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ians carry in their hands vessels filled with water, and rub their faces with it, in the presence of the monkies; then substituting a kind of glue instead of water, leave the vessels behind them, and retire. The observant creatures seize the vessels, and do the same; when the glue, adhering strongly to their hair and eyelids, completely blinds them, and prevents every possibility of their effecting an escape.

In other places, the natives take to the habitations of the monkies a kind of boots, which they put on and pull off their legs several times successively. These are then rubbed over in the inside with a strong glue; and when the monkies attempt to do the same, they are unable to disengage themselves, and, consequently, are caught withour difficulty.

Sometimes the inhabitants carry in their hands a mirror, and appear to amuse themselves by looking at it in different attitudes. In place of these they leave a kind of traps, not unlike the glasses in external appearance, which, when the animals take them up, seize and secure them by the paws. The inhabitants of St. Vincent le Blanc catch monkies in several kinds of traps and snares. Sometimes, when they have caught the young ones, they put them into a cage, and appear to teaze and torment them, in order that they may likewise catch the parents.

The hunters of some countries place near the haunts of monkies vessels containing strong and intoxicating liquors. The animals drink of them, and in a short time become so drunk as to lie down on the spot and fall asleep.

Some of the Indians ascend to the summits of the mountains in which the animals breed, and construct there pile of wood, round the base of VOL. XLIX.

which they spread a quantity of maize. They place on the pile some substance, which, on being exposed to heat, explodes with tremendons noise. This is contrived to explode during the time that the monkies are employed in devouring the maize, and, in the terror and astonishment, the old ani mals scamper off on all sides with the utmost rapidity, leaving their young ones a prey to the hunters.

The dexterity of monkies is such, that, although burthened by their offspring clinging to their backs, they can leap from tree to tree, if the distance is not very great, and secure their hold among the branches with the greatest certainty. When they perceive any person taking aim at them, either with a gun or bow, they cry out and grind their teeth sometimes in the most horrible manner, They are often able to avoid the arrows that are shot at them, and sometimes they even catch them in their hands. When any one of their community is shot, and falls to the ground, all the rest set up a dismal and tremendous howl, which makes all the adjacent mountains and woods resound. If a monkey is wounded, and does not fall, it frequently happens that his companions will seize and carry it off far beyond the reach of their enemy: and miserable is the fate of that bunter who is imprudent enough to venture near their haunts during that same day. When the animals re-ascend the trees, they each carry a stone in their hands, and generally another in their mouths; and, in such case these are thrown at their adversary with a correctness of aim that is truly astonishing.

The inhabitants of several coun tries derive a means of subsistence from the flesh of these animals. We are assured by Condamine, that in

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Cayenne the monkies are the kind of game that is more frequently pursued than any other; and that the Indians of the country bordering on the river of the Amazons are peculiarly fond of their flesh. Their fat is esteemed a sovereign remedy for stiffness in the joints. In the Portuguese settlements, in South America, powdered monkies' bones are considered an excellent sudorific, and likewise as anti-venereal. In the gali-bladder of one or two of the Indian species (but particularly of the doric and wanderu), a kind of gall-stone is sometimes found. These, says Tavernier, the natives have been known to sell for as much as a hundred crowns each. They will not, in general, permit them to be exported out of their country as articles of commerce, but chiefly preserve them as an invaluable present to foreign ambassadors resi ding amongst them. They are con sidered to possess all the properties that have been attributed to the most precious of the bezoar stones. Christ Church, Feb. 1, 1807.:

Ornithology.

In the neighbourhood of Halifax, a great natural ccosity has excited the admiration of many scores of people, who have gone to see it it is a white sky-lark! the particular divis sion and tribe of birds to which it be longs, is sufficiently identified by its figure and note. It was last spring taken out of a nest of larks, distin guished from its companions only by its colour. This singular bird has shed its feathers, and is now a shiuing milk white. It is in the possession of John Whitehead, at Brockwell Bank, on the old road to Rockdale.

Comets.

In the evening of Monday, the 12th inst. the following phenomena were distinctly seen from Stob's Castle, Roxburghshire:

The Comet became visible immediately after twilight, at a considerable elevation in the heavens, nearly due west, and set about one-half past eight o'clock, within a few degrees of northwest.

The nucleus, or star, when viewed through a small telescope, appeared about the size of a star of the first magnitude, but less vivid, and of a pale dusky colour. The atmosphere of the Comet, owing to the limited power of the telescope, was barely perceptible. The tail, daily increasing in magnitude and splendour, as the Comet approaches the sun, appeared sometipies extremely brilliant, seeming to be a vibration of luminous particles, somewhat resem bling the aurora borealis, and at other times almost to disappear. From the arch described by the Comet in the heavens, in the short space of two hours, its velocity must be immense. By the nearest computation which circumstances and situation allowed, supposing the Comet as far distant as the sun, or about 12,000 diameters of the earth, it must be moving in the present stage of its perihelion, at the amazing velocity of nearly a mil lion of miles an hour, or upwards of 16,000 miles a minute! Such astomishing rapidity is indeed almost inconceivable; but the velocity of the Comet, observed at Palermo, in 1770, by Mr. Brydone,' was still more remarkable, which, in 24 hours, described an arch in the heavens of upwards of 50 degrees in length, and was computed by that ingenious gen tleman to be moving at the rate of sixty millions of miles in a day, of upwards

a

upwards of 40,000 miles in a minute.

The comets belonging to our solar system are supposed to amount to about 450; but the elements or periodical times of a small number only of these have been precisely calculated. From the many accurate òb servations made by Sir Isaac Newton, on the great Comet of 1680, they were first discovered to be a kind of planets moving in very eccentric elliptical orbits, and with accelerated velocity as they approach their perihelion. That remarkable Comet was supposed to be the same which had appeared in 1106, in the time of Henry I.-in the year 531, in the consulship of Lampadius-and in the year 44, B. C. before Julius Cæsar was murdered. Its next appearance will be in the year 2255, about four centuries hence.

The Comet which appeared in 1759 was pretty accurately predicted by the learned Dr. Halley, and may again be expected to appear about the year 1835. The best astronomers are generally agreed, that comets are opaque bodies, enlightened by the sun; but the precise nature of their substance, which is capable of sustaining the most violent degrees of heat, cannot be determined by the limited faculties of man. The illustrious Newton calculated, that the heat of the great Comet of 1680, in its near approach

to the sun, must have been 2000 times greater than that of red-hot iron; consequently, if we suppose that Comet to be of the same dimensions with the earth, and to cool no faster than red-hot iron, it would require upwards of a hundred millions of years to cool; and from its periodical revolution in the short space of 575 years, must remain for ever in a state of the most violent ignition.

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This Comet, according to Halley, "in passing through its southern node, came within the length of the sun's semidiameter of the earth's orbit."Had the earth been then in that part of her orbit nearest to that node, the mutual gravitation of two such large bodies, with so rapid a motion as that of this Comet, must not only have deranged the plane of the earth's orbit, but by coming in contact with the earth (a circumstance by no means deemed improbable by the most enlightened philosophers), the shock must have reduced this beautiful frame to its original chaos, or transported it beyond the limits of the Georgium Sidus, into the boundless depths of infinite space.

But language sinks beneath contem plation so sublime, and so well calculated to inspire the most awful sentiments of the wisdom, providence, and power, of the Great Creator of the universe!

October 26, 1807.

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USEFUL PROJECTS.

Lists of Patents for Inventions, &c. granted in the year 1807.

[Chiefly from the Repertory of Arts, Manufactures, and Agriculture.]

OSEPH MOSELEY ELLIOT,

Clerkenwell, in the county of Middlesex, watchmaker; for a new or improved method of making and constructing repeaters, or repeating watches, and time-pieces. Dated October 30, 1806.

Robert Vazie, of the parish of St. Mary Rotherhithe, in the county of Surrey, civil engineer; for improvements in the measures, and in the machinery to be used in making bricks and earthen-ware, and also for improvements in the carriages for removing the said articles. Dated November 6, 1806.

James Royston, of Halifax, in the county of York, card-maker; for an improvement on the system of cardmaking, by a method of cutting teeth for carding wool and tow. Dated November 6, 1806.

John Wm. Lloyd, late of Brookstreet, Grosvenor-square, in the county of Middlesex, but how of Bishop Wearmouth, in the county of Durham, esq; for anti-friction rollers or wheels, to amist all sorts of ear

riage-wheels. Dated November 20, 1806.

James Henckell, of the city of London, merchant; for certain improvements on a machine for dressing coffee or barley, or any other corn, grain, pulse, seed, and berries.

foreigner residing abroad. Dated November 20, 1806.

William Nicholson, of Soho-square, in the county of Middlesex, gentleman; for various improvements in the application of steam to useful purposes, and in the apparatus required to the same. quired to the same. Date November 22, 1806.

James Frederick Matthey, of Suffolk-street, Charing-cross, in the city of Westminster, lieutenant in De Meuron's regiment; for various improvements upon fire-arms and guns of all descriptions. Dated Decenber 4, 1806.

Samuel Williamson, of Knutsford, in the county of Chester, weaver; for an improvement in weaving cot ton, silk, woollen, worsted, and LGhair, and each of them, and every two or more of them, by looms. Dated December 4, 1806.

William Hyde Wollaston, of the parish of St. Mary-la-bonne, in the county of Middlesex, gentleman: for an instrument whereby any per

son

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son may draw in perspective, or may copy or reduce any print or drawing. Dated December 4, 1806.

William Speer, of the city of Dub lin, esq; now residing in the city of Westminster; for a new art, method, or process of purifying, refining, and otherwise improving fish oils and other oils, and converting and applying to use the unrefined parts thereof. Dated December 13, 1806.

Thomas Scott, of Clerkenwellclose, in the county of Middlesex, musical instrument-maker; for an improved musical instrument called a flageolette English flute, or an instrument on the flageolette principle, so constructed as a single instrument, that two parts of a musical composition can be played thereon at the same time by one person. Dated December 13, 1806.

Ambrose Bowden Johns, of Plymouth, in the county of Devon, bookseller; for certain compositions, and a mode of manufacturing the same, for covering and facing houses, and various other useful purposes. Dated December 22, 1806.

William Bell, of the town of Derby, engineer; for an improvement upon, and an addition to smoothingirons, planeing-irons, and various edge tools, applicable to many useful purposes. Dated December 22, 1806.

Anthony George Eckhardt, of Berwick-street, Golden-square, in the county of Middlesex, gentleman, fellow of the royal society, and member of the society of Haerlem in Holland; for certain improvements in the mode of covering or inclosing books, whereby their contents will be secured from the observations of any person but the owner, and will also be secured from injury. Dated December 22, 1806.

Anthony George Eckhardt, of Berwick-street, Golden-square, in the county of Middlesex, gentleman, and member of the royal society of London, and of the society of Haerlem in Holland, and Joseph Lyon, of Millbank-street, Westminster, in the said county of Middlesex, cooper; for a new method of manufacturing pipes for the conveyance of water under ground, different to the present pipes. 1806.

Dated December 22,

Charles Schmalcalder, of Little Newport-street, in the parish of St. Aun, Soho, in the county of Middlesex, mathematical and philosophical instrument-maker; for a delineator, copier, or proportion-ometer, for the use of taking, tracing, and cutting out profiles, as also copying and tracing reversely on copper, brass, hard wood, card-paper, paper, assesskin, ivory, and glass, to different proportions, directly from nature, landscapes, prospects, or any other objects, standing, or previously placed perpendicularly: as also pictures, drawings, prints, plans, caricatures, and public characters, Dated December 22, 1806.

Walter Henry Wyatt, of HattonGarden, London, gent. for the means of facilitating the chemical action between copper and several saline substances, so as to produce important improvements in the art of separating gold and silver from copper, plated or united with either of those metals, and in the manufacturing of sulphate of copper, and in the making of many kinds of colours for painting. Communicated by a foreigner.Dated January 15, 1807.

Chester Gould, of Birmingham, in the county of Warwick, gentleman; for a machine to ascertain the weight of any thing to the amount of ten 313

tons

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