which, finding itself to pied by that corps, was defended be surrounded, adopted the bold by the natural fortresses of woods resolution of cutting their way and morasses, carried off, at diffe. through the French corps, but met rent times, numbers of prisoners. death on the points of their bayo. When he received intelligence that nets. The other part of the colume, Buona parte had set out from War. learning the fate of the advanced saw, and marched against general guard, retreated in confusion with Bennigsen, at the head of a force the loss of their standards, cannon, greatly superior to that of the Rus. and baggage. sians, being desirous of making a On the morning of February 6, diversion in favour of the main army, the French army marched in pursuit he attacked the French, February of the enemy; the grand duke of 3,'on the whole extent of their line, Berg, with marshal Soult's corps, defeated them at all points, and in the direction to Landsberg, that drove the generals Savary, Suchet, of marshal Davoust towards Heilsand Becker, back on the Narew*. berg, and that of marshal Ney, to

On the night of the 4th of Febru. prevent the escape of the Russian ary, Buona parte slept at Schlett, corps that had been cut off from the but his advanced guard pushed on main army at Deppen. to Deppen. On the 5th, the whole The grand duke of Berg came up French army was again in motion. with the rear guard of the Russians, While this advanced, the enemy con- commanded by general Barclay de stantly retreated, falling back by Tolly, between Glandau and Hoff, the way of Arensdorff and Lands. and immediately attacked it. For berg, in the direction of the Pregel; the support of this, several lines of except one column, which had not cavalry were drawn up, with the passed the river Alla, and was thus heights of Landsberg in front; and cut off from the main body of the their right and their left were Russian, by the left of the French flanked on the one side by a small army. The emperor therefore or- conical hill, and on the other by a dered the grand duke of Berg, with wood. After repca:cd attacks on the marshals Soult and Davoust, to these two wings had been repulsed, follow the main body of the enemy; the French dragoons and cuiras. and marshal Ney, with one division siers of general Hautpoolt's division, of light cavalry, and another of dra. fiercely charged, overthrew, and de. goons, to attack the cut-off column. stroyed two regiments of Russian

* Relation officielle des operations de l'armée Russe, depuis le 26 Decembre juequ'au 18 Mars, 1807,

infantry.

infantry. Their eannon and colours Io pursuance of this plan, on were taken, with all their colonels, the morning of the 7th of Febra. and the greater part of their officers. ary, before break of day, the The Bain Russian army made a whole Russian army filed off to movement for the support of the take up a new and advantage. rear guard. The French corps un- ous position at the little town of der marshal Soult and marshal Au. Eylau. Between this town and the gereau, took a position on the left wood near Hoff, just mentioned, of the enemy, and occupied the vile the rear-guard of the Russians was lage of Hoff. The Russian general attacked by the French, and a part perceiving the advantage of this po. of it made prisoners. The van-guard sition, sent ten battalions to retake of the French, pursuing their advanit. But the grand duke of Berg, tage, discovered that the Russians making a second charge with his had posted themselves behind the cuirassiers, attacked this party in town. Both sides prepared for bat. fank, and cut them to pieces. The tle. At the distance of a quarter of Russians filed off in the night. a league from this place, is a rising

This is the French account of the ground or flattish hill, which, in the affair. It is scarcely possible, bow- military phraseology of the French, ever, that the advantages gained are is called a plateaus, which commands not greatly exaggerated, for it is noti. the entrance into the plain or valley ced in the same bulletin, as a remark. in which it is situated. This emi. able circumstance, that part of the nence was defended by three Rus. two armies passed the night between sian regiments. These three regi. the 6th and 7th in the presence of ments were attacked by an equal each other. It appears pretty eri. number of French. A column of dently, that this engagement of Russian cavalry took the assailants Hoff was a drawn battle, the in flank, and threw one of their bat. Russians nerer quitted the field talions into great confusion. Some the day on which they fought. squadrons of dragoons, commanded If the main army had filed off in by general Klein, came up in time the night, leaving only a post quite for the relief of this disordered co. close to, and in the very presence Jumn. The Russians however main. of the enemy, as a forlorn hope, tained their ground on the eminence. that post, separated from the rest But in Eylau, where the Russians of the army, must have fallen in. wished to maintain themselves, but to the hands of the enemy, which which the French were eager to pus. would have been announced as a sess, before the commencement of matter of great triumph. From the the general battle, the contest was moment that general Bennigsen as- most bloody. The Russians had certained the great numerical force placed some regiments in a church opposed to him, he prudently ad. and the yard around it. There they opted the plan of retreating on the made a most obstinate resistance, Pregel

, which he did, fighting all and the post was not taken till after the way, though not without very a dreadful carnage on both sides, at great loss, yet with invincible va. ten o'clock at night. The night was lour and resolution.

spent by the two armies under the

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