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attachment; to elevate morality to foreign nations in regard to us, bonour, to impress on the minds of has not yet been openly displayed. the rising generation, the sacred Whatever it may be, let us place principles of good morals, and of ourselves, without however assu. honour; and to convince the peo. ming any bravading airs of defiance, ple that without morality and rel. in such a position as that we may gion, human society cannot exist. have nothing to fear from hostile

“Your interests are also guarded intentions. The states that may by tribunals : whose decisions will be desirous of forming political re. be dictated by equity, and justice. lations with ns, or to enjoy the ad. It is, above all, by probity and vantage of our commerce, will find good faith, that it remains for the us disposed to meet them half way, people of Hayti, to make them. on principles of a fair reciprocity. selves known, and to be distinguish. To enemies we hold out nothing ed in the world. As they are, from but battles and death. their local situation, and the peculiar “In the midst of all these subjects nature of their manufactures, essen. of attention, let us never forget tially a commercial people, it is that the only guarantee of liberty, their business, by equity, fair deal. is, arms. Though a part of our ing, and good faith, as well as by fellow citizens be necessarily called the produce of the country, to draw to the oceupations of agriculture, to their territory, merchants from peought never to forget that we are all parts of the world. Commerce all soldiers, and that warlike na. being to us the source of all kinds tions alone, have been able to preof riches ; strangers who come to serve their liberties. Let us bear seek their fortunes in our ports, in mind, bow a handful of Greeks must receive the same protection we confounded the rage of a million enjoy ourselves, and be treated with of Barbarians, who had come to that hospitality they well deserve. subdue them to slavery. To feed commerce, and raise it to swear to imitate their example. Let a state of the highest activity ; af. us swear to observe ourselves, and ter restoring the dignity, and vene. make others observe, our sacred ration due to religion, purified mo. constitution, and rather to die than rality, re-established good morals, to suffer that, ever, in the smallest and encouraged agriculture and instance, it should be violated.”commerce, great exertions remaini Given at head quarters, at the Cape, still to be made. It is not permit. 17th of February, 1807, fourth ted to us to neglect the use of arms. year of independence.” The enemy watches our motions, The readers of Dodsley's Annual and keeps an eye on our proceed. Register Continued*, will recollect a ings. The affections of our friends parallel to the patriotism, virtues, and are yet without any guarantee. Tres talents, for government, as well as ties of alliance must connect us war, in another native of St. Do. with the latter. With arms in our mingo, Toussaint L'Ouverture, hands, we must always be ready to who, after a short but brilliant ca. fight the former.-The politics of reer in St. Domingo, fell into the

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hands of the French, and conse- tures on-board the neutral vessels quently into a dungeon, where he to any of the ports of the united soon died, as was supposed of poi. kingdom. This measure was cer.

tainly wisely calculated both for enThe whole of the code of Chris- couraging the trade of Hayti, and of tophe, displays patriotism, modera. Great Britain and Ireland. tion, firmness, and political wisdom. Another event, fortunate for the

The tenth head, guaranteeing the British commerce, happened on neighbouring colonies, was a mas, the 1st of January, 1807. 'The terly stroke of policy. “ The go. island of Curaçoa was taken by a vernment of Hayti, declares to the squadron of British frigates, compowers possessing colonies in the manded by captain Brisbane, under neighbourhood, never to interfere the orders of vice-admiral Dacres, in the government of those coun. with the loss of only three men kil. tries. The people of Hayti make led, and fourteen wounded. Yet no conquests beyond their own isle, the harbour was defended by regu. and content themselves with the con. lar fortifications, of two tiers of servation of their own territory." guns, Fort Amsterdam alone mount.

A number of turbulent persons ed 66 pieces of cannon. The en. in the southern part of Hayti, had trance was only fifty yards wide, formed designs of revolt and revo. and across it were moored two fri. lution in Jamaica, and had sentemis- gates, and two large schooners of saries there for that purpose.

But

A chain of forts on the comgeneral Christophe, who had been manding heights of Misleburg, and informed of the plot, and who were Fort Republique, deemed nearly the principal individuals concerned impregnable, was within distance of in it, immediately denounced them, grape shot, and enfiladed the whole and they were arrested. -- It was im. harbour. Soon after day-break, the possible for the British government British frigates made all possible to be otherwise than on good terms sail in close order of battle. The with such a neighbour. An order vessels appointed to intercept their of council was issued at the court entrance, were taken by boarding; of St. James's, February 1807, au- the lower forts, the citadel, and thorizing all British merchant-men town of Amsterdam, by storm. The bound for Buenos Ayres, and La port was entered at a quarter after Plata, to proceed to any port in the six in the morning. Before ten a island of St. Domingo, not under capitulation was signed. The Brithe power of France or Spain, there tish flag was hoisted on Fort La Re. to dispose of their cargoes, to take publique. And the inhabitants of the produce of the country in re. the town, to the number of 30,000,

and either to bring such car. swore allegiance to the British gogoes irectly to any port of the vernment. united kingdom of Great Britain Our affairs in the East Indies too and Ireland, or to ship them on. were prosperous; though symptoms board neutral vessels, to be sold at appeared of a lurking spirit of dis. any of the colonies of the enemy: content, alarm, and daring enterthe owners of the cargoes to return prise, bred by the late horrors at with the proceeds of such adven. Vellore, the unfortunate and

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frivoloas causes in which they oricommand of major-general Dickens, ginated, and the repulse of the and encamped before Comona, kis British arms, after two most principal fort. But, instead of at: desperate attempts on the strong, tackingit immediately, as the general and it would appear almost impreg. advised, the government procrasti. pable fortress of Burtpore, The nated the siege, and allowed him one pitiful alterations that had been so month to deliver himself up. During childishly introduced into the mili. the interval, he employed himself in tary dress of the Sepoys, were given widening his ditch, strengthening up immediately after the insurrec. his wall, and making every other tion and massacre at Vellore, in preparation he could think of for a July 1806. But for several months determined and resolute resistance. after, a spirit of alarm, restlessness, At the expiration of the month, he and commotion, was discerned sent word that he would deliver up among different corps of native both himself and the fort to the ge. troops : nor did this immediately or neral, provided he was assured that fully subside, even after the judi. his life was safe. But he would cious proclamation of the govern. never consent to appear before a ment of Madrass, December 3d, judge; as his government was not 1806, noticed in our last volume.* subject to our civil jurisprudence.

A chief, named Dundie Khan, had In consequence of orders from the received a tract of land, in addition governor-general, the place was in. to that which he held of the com. vested. Trenches were dug, bat. pany, for his neutrality during the teries erected, and a breach that had war with Holkar, and Scindiah. been made, reported to be practi. This man being called on to pay his cable. On the 18th of November, tribute, said he was not then able to 1807, about three o'clock P. M. do it; alledging in excuse, that his five companies of his majesty's 17th ryots (tenants) had not brought regiment of infantry, the same re. into his treasury money sufficient to giment that had been so severely pay the demand, He was treated handled in the mad attack on the geatly: but next year, 1807, acom. fortress of Burtpore, with some plaint was again made against Dun. companies of Sepoys, went down die Khan to the judge and magistrate to the breach. At the same time, an of the district, who sent him a sube attack was made on a fortified gar. pena, commanding his attendance in den, to the right of the fort; which the court, by a hircarrah, who is a was repelled with great slaughter on messenger of the lowest class. This the side of the storming party. indignity was so offensive to Dun. When our men descended the head üe's pride, that he ordered the of the glacis, they saw a ditch 28 man's head to be cut off. For this feet deep, and 44 broad ; but found atrocious act of contumacy, he was numberless obstacles in the way of again summoned before the civil their ascending to the breach, for tribunal, and again refused to make at the bottom of the ditch, the ene. his appearance: whereupon a mili- my had dug pits, which they had tary force was called out, under the filled with powder : and on these,

• HISTORY OF EUROPE, p. 254.

they

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they threw lighted choppers ; Co. proaches began to be made to Ghur. Terings for huts made of dry wood nowrie ; and when these were suffi. and straw, and cemented with pitch; ciently advanced, shells were by which numbers of our thrown, which annoyed the troops were blown up. Exposed to this of Dundie Khan, who had no garfurnace, while bastions still en. den to retreat to, as at Comona, so tire completely enfiladed the whole much, that, about seven in the ever. of the storming party, our troops ing, of the 10th of December, 1807, remained for two hours, leaving no. they abandoned the fort and escapthing untried that the most deter- edacross the Jumna.* This attempt mined bravery could suggest for to take the fort of Comona, with. getting into the fort; without effect. out either filling up, or partly filling They were at last called off from up the ditch, or destroying the bas. this murderous scene, not without tions, seems to exceed in absurdity, difficulty. Next night the enemy and a wanton disregard to the lives evacuated the fortress of Comona, of men, the attempt to reduce and proceeded to that of Ghurnow. Buenos Ayres with iron crows and rie. The loss of the British at Co- bayonets. Whether the conduct of moda, was 35 officers, killed and general Dickens was ever made a wounded, and 700 men, of whom subject of inquiry, we have not 147 were Europeans. On the learnt. 24th of November, regular ap

* Extract of a letter from an officer, dated at Ghurnowrie, in the Doab, 97th of December, 1807.

CHAP

1

CHAP. XIII.

General Elections.--Important change in public opinion, respect.

ing an usual Majority in the House of Commons.-Westminster Election.-Meeting of Parliament-His Majesty's Speech.--De. bates thereon, in both Houses.-Measure for obviating the incon. teniencies respecting private Bills, arising from the late Disso. lution of Parliament.-Debate thereon.--Appointment of a new Committee of Finance.-House of Commons, in a Committee of Supply.-- Army and Navy Estimates.-New Military Plan for recruiting and

reinforcing the Army.-Irish Arms, and Insurrection Bills. - Motion by. Lord Coehrane, for discovering to the Public what Sinecure Pluces, Pensions, fc. were held by Mem. bers of Parliament.- Bill against the granting of Offices in reversion, thrown out of the House of Lords.- Address by the House of Commons to His Majesty, on the subject of granting Places in Retersion.— Notice by Mr. Bankes of a Motion against Places in Reversion, to be made by him early in next Session

of Parliament.--Prorogation of Parliament. THE

HE most striking feature or merely for the purpose of getting

characteristic in the general possession of the public money. elections that followed the disgo. The people appeared very well dislutions of the short parliament, in posed to believe both. Both par. April 1807, was, that the progress ties, the Outs and the Ins, as they of public opinion appeared to have were familiarly called, had so unia in a great measure, superseded the formly embarrassed government, influence of faction and party. when it was not in their own hands, The men in power, with their de. and yet so uniformly taken the first pendents, cried, Beware of popery, opportunity of deserting the cause and of the encroachments of power. they had professed to maintain, ful families combined, on the pre- that the people at large had abso. rogative of the crown: the late mi. lutely lost all considence in a na. nisters, with theirs, Beware of the jority of them; a change in public intrigues and artifices of subtle opinion, fraught with many remote, if courtiers, and chicaning lawyers. not speedy consequences. Sir Francis The great opposite factions were Burdett, and lord Cochrane, became loud in their accusations of each popular by disclaiming all attach. other. Each maintained, that the ment to all parties and factions, other grasped at offices, and the and declaring their wishes to overadministration of government, not turn abuses, and nothing but abuthat they might have an opportu. ses; to look only to the measures sity of serving the country, but of men, and not to their persoas

and

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