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steel backs for fixing upon, and using same into perukes or wigs, and vari with, the blades of scythes, and of ous other articles, so as to imitate nastraw and hay kuives, whether the ture, and of taking the measure & blades thereot be rolled, forged, cast, section, or profile, of the bead, by au hammered, or otherwise manufac. instrument applicable to that and tured. Dated August 26, 1807.

other useful purposes.

Dated Octo Ralph Dodd, of Exchange-alley, in ber 21, 1807. the city of London, engineer; for a- Williain Chapman, of the town and still or alembic, with a refrigeratory county of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, civil worm or condenser, and a piston and engineer, and Edward Walton Clap rod, for the use of distillers, brewers, man, of the same place, rope-maker; and other persons using the like ma- for a method or metbods of making chinery. Dated September 8, 1807. a belt, or fat-baud, for the purpose

James Day, of Church-lane, White- of drawing coals and other niinerals chapel, in the county of Middlesex, up the pits or shafts of mines, and mercbant; for a method of making for raising of heavy articles, in any and compounding a certain liquid situation whatever. Dated October composition, called Danzig or Dant. 30, 1807. sic spruce, or Danzig or Dantzic Henry Thompson, of Tottenham, Black Beer. Dated Sept. 9, 1807. in the county of Middlesex, merchant

Willianı Pedder, of Norfolk-street, for an inveution which consists in im Strand, in the county of Middlesex, pregnating Cheltenham or other maesquire ; for an addition and im- tural medicinal waters, or such as are provement to the cattle-mills and usually denominated, “ mineral wawater-mills for grinding sugar-canes, ters,” with one or more of the diffeor avy other millor machine require rent gases or aëriform fuids, and in ing additional velocity and power. adding other substances to, or coDated October 19, 1807.

biving the same with, such waters. Tebaldo Monzani, of Old Bond. Daled October 30, 1807. street, in the county of Middlesex, George Hawks, of Gateshead, is and of Cheapsicle, in the city of Lon- the county of Durham, iron-manudon, music-seller; for certain improve, facturer; for a niethod of making, ments in the musical-instrunient call- and likewise of keeping in repair, ed the german fute. Dated Octo-cast-iron wheels for coal-waggons, ber 19, 1807.

aud other carriages, where such wlieels Edward Shorter, of the parish of are applicable. Dated October 30, St. Giles, Cripplegate, in the city of 1807. London, mechanic; for certain improvements in the machine or instru- Account of a Method of cultivating ment, called or known by the name

Carrots, and applying them a of a Jack fur roasting meat. Dated October 21, 1807.

Food for Cattle. By John Chris.

tian Curwen, esq. of WorkingtonLouis Carou, of the city of Paris,

Hall, in Cumberland. now residing in the city of London, manufacturer; for certain new me- [From the Transactions of the Society of thods of weaving or manufacturing

Arts, &c.] hair along with silk or thread, or In Mr. A. Young's valuable and other materials, and of making the interesting report on the agriculture

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of Suffolk, I was much struck with hand-weeded, and afterwards thinhis account of the culture of carrots, neil. The expence attending this is and the advantages resulting from the considerable, but the value of the application of them as food for horses. crop amply compensates it.

From the very general opinion In 1804 I had an acre and a rood, *hich prevails, that none but parti- which had been previously occupied cular soils are applicable to the growth by cabbages, and afterwards by tares. of carrots, the culture of them to any The soil was very heavy and strong. extent has been confined to small dis. The tops of this crop were so abuutricts. I presume, therefore, that it dant, that they would have fed twenmay not be unacceptable to the so- ty head of cattle for a month. I beciety to be informed of the success gan cutting them too late, by whicle of trials in this matter upon a stiff means I lost a great part. li is esloam, partaking in a great measure sentially necessary to get the carrots of clay.

dry, to enable them to keep. I eoMr. Young's observations are con- deavour, if the weather be favourfined to sowing by broad-cast, which able to have them up by the first or can be successful solely in sandy soils. second week in October. I employ The inethod I have pursued has been women to take them up with forks, to trench, plough, and stitch up the which costs 101. The crop yielded ground intended for carrots, as soon 829 Winchester bushels, equal to 4143 as it was clear, leaving it in that state stone (of 14 pounds). Estimating during winter, which greatly facili- the carrots at 6d. per stone (the price fates its working in the spring. In of oats at that tiine) they were worth April I break it up by giving it three to me 1031. or four ploughings, barrowings, and Each working horse. in my employ rakings, which bring it into garden is allowed 8 pounds of oats per day. tilth. Previous to the last ploughing, , One half was taken away, and sapI give from ten to fifteen cart-loads plied by an equal weight of carrots, of aslies per acre. The second week and this was continued while they in May I have it stitched up, and lasted. The general opinion was, inade ready for sowing, allowing hat the horses improved in their three feet between each stitch; and condition upon this food. I throw the ridges as high as they In 1805 I had three acres and can be put. The tops of the stitches three roods of a similar soil sown are smoothed with a very light roller, with carrols, which had previously so as to admit of a furrow being drawn borne a crop of oats. The first part with a hand-hoe.

of the season was uncommonly cold, The seed, ten days or a fortnight and afterwards unusually wet, which before it is used, is mixed with wet checked the growth of the tops, so sand, and placed in sonje warin situ- that they never got to any size, and ation, so as to be in a full state of ve- were eaten off by sheep. In order getation before it is sown. A forts to facilitate the work, and at the sanie night is gained by this method, and time to save expence, I made a trial the carrots are less liable to be injur- of the plough to take off the earth ed by the weeds. The plough and from the carrots, and then setting in harrow are kept at work during the and turning them up. whole summer. The plants are iwice The injury was trifling, and the expence not a tenth part what it had or more, is, I conceive, an object to been. There were 108 carts, of so a country where the consumption of stone each, or 2246 stoue per acre, the first necessary of life exceeds what which, at 6d. per stone, would amount is at present produced within the ento 601. and upwards per acre. I have pire. In this point of view 1 flatter made use of them as in the preceding myself that the present paper way year, with the most coniplete success, not be thought unworthy the aller and saved 60 bushels of oats per tion of the society. week, and shall be able to continue We, Isaac Kendall, bailiff, and to do so for a fortnight or three weeks Thomas Moore, groom, to J.C.Caslonger.

expence from

wen, esq; do certify, that Mr. Car In the first trial an acre of carrots wen's working horses had 41b. of carwas equal in food to 23 of oats, al- rots given them in the room of sa lowing 60 Winchester bushels of oats much oats, from October 1805 to per acre, and at three stone the bush- January 1806, being tbree montis: el. On taking up the carrots a small that without the use of carrots Mr. piece was cut from the top of each, Curwen allows his working horses to prevent it from vegetating, and from 8 to 121b. of oats per day, athese were immediately used. The cording to the size and work of the renainder were piled in rows two horses; that the carrots ansuered feet thick, and five feet high, leaving every purpose, and that the horses were a space between each row for a free never in better condition than at the circulation of air. I do not doubt time when they were in use; and we but tbat they would keep in this way believe that they would not have been for a length of time. I have always better, nor fitter for work, with the made immediate use of them, as old whole allowance of oats; that the oats are more valuable than new, and, crops of carrots have been extremely moreover, the saviug of oats is in it- good by Mr. Curwen's mode of manself a matter of much inport. agement. The saving of oats we

The success of these trials lias de- fifty-eight Winchester busbels per termined me to extend the cultivation week, by the use of carrots, upon the of carrots, and I have prepared ten food of seventy-six horses. acres for the ensuing season.

Workington, May 10, 1806. Mr Young recommends carrots as a substitute for hay: when they can Method of preserving Turnips in the be procured with little or no expence, this may answer; but when the ground

Winter Season. By Mr. James is to be prepared for them at a con

Dean, of Exeter. siderable expence, cheaper substitutes

(From the Same] may be found. Though the expences When surveying an estate in the are great in cultivating carrots, yet South-Hams of Devon, in February the giving of them in part instead of last, my attention . was attracted by oats, will most abundantly repay the singular appearance of a crop op them. The expence of each acre in turnips in an orchard, so thick as is sowing, cleaning, and housing, will touch each other, and closely sur not be short of 151.

round the stems of the apple-trees Whatever system can multiply the I enquired of the farmer the reasot produce of one acre into that of two of so unusual a crop, and I received

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from him some curious information. It was observing, than in those where no was the constant practice, he said, in turnips were put; though, till the his neighbourhood, for farmers, after time I spoke, he had not even guessed they had broken up ley ground, first at the cause. to take a crop of turnips, and in the autumn, or rather winter, to sow wheat in the same ground. Should winter On the Culture of Spring Wheat, fodder be scarce, they then preserve

By Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. the turnip crop for stock, and con

(From the Same.]. sequently could not put in wheat be- Real spring wheat, the Triticum fore January; and even then with no (Estivum, or summer wheat of the probability of having more than two botanists, is a grain too tender to thirds of an usual crop, because of the bear the frosts of the winter; but as late sowing. This was an evil of quick in progress from its first shoot great magnitude, and led him, he to ripeness, as barley, cats, or any added, to make trial of a mode pecu- ther spring corn. liarly successful, enabling him to sow It is well known on all parts of the his seed in the proper season, and to continent, and much used in France, save the most valuable of his turnip where it is called Blé de Mars, from crop during the winter.

the season in which it is usually He got, he said, bis turnip seed sown; and in some provinces Bleds into the ground early in June ; and in Tremois, from the time it takes beOctober, by which time the turnips tween seed-time and harvest; in would have grown to a large size, lie Spanish it is called Trigo de Marzo; had the largest of them drawn with- in Portuguese, Trigo Tremes; and out injuring the leaves, and then placed in German Sommer Waitzen; all close to each other on the grass in the which names mark distinctly the diforchard, in the same position in ference between this and winter corn, which they grew. Their leaves pre- It does not appear from the older served them from external injury; books on husbandry, that it was at and their lap-roots put out in a short any former period much cultivated in time other fibrous roots into the grass, England ; the more modern ones are which in orchards is generally long in in general silent on the subject of it. the autum ; and thus the turnips They mention, indeed, under the were preserved good for use. name of spring wheat, every kind of

I enquired whether the turnips ac- winter wheat which will ripen when quired any additional size after their sown after turnips in February. This reinoval into the orchard, and whether, is probably the reason why the real from the warmth occasioned by the spring wheat bas been so little turnips to the ground, any advanta- known; agriculturalists in general, gevus effect was apparent in the ap- conceiving themselves to be actually ple-trees. On these questions he in the habit of sowing spring wheat, was not able to speak positively, when in reality they were substitutthough he thought the turnips had ing winter wheat in its place, have increased in size; and he thought, been little inclined to enquire into likewise, that the crops of apples ap- the properties of the real spring peared larger, and the annual bear- wheat when they had an opportunity ings more certain, in the orchard I of so doing.

In the lower parts of Lincolnshire, called in that neighbourhood white where the land is the most valuable, clay. Such land, though tolerably proand consequently the most subject to ductive in barley and seeds, is not to mildew, spring wheat bas been long be conspared with the rich and fertile known, and it is now cultivated to a tracts of South Holland; and yet the great extent. Mr. Sers, of Gedney, culture of spring wheats bas of late near Spalding, bas this year claimed years increased, and is now increas a premium of the board for the ing fast, because the millers begin to largest quantity of land sown with understand its nature, and cease to spring wheat in 1805; his quantity undervalue it as they did at first. is 241 acres, and there is no reason The grain of spring wheat is conto suppose that. he added a single siderably smaller than that of winter acre to his crop on account of the wheat ; in colour it resembles red board's offer. He is a man who, by lammas so much, that it may be bis skill and talents in agriculture mixed with that grain, and this misalone, has raised himself to opulence, ture will do no injury to the seller, and possesses a considerable landed as spring wheat weighs heavy; per estate, for wliich lie is certainly in part to the buyer, as it yields better at indebted to the free culture of spring the mill than from its appearance wheat during the last thirty years. might be expected ; 6olb. a bushel is Mr. Sers sows spring wheat from about its usual weight. Mr. Sers's

, of the 25th of Marcli till the first week this year, weighed 61 lbs. and he has iu May; for a full crop he sows sold some mixed with less than half fourteen pecks on an acre, and ex- of red lammas, at the usual marketpects to reap four quarters; if he price of the winter wheat of the last sows seeds under it, which is very harvest, though the winter wheat is generally practised, he sows nine better in quality this year, and the pecks, and expects three quarters in spring worse than usual. return; he finds it thrive nearly In the countries best acquainted equally well on his stiff and his light with its culture, spring wheat is preland; and has found it, by expe- ferred to all other corn for raising a rience, to be exempt from the mil- crop of seeds. This is owing to the dew or blight, and free from all da- small quantity of leaf it bears, less mage of the grub or wire-worm.- perhaps than any other com, and to The farmers in South Holland, where ihe short duration of the leaf, which Mr. Sers resides, uniformly declare fades and falls down almost as sool. that they have been many years ago as it has attained its full size. compelled, by frequent attacks of In cases where red wheat has been the mildew or blight, to abandon al- damaged by the wire-worm), a mmost entirely the sowing of winter chief which seems of late years to wheat, and that they then substi- have increased in this island, spring tuted spring wheat in its place, and wheat appears to hold out an easy have used it ever since: they believe and a simple remedy. In the first it to be wholly exempt frodi the mil. week of May the ravages of the worn dew or blight. In the neighbour- lave abated somewhat; if then the hood of Horncastle, where I live, seed of spring wheat is at that time the land is either sight or savdy, or dibbled, or only raked will a composed chiefly of Nortolk marie, den rake into the naked spots left by

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