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gade, baron de Vegesack, under fire, obliged him to retire. My the orders of lieutenant-general column then made a movement, in baron d'Armfeldt. These columns, marching on the line, met with the enemy at Lüssow, attacked him, and, after a vigorous resistance, forced him to abandon that post, and to retire upon Suderhagen. Here the attack was again renewed; a very brisk fire from his light troops checked us for some time, but the fire from the artillery attached to our two columns, soon obliged him to retire upon Voigdehagen, where he was attacked in front by the column under baron d'Armfeldt, and re. pulsed with great loss; his left flank having been at the same time turned by the corps under the command of baron de Tavast.

Whilst our troops were carrying the village of Voigdehagen, the enemy had abandoned his batteries. and intrenchments before Stralsund, and had intrenched himself anew on the heights between Voigdehagen and Teschenhagen, on which he had planted a battery of four pieces of cannon and two howitzers, whose incessant fire prevented our troops from advancing, till our artillery had succeeded in dismounting them. The loss of the enemy on this occa sion must have been considerable, since an officer in the Dutch service has said, that only 24 men of his regiment were left alive. We had but three officers and about twenty

men wounded in this affair.

The enemy shortly afterwards quitted his position, and retired upon Teschenhagen, after having vainly attempted to make himself master of a marsh covered with un derwood, but was prevented from so doing by two companies of infantry, who, by a well-sustained

order to harass the left flank of the enemy, whose retreat shortly became genéral, retiring from post to post, with the loss of many prisoners, à quantity of baggage, and magazines of all kinds, of which we have not yet had time to make out complete returns. My column took possession of Loitz on the 2d of April, and, the same day, baron d'Armfeldt's column entered Greiss. wald, where it took six officers, and a great many French soldiers fell into our hands, as well as the enemy's hospital, where we recovered all the Swedish soldiers who had been wounded and taken prisoners in the action of the 14th March. Above 1000 muskets, 200 braces of pistols, and considerable magazines, were found there.

On the 3d April I entered Dem. nien with my column, and I sent on my light troops in pursuit of the enemy, towards Mecklenbourg. The garrison of Demnien were all made prisoners, after a feeble resistance. Some small detachments of hussars, sent in pursuit of the enemy, were continually coming in with French and Dutch prisoners; and three hussars alone took 104 men on the road to Neukahlan. A great number of prisoners were made, and some stands of arms and provisions taken from the enemy at Darguhn.

A detachment, commanded by lieutenant-colonel baron de Ceders. tröm, took a quantity of baggage from the enemy, together with two officers and two hundred and seven soldiers. The magazines that have been taken are very considerable, but there has not as yet been time to make out returns.

I cannot

I cannot sufficiently praise the good conduct, the bravery, the cool. ness, and the presence of mind, evinced by the chief of brigade, baron de Tavast.

Lieutenant-colonel baron de Cederstrom, major d'Essen, the captains of cavalry, Geger and de Pl. ten, and in general all the officers, as well as the troops, conducted themselves with such intrepidity and discipline, that I could not, without reproaching myself, refrain from expressing to your majesty the satisfaction I feel at having had the command of such brave men, or from giving them that honourable testimony on my part which their good conduct has so highly deserved.

Baron d'Armfeldt entered the town of Anclam this morning, where he took two officers and 150 men, besides a considerable booty; 1995 Frederics d'or, and about 3000 crowns, belonging to the enemy's military chest, have also been taken.

(Signed) H. F. D'ESSEN. Head-quarters at Demnien, April 4,

mit to your lordship two letters of the 21st and 28th ult. the former of which will have informed you of my arrival with the squadron near Constantinople, and the latter of an unlucky attempt, in which the marines and boat's crews of the Canopus, Royal George, Windsor Castle, and Standard, had been engaged.

It is now my duty to acquaint your lordship with the result of the resolution which, for the reasons I have already detailed, I had adopted, of forcing the passage of the Dardanelles. My letter of the 21st is dated at anchor eight miles from Constantinople, the wind not ad. mitting of a nearer approach; but the Endymion, which had been sent a-head with a flag of truce, at the request of the ambassador, was enabled to anchor within four miles. Had it been then in our power, we should then have taken our station off the town immediately; but as that could not be done from the rapidity of the current, I was rather pleased than otherwise with the position we had been forced to take; for in the conferences between Mr. Arbuthnot and the Captain Pacha, of the particulars of which your lordship is in possession, it was promised by Mr. A. that even when the squadron had arrived before Constantinople, the door to pacification should remain open, and that he would be willing to negociate on terms of equality and jus. tice. In consideration of this promise, and as it would convince the Porte of his majesty's earnest desire to preserve peace, as well as possess her ministers with a confidence of the sincerity of our professions, it was the opinion of Mr. A. in MY LORD, which I concurred, that it was for. Together with this letter, I trans- tunate we had anchored at a little

1807.

P. S. According to all the information received at the time of baron Bojie's departure, the number of prisoners already taken by the Swedish troops exceed 1000 men and 20 officers, amongst whom was a French colonel.

Particulars from Sir J. Duckworth
to Lord Collingwood, relative to
the Affairs of the Dardanelles, on
the 19th and 27th of February,
and 3d of March.
Royal George, without the Darda-
nelles, March 6.

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distance

distance from the capital, as a nearer approach might have given cause for suspicion and alarm, and have cut off the prospect of an amicable adjustment of the differences which had arisen.

At noon of the 21st, Ysak Bey, a minister of the Porte, came off; from whose expressions Mr. Ar. buthnot thought it impossible not to believe, that in the head of the government (for in the present instance every circumstance proved, that between him and the armed populace a great distinction is to be made) there really existed a sincere desire for peace; and the negociation was carried on, as will appear by the documents transmitted to your lordship, till the 27th; but from the moment of our anchorage till we weighed, on the morning of the 1st of March, such was the unfortunate state of the weather, that it was not at any time in our power to have occupied a situation which would have enabled the squadron to commence offensive operations against Constantinople. Ou SunOn Sun day the 22d alone, for a few hours, the breeze was sufficient to have stemmed the current where we were placed; but such was the rapidity on shore where the Endymion was at anchor, that captain Capel thought it very doubtful whether the squadron could have obtained an anchorage, though it had been held in preparative readiness, by signal, from day-break ; but the peculiarly unsettled state of the wea. ther, and the minister's desire that I should give a few hours for an answer to his letter, through Ysak Bey, prevented me from trying. Before five o'clock P. M. it was nearly calm, and in the evening the wind was entirely from the east

ward, and continued light airs or calm till the evening of the 28th, when it blew fresh from the N. E. and rendered it impossible to chang● our position.

Two days after our arrival near Constantinople, the ambassador found himself indisposed, and has been efer since confined with a fit of illness, so severe as to prevent him from attending to business. Under these circumstances he had delivered in on the 220, to the Turkish ministers, a projet, as the basis on which peace might he pre served; and at his desire, the subse quent part of the negociation was car. ried onin my name, with his advice and assistance: and while I lament most deeply, that it has not ended in the re establishment of peace, I derive consolation from the reflection, that no effort has been wanting on the part of Mr. Arbuthnot and myself to obtain such a result, which was soon seen, from the state of the preparations at Constantinople, could be effected by negociation only, as the strength of the current from the Bosphorus, with the circuitous eddies of the port, rendered it imprac. ticable to place ships for an attack without a commanding breeze; which, during the ten days I was off the town, it was not my good for tune to meet with.

I now come to the point of ex plaining to your lordship the mo tives which fixed me to decide on repassing the channel of the Darda. nelles, and relinquishing every idea of attacking the capital; and I feel confident it will require no argu ment to convince your lordship of the utter impracticability of our force having made any impression, as at this time the whole line of the coast presented a chain of batteries;

that

that twelve Turkish line of battle ships, two of them 3-deckers, with nine frigates, were with their sails bent, and apparently in readiness, filled with troops: add to this, near two hundred thousand were said to be in Constantinople, to march against the Russians: besides, there were an innumerable quantity of small craft, with boats; and firevessels had been prepared to act against us. With the batteries alone we might have coped, or with the ships, could we have got them out of their strong hold; but your lordship will be aware, that after combating the opposition which the re. sources of an empire had been many weeks employed in preparing, we should have been in no state to have defended ourselves against them as described, and then repass the Dardanelles. I know it was my duty, in obedience to your lordship's orders, to attempt every thing (governed by the opinion of the ambassador) that appeared within the compass of possibility; but when the unavoidable sacrifice of the squadron committed to my charge, (which must have arisen, had I waited for a wind to have enabled me to cannonade the town, unattended by the remotest chance of obtaining any advantage for his majesty's service), must have been the consequence of pursuing that object, it at once became my positive duty, however wounded in pride and ambition, to relinquish it; and if I had not been already satisfied on the subject, the increased opposi tion in the Dardanelles would have convinced me I had done right, when I resolved on the measure as indispensably necessary. I therefore weighed with the squadron on the morning of the 1st; and as it

had been reported, that the Turkish fleet designed to make an effort against us, to give them an opportunity, if such was really their intention, I continued to stand on and off during the day, but they showed no disposition to move. I therefore, as every hour was of importance, bore up at dusk with the squadron: we arrived off Point Pesquies towards the evening of the 2d instant; but the day-light would not admit of our attempting to pass the castles, and the squadron came to anchor for the night; we weighed in the morning, and, when I add that every ship was in safety outside of the passage about noon, it was not without the most lively sense of the good fortune that has attended us.

The Turks had been occupied unceasingly, in adding to the number of their forts; some had been already completed, (and others were in a forward state. The fire of the two inner castles had, on our going up, been severe; but, I am sorry to say, the effects they have had on our ships returning, has proved them to be doubly formidable: in short, had they been al lowed another week to complete their defences throughout the channel, it would have been a very doubt, ful point, whether a return lay open to us at all. The manner in which they employed the interval of our absence has proved their assiduity. I transmit your lordship an account of the damages sustained by the respective ships; as also their loss in killed and wounded, which your lordship will perceive is far from trifling. The mainmast of the Windsor Castle being more than three quarters cut through by a gra nite shot of eight hundred weight,

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we have found great difficulty in saving it.

I have the honour to be, &c.
J. T. DUCKWORTH.

P.S. I am sorry to observe, that, in the course of this letter to your lordship, I have omitted to mention, that having placed the hon. captain Capel, in the Endymion, which had been advanced in the stream of the Bosphorus, for the purpose of ascertaining when the squadron could stem the current, and for a watch ful observation of the movements of the Turks, as well as to facilitate communication with the Porte, I feel myself indebted to that of ficer for his zealous attention and assiduity during the time he was placed in that arduous situation.

J. T. D.

Royal George, off Constantinople,
MY LORD,
Feb. 21.

I had the honour of transmitting to your lordship, by the late firstJieutenant of the Ajax, the various details relating to the transactions of the squadron till the 17th ult. Your lordship will from thence have been informed of my resolution of passing the Dardanelles the first fair wind. A fine wind from the southward permitted me to carry it into effect on the morning of the 19th. Information had been given me by his majesty's minister, Mr. Arbuthnot, and sir Thomas Louis, that the Turkish squadron, consisting of a 64 gun ship, four frigates, and several corvettes, had been for some time at anchor within the Inner Castle; and conceiving it possible they might have remained there, I had given orders to rearadmiral sir Sidney Smith, to bring up with the Thunderer, Standard, and Active, and destroy them,

should our passage be opposed, At a quarter before nine o'clock, the whole of the squadron had passed the outer castles, without having returned a shot to their fire (which occasioned but little injury). This forbearance was produced by the desire of his majesty's minister, expressed, to preserve every appearance of amity, that he might nego. ciate with the strongest proof of the pacific disposition of our sorereign towards the Porte; a second battery on the European side fired also with as little effect. At half past nine o'clock, the Canopus, which, on account of sir Thomas Louis's knowledge of the Channel, joined to the steady gallantry which I had before experienced, had been appointed to lead, entered the narrow passage of Sestos and Abydos, and sustained a very heavy cannonade from both castles, with in point-blank shot of each. They opened their fire on our ships as they continued to pass in succession, although I was happy in observing that the very spirited return it met with had so considerably diminished its force, that the effect on the sternmost ships could not have been so severe.

Immediately to the N. E. of the castles, and between them and Point Pesquies, on which a formidable battery had been newly erected, the small squadron which I have already alluded to were at anchor. The van division of our squadron gave them their broadsides as they passed, and sir Sidney Smith, with his division, closed into the midst; and the effect of the fire was such, that in half an hour the Turks had all cut their cables to run on shore. The object of the rear-admiral was then to destroy them, which was

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