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CIA P. XV.

Partitions of power among conquering princes or military chicfs,

not a novelty.- Projected partition of Europe at the conferences at Tilsit, betreen Bronaparte, and the Emperor Alexander.Pleasures taken by Buonaparte for carrying his design into er. erution.-Consolidation of his porccr at home and abroad. Flatters, cajoles, and at the same time, bridles more and more the French nation.-Continental blockade. This a pretert for extending his conquests.-His intrigues in Spain.-Journey to Italy - And Invasion of Portugal.

LUMAN nature being at all cipled, and of such insatiable am.

times, and in all places, the bition, fell into the snares of the same, the conduct of men is often Italian, with an imbecility bordering found to be similar, in similar cir. on insanity. The truth is, the cumstances. Partitions of power youthful mind and conduct of Álex. and territory have been made on ander, naturally weak, and prone sandry occasions, as we learn from withal to seusual gratification, was history in antient times, among so. moulded at will by favourites who vereign princes and other chiefs, at stamped it alternately with the im. the head of immense armies; who pression of their own opposite cha. afterwards, on the very first fa. racters and interests. Ever since voorable opportunity, quarrelled, the conclusion of the reign of Ca. attacked, and destroyed one ano. therine the Great, there had been at ther. Tous Julius Cæsar became St. Petersburgh, what was called perpetual dictator, and Octavius, an anti-commercial party, in other emperor of Rome. It was thus, words, a faction inimical to En. that in the decline of the Roman gland: this party was composed empire, the most powerful gover. chiefly of French emigrants, and nors of provinces first made a par. Frenchmen become subjects of Rus. tition of the imperial dominions sia by long residence. anong themselves, and afterwards insinuated themselves into many determined by the sword, which situations that gave them opportu. should wear the purple. It was on nities of exercising their talents, and the same principle of mutual aggran. indulging their natural inclination dizement, that peace was concluded to intrigue; particularly those of between Buonaparte and the Rus. tutors or preceptors in noble fami. sian emperor, Alexander, who, not lies. They breathed all the narecollecting the danger of destroy. tional enmity of France towards ing every barrier between himself, England; though sometimes foiled, and such a man as the ruler of they constantly renewed their at. France, so powerful, so unprin. tacks; and after the peace of Til.

These mea

sit, finding that Alexander had day disavow this, or be for ever at suffered himself to be cajoled by war with his natural ally. How Buonaparte, they improved every great the contrast! How direct the savourable occurrence to attach him opposition between this, and the more and more to France. Tutor. declaration of Russia

against ed by this faction, he gave out, in a France, in September 1806!+ In proclamation or declaration*, as ań ukase of November 1806, the his principal motive, or, “that which government of France is called an most sensibly touched his heart,” usurpation. Though the emperor for joining in a maritime confede. was seduced by the promises and ration against England, that she had cajoleries of Buonaparte, the Rusharassed the Russian trade. IIis sian nation remained friendly to the other grounds of complaint were: English ; though by an ukase of that the British cabinet had refused the 10th of November, 1807, an to accept his offered mediation for embargo was laid on all English peace between France and En. ships in the harbours of Russia

. glaud; the seizure of the Danish But, through the favour of the in. fleet; and that England instead of habitants, and even the officers of bearing a part in the late war the revenue, the English were apagainst France, instigated by herself, prised of this beforehand so that and which was her own cause, had, they had time to set sail, and make for her own selfish ends, sent out their escape: which they did, with expeditions to Buenos Ayres, Sicily, a favourable wind, to the number Naples, and Egypt.— There was of eighty sail, with their cargoes, none of these grounds, except the and arrived all of them safely in Jast, that was in any degree even British harbours. plausible.- Austria and Prussia, That a partition of Europe was too were obliged to declare war 'carved out, and settled between against English commerce: but they Buonaparte and Alexander, in their had the modesty and good sense not conferences at Tilsit, cannot be to accompany their declarations doubted. His majesty, Napoleon, with any grounds for this conduct. in his speech to the legislative body

The emperor of Russia farther at th:e opening ofone of their sessions, declares in his proclamation,“ that in August 1807, says: 1 “ France he annuls for ever, every preceding is united to the people of Germany, convention between England and by the laws of the confederation of Russia, and particularly that en. the Rhine; to those of the Spains, tered into in 1801. lle proclaims of Ilolland, of Switzerland, and anew the principles of the armed the Italies, by the laws of our fe. neutrality, that monument of the derative system. Our new relations wisdom of the empress Catherine, with Russia are cemented by the and engages never to recede from reciprocal esteem of these two grand that system.” Most improvident nations.”- In the same speech, declaration ! Either he must oue speaking of Alexander, he calls him

* State Papers, p. 761.
+ See State Papers, Vol. XLVIII, 1806, p. 799,

Moniteur, 17111 August.

the

the powerful emperor of the possession of Etruria, the states of NORTH. By this federative sys. the church, the Hanseatic towns, tem, of which Buonaparte is the and Denmark; and to subdue absolute head and ruler, all the west Spain, Portugal, and finally Aus. of Europe, with the isles belonging tria. "And, while he meditated the to Italy and the transmarine domi. extension of his conquests, it was nions of Spain, for this is implied necessary in the first place, to secure in the Spains and Italies, belongs the possession of those he had alto himself

. He makes no mention ready made, among which, France of the sovereigns of those countries herself ought to be comprehended, whose power is intended to be only and by all means, to prevent insurtemporary and nominal, but only of rection and revolt, both at home and the people. What he calls a fede. abroad.--As to the French, he set rative system, on this occasion, he himself to manage them by gratifyhas since denominated the Great ing their national vanity, and feed. Empire. In short, according to ing their hopes, while he fastened Buonaparte's views and designs, more and more around their necks there are but two independent na- the rope of despotism. To shew tions in Europe,-two great em. that the interests of the capital still pires.—The one under the dominion occupied a place in his mind, even of the powerful emperor of the amidst campaigns and battles, he NORTH, and the other under his issued a decree from his camp at own. The arrangement agreed on Warsaw, January 13, 1807, for at Tilsit, bas been stated in a Co. the construction of a new bridge ruana gazette, August 1808 : on the Seine, in front of the Champ "Buonaparte, or, as he affects to be de Mars, the enlargement of quays, called, Napoleon, to seize all that and the excavation of four common part of the continent of Europe, sewers, for receiving the contents which would extend in one line of the other sewers of Paris. A from the mouth of the Vistula to triumphant arch at the Thuilleries Corfo*, and confined in the other was completed on the 1st of De. directions by the Baltic, the Ocean, cember, and, about the same time, the Mediterranean, and the Adri. a magnificent fount in front of the stic. Russia was to hold the rest.” School of Medicine. Affecting to la this statement of the partition, believe the professions of the Turkey in Europe is not excepted! French, when he was at the dis. it is probable that Buonaparte, who tance of 500 leagues, sincere, he Fas aware of the long entertained says, in his speech to his senate, designs of Russia, and the eager already quoted, “ You are a good desire of the archduke Constantine and a great people;" — vous étes un 10 wear a crown, deemed it politic, bon et grand peuple. He briefly for the present, to let the cabinet stated, or rather hinted at, the of St. Petersburg. indulge its fan. measures that had been taken, and

institutions established, or to be In pursuance of this project, it established, for the promotion of remained for Buonaparte to take agriculture and the arts, the revival

* Situate very nearly in the same longitude.

cies.

Vol. XLIX.

of commerce and general industry; Prussian prisoners, taken by the leaving what was farther to be com. French in the war with Prussia, municated on these heads to his 1806-7, is estimated at 5,179 offi. ministers. Mollien, the minister of cers, and 123,418 prirates and the French treasury, or exchequer, subalterns: the number of kiled in the printed Irudget, as we would at about 50,000.

There is a very say, for 1807, congratulates his natural transition from this exulting emperor on this subject in the fol. report of the minister of war, to that lowing terms : " Your majesty, of Visronti, one of the directors of sire, has protected your people the Imperial Museum of Arts from both the scourge and burthen records, as the spoil collected in the of war. Your armies have added North by the Protector of the to their harvest of glory one of fo- Arts, 350 paintings; 242 rare and reign contributions, which has en. precious MSS. many of them ori. sured their support, their clothing, ental; 50 statues; 80 busts; 199 and their pay.” This last compli- articles of bronze, armour, &c. ment, indeed, had nothing in it of At the same time that Buona the exaggeration of flattery. During parte used every means for flatter the whole of the campaign, or ra. ing French vanity, and feeding the ther campaigns, of 1807, in the hopes of a sanguine and volatile North, the treasury of Paris was people, he was anxious to destroy overflowing. A large sum, exclu. any remains they possessed of li sive of the foreign or exterior ex. berty, and to render the form of actions for the maintenance of the government purely monarchical. troops, the splendid establishments By a senatus-consultum of the of the generals, and the gratification 19th August, communicated to the of private cupidity, was thrown into legislative body on the 18th of Septhe list of ways and means, in or- tember, the tribunate was abolishder to favour an idea that had been ed, and the members of this, stil! publicly insinuated, that foreign retaining their former salaries un tribute would one day exonerate diminished, transferred into the the masters of the world from the legislative body: committees of burthens they now bore; just as in which were thenceforth to do the the history of the Romans, the mi. business of the tribunes. It was litary at all times, and at one pe- possible that a conjuncture might riod the whole states of Italy, were arise, which might strike ont a exempted from taxation. In the spark of liberty, and even kindle budget of 1807, the whole of the a flame of patriotism among the receipts of the treasury for the tribunes, a kind of representatives, preceding year,

stated at or advocates of the people. But 986,992,539 livres; but this print. there was no danger of such an as ed account is generally supposed to cident happening in the senate be greatly short of what was actu. The princes of the blood, that is ally collected: which has been esti. the blood of Buonaparte, are mem. mated by some at 50, and by others bers of the senate by their quality at not less than 55 millions sterling. the great dignitaries of the state.

In the report of the minister of. officially. And to this body, are war, of July 1807, the number of associated the generals of division

detached

was

detached from foreign service : so is, a government on the plan of that that all these classes taken together, of France, and the Freuch language possess almost a numerical prepon. established in its courts.

in every de rancy in the senate. · The meet. thing, France gave the ton, and inys of the senate are always pri. was held to be a model of excel. vate. Strangers may be admitted lence. In one of the numbers of to thos- of the legislative body; the Westpha'ian Moniteur, the but not to those of the senate. French are called 6 lu noblesse This last, during the whole double du genre humain.Clerks were campaign in the North, was not once draughted from the post offices of esembled.

Paris to conduct sini'ar establishi. According to the constitution, meats in Hamburgh and Dantzig. the judges were chosen for life. The custom-house oilicers of Bour. But by a senatus-consultum of the deaux and Nants regulated the 12th of October this year, it was en. whole southern coast of the Baltic, acted, that they should undergo a For the purpose of excluding the probation of five years, and then be English commerce, as was given continued, or dismissed.

A com.

out, and probably still more for mission was also created for the that of retaining those parts in subpurpose of enquiring into the conjection, French troops lined the duct of the judges in being, that whole coast of Holland. Lewis the emperor might remove such as Buonaparte, acceding, of course, should be pronounced unfit for their to the desire of his brother, in stations. In all political cases, and shutting the ports of Holland against all cases of alleged fraud and eva. the English, was nevertheless be. sion, the authority of the ordinary lieved to be to indulgent to the courts was superseded by special trading nation on whom he was im. tribunals: one of which, consisting posed. Napoleon therefore, after of three judges appointed by the a severe reprimand, ordered him emperor, was established in each not to let the fishing-boats, by department.

means of which a smuggling trade The common objects of fiscal re- was carried on with the English, gulations, and the political dominion go to sea, without having in each of the conscription, and of espion, a soldier, who should make a re25e, placed all offices of profit or port of their proceedings. trast, throughout the empire, that Buonaparte, for the establish. is, France, Italy, and the Low ment of his iniluence and dominion Countries, in the hands of French. in Germany, demanded in marriage men. In the countries, nominally for his brother Jerome, whom 11e allied to France, which were treated bad torn from his American wife, with less levity than the territories a daughter of tho elector, or king sanexed to the empire, public au- of Saxony. The princess firmly thority was everywhere exercised resisted this project, and rejected by Frenchimen. Not only were the the proposal with abhorrence. Al. government and civil employments ter this, Jerome was married to the in the kingdom of Westphalia ad. princess Catharine of Wirtemberg. sinistered exclusively by French. in both Westphalia and Bavaria, men; but the Vapoleon code, that the men proper for bearing arms,

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