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ed the notice of mankind. Some naturalists have asserted, that they are capable of reasoning and reflecting; and that they are guided by an instinctive sagacity much superior to that of the brute creation in general. They are, however, certainly destitute of every essential faculty of man: incapable as well of thought as of speech, there is an immense interval betwixt the creature formed in mind after the image of God, and these mere brutes, bearing some rude traits of the elemental parts of the human frame.

Every one will acknowledge that, in general, both apes and monkies are excessively ugly. Their limbs are peculiarly strong; and they have great delight in breaking, tearing in pieces, or stealing whatever comes in their way. In all their operations and manœuvres, their agility is astonishing. Whenever any thing offends or throws them into a passion, they indicate their rage by chattering violently with their teeth. Many of them, if beaten, will sigh, groan, and weep, like children; but most of them, on these occasions, utter dreadful shrieks of distress. They make such ridiculous grimaces, place themselves in such strange and whimsical attitudes, and in other respects conduct themselves so singularly, that few persons, even of those who most dislike them, can on these occasions refrain from smiling, and nearly all must be amused by them.

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It is said, that there are some races of monkies which keep up a certain discipline among themselves. Though active in the highest degree in pillaging plantations and cultivated grounds, they seldom go on important expeditions for this purpose but in numerous troops. If they meditate an attack (for instance) on a

melon bed, a large party of them en. ters the garden. The animals range themselves, if possible, under a hedge or fence, at some distance from each other, and throw the melons, from hand to hand, with astonishing rapidity. The line they form usually terminates in a mountain or forest, and all their operations are executed during the most profound silence.

Wafer tells us, that when he was on shore in the island of Gorgonia, he observed several monkies (of the four-fingered species) come down, at low water, to the rocks of the sea coast, for the purpose of devouring oysters. They got at the food contained within the shells, by placing one oyster on a stone, and beating it in pieces with another. The malbrouk of Bengal [Simia Faunus of Linnæus] is reported to do the same.

Many of these animals, and particularly the preacher and fourfingered monkies (Simia beelzebul and Simia paniscus of Linnæus), have sometimes dreadful contentions, in which great numbers on both sides are frequently slain. They employ weapons in their combats; and often arm themselves with stones and pieces of wood, which they throw with sure aim, and astonishing violence at each other. They have, on these occasions, neither deserters nor stragglers; for in times of danger they never forsake each other. They run along the plains, and even leap from tree to tree, with a surprizing rapidity.


The instincts and sagacity of these animals are, in many instances, such as not to be injured or diminished even by captivity. In some houses we see the wanderu (Simia Silenus of Linnæus), a cunning and audacious monkey, much inclined to ridicule and grimace. He may be taught to


dress and undress himself, to spin, to poke the fire, to push a wheel-barrow, or play on a tambourine. He will wash earthen vessels or glasses without breaking them, and carry light burthens from place to place, when ever he is ordered to do so. A monkey of this species has been observed to turn a spit with one hand, whilst with the other he held a piece of bread under the meat to receive the gravy: it is perhaps needless to remark, that he immediately afterwards devoured


A wanderu was exhibited at Bourdeaux, in the year 1762, which by his actions excited much astonishment in the spectators. When mounted on an extended cord, he first stretched out each of his fect to have them chalked; then, taking in his hand a pole weighted at each end (similar to the balance employed by rope-dancers), he walked backward and forward, cut capers, and executed numerous other tricks, with infinitely greater ease and celerity than the most expert rope-dancer that had before been seen.

The monkies, however, that are trained and educated by some of the Indian buffoons, are reported to be by far the most agile and adroit of all animals that are reared in captivity.

Some of the apes, such as the oran otans, the patas and the dog-faced apes, are said always to place a centinel on the top of a tree, or on some other elevated situation, to keep watch when the rest are either about to sleep or to engage in any marauding expedition. The motions or the cry of this animal are a signal of danger, and immediately the whole troop scampers off with the utmost rapidity. It has been asserted, but few persons will be inclined to credit the assertion, that the centinels are often punished with death for neglecting their duty.

The Europeans at the Cape of Good Hope sometimes catch young apes by stratagem, or by previously killing their dam, and bring them up with care for the purpose of rendering them afterwards serviceable. When they have attained their growth, they are taught to guard the house of their owner, during the night, and on all occasions of his absence. This they do with great fidelity; but as they increase in age, their mischievous propensities develope themselves, and they oftentimes become extremely ill-tempered and ferocious. These apes, which are of the ursine species, are so much inclined to imitation, that they seldom see any thing done without attempting to do the same. Some of them are very stubborn and perverse; but many are readily susceptible of education, learning, without difficulty, almost every thing that is taught them.

Condamine and Bouger saw, in Peru, some domesticated monkies of large size, which had been admitted into the apartments of the academicians, during the time they were employed in making observations in the mountains. These animals greatly excited the astonishment of the academicians, by afterwards, of their own accord, going through a series of imitations. They planted the signals, ran to the pendulum, and then immediately to the table, as if for the purpose of committing to paper the observations they had made. They occasionally pointed the telescopes towards the heavens, as if to view the planets or stars, and performed numerous other feats of a similar nature.

The whimsical occurrence which took place before the troops of Alex ander the Great, is too singular and too amusing to be passed over in si


lence. The soldiers under command.
of this monarch always marched in
order of battle. They happened one
night to encamp on a mountain that
was inhabited by a numerous tribe of,
monkies. On the following morning,
they saw at a distance what appeared
to be an immense body of troops ap-
proaching them, as if with the inten-
tion of coming to an engagement.-
The commanders, as well as the sol-
diers, were in the utmost astonishment.
Having entirely subdued the prince of
the country, they could not conceive
from whence this new force could
have come; they had not previously
been informed of any thing of the
kind. The alarm was immediately
given, and in a short time the whole
Macedonian army was drawn up in
battle-array, to combat with this un-
expected enemy. The prince of the
country, who was a prisoner in the
camp, was interrogated respecting it.
He was surprised to be informed of
such a force in the neighbourhood,
and requested permission to behold
it himself. He smiled at the mistake;
and the Macedonians were not a little
chagrined, that they should have been
such fools as to take a troop of these
imitative animals for a band of armed


All the apes and monkies are reported to entertain a natural aversion and antipathy to the crocodile. It is said, that some of them will even faint at seeing or smelling the skin of these frightful reptiles.

The animals of that subdivision of the tribe denominated sapajous have long tails, which they can coil up, and employ (in some respects, but particularly in descending trees,) as a hand. By means of their tails, they are also able to swing themselves backward and forward amongst the branches of trees.

Monkies are seldom known to produce young ones, except in hot climates. The Barbary apes, however, (Simia inuus of Linnæus), which are found wild at Gibraltar, bring young ones in great abundance amongst the inaccessible precipices of the rock.— A female of this species has also been known to produce offspring in a state of captivity, at one of the hotels in Paris. A striated monkey (Simia jacchus) brought forth young ones in the house of a merchant at Lisbon, and another in that of a lady at Paris.

Female monkies generally carry their young ones nearly in the same manner as negresses do their children. The little animals cling to the back of their dam by their hind feet, and embrace the neck with their paws.— When the females suckle them, it is said that they hold them in their arms, and present the teat as a woman would to a child.

Monkies usually live in much more extensive troops than apes. The troops of patas, or red monkies of Senegal, are reported to amount sometimes to as many as three or four thousand. Some naturalists believe that they form a sort of republic, in which a great degree of subordination is kept up; that they always travel in good order, conducted by chiefs, the strongest and most experienced animals of their troop; and that on these occasious, some of the largest monkies are likewise placed in the rear, the sound of whose voice immediately silences that of any of the others that happen to be too noisy. The orderly and expert retreat of these creatures from danger, is an amusing sight to Europeans, unaccustomed to the native manners of such animals. The negroes believe them to be a vagabond race of men, who are too indolent to construct habi


tations to live in, or to cultivate the ground for subsistence. They sometines commit dreadful havoc in the fields and gardens of persons who inhabit the countries where they abound.

The different species of monkies are seldom known to intermix or associate together, but each tribe generally inhabits a different quarter. The negroes who have not been taught the use of fire-arms, are said to kill them by shooting them in the face with arrows. But it often happens, when the sapajous are shot, that in the act of falling from the tree they seize hold of a branch with their tai!, and, dying in this situation, continue suspended even for a long time after death. When a monkey of some of the larger species is wounded, the rest will frequently collect together, and with great fury pursue the hunters to their huts or lodgments.

It was formerly supposed, that nian was the only animal which could be infected by the small-pox and measles; but it is now ascertained that monkies, kept in houses where these complaints prevail, are also liable to receive the infection.

In the year 1767, the inhabitants of St. Germain-en-Laie, near Paris, were witnesses to a monkey's catching the small-pox, by playing with children who were infected, and the animal bore the marks of it for a considerable time afterwards. A circumstance nearly similar was observed also at Paris. M. Paulet, a medical man of some eminence, was called upon, in 1770, to attend a person who had the measles. As the disease was contagious, he requested that every precaution might be taken to prevent it from spreading; and particularly that a monkey, accustomed to play with the children of the house,

should on no account have any communication with the invalid. The request was made too late. One of the sick person's sisters, and at the same time also the monkey, which had been accustomed to sleep at the foot of her bed, was attacked by the disease. The monkey, in consequence, was treated in the same manner as a human subject. M. Paulet, on examining the state of the animal's pulse, found it so quick that it was is arcely possible to count the pulsations. In the auxillary artery, these were much more sensible than in any other; and he declared that, as nearly as he could count them, they were about five hundred in a minute. We ought to remark, that this monkey was of very low stature, and that, in all animals, the shorter they are the quicker is their pulse. These facts, which are well authenticated, sufficiently prove (independently of others) that the small-pox and measles are not diseases entirely confined to the human species; but that animals, as well as men, are liable to receive the infection from them. Numerous instances have occurred of the small-pox being communicated to and from animals. Those from cattle are now well known. A shepherd infected with the small-pox has been known to communicate the disease to his sheep, and these sheep to those of another flock. A horse has been observed to be covered with the pustules of the smail pox. Goats are sometimes attacked by it, and, when this is the case, great numbers generally perish. (See Roder. à Castro, lib. 4. de Meteor. Microc. cap. 6.) This dreadful contagion is likewise frequently known to extend to the flocks of rein deer in Lapland.

Such is a summary of the principal observations that have been transmit


ted to us by different travellers, respecting the manners, and habits of life of the animals which constitute this interesting tribe; and from what has been said, it appears that they have a nearer alliance than any other quadruped (in the general conformation of their bodies) to the human race. They, consequently, have the art of imitating buman actions better than any others, since they are able- use their fore-feet as hands. From the general organization of the monkies, they are likewise capable of an education nearer allied to that of man, than any other animal. Some naturalists have attributed infinitely too much sagacity to them, whilst others have certainly not allowed enough. The monkies seem to do those things which mankind do before their reason is matured by age; and in this respect there is no other quadruped which bears any resemblance to them. Most animals seem at times to be actuated by the spirit of revenge: by the different means that are employed to gratify this passion, we may in a measure judge of the different degrees of their instinct; and every one knows how greatly the monkey exceeds all other brutes in its vindictive malice. There appears, in some measure, an analogy even betwixt the vices (if we may so call them) of the monkies, and the disgusting brutality too often observable in the vicious and degraded part of mankind.

The animals of the monkey tribe differ very essentially from each other in their general manners and habits of life. The oran otan is susceptible of more considerable attainments than any of the others. The short muzzled monkies, with long tails, such as the greater part of the guenons, sapajous, and sagoins, are for

the most part exceedingly tractabik, and receive a certain degree of instruction without much difficulty. But some of the apes, and babooks, with long muzzles, are so savage and ferocious as to be incapable of any education whatever.

The monkies of the new continent, as might naturally be supposed, differ (at least in some degree) in their ba bits of life from those of the old world. The Great Author of Nature has assigned to them several characteristics that are peculiar to themselves: such, amongst others, are the situation and separation of the nasal orifices; and the presence of two additional grinders in each jaw. We, likewise, are acquainted with no species of monkey, belonging to the ancient world, that has a preheusile tail, or the bony pouch observable in the throat of the preacher monkey and the arabata, (Simia beelzebul and Simia seniculus of Linnæus).

In some countries, monkies, even in their wild state, are rendered serviceable to mankind. It is said, that in districts where pepper and cocoa grow, the inhabitants, availing themselves of the imitative faculties, and the agility of the monkies, are able to procure an infinitely greater quan tity of these articles than they could do by any other means. They mount some of the lowest branches of the trees, break off the extremities where the fruit grows, and then descend and carefully range them together on the ground. The animals afterwards ascend the same trees, strip the branches all the way to the top, and dispose them in a similar manner. After the monkies have gone to rest, the Indians return and carry off the spoil.

In some places it is this inclination to imitate human actions which leads to their destruction, The In

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