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in the county of Middlesex, smith and iron founder; for a eceiver applicable to register and other stoves, by which means the cinders and ahes are with cleanliness and safety constantly retained; while the same forms an easy support to a general firescreen. Dated July 4, 1807.
Aspley Pellat, of Saint Paul's church yard, in the city of London, glass manufacturer; for his improved method for admitting light into the internal parts of ships, vessels, buildings and other places. Dated July 7, 1807.
Charles Gröll, of Leicester fields, in the parish of St. Martin, in the city of Westminster, for the discovery of certain improvements on harps. Dated July 13, 1807.
Joha Norton, of Rolls buildings, Fetter-lane, in the city of London, mathematical instrument-maker; for his improved pump. Dated July 13, 1807.
James Bradley, of Maid-lane, Southwark, in the county of Surrey, iron-founder; for his new kind of iron bar to be used in fire-places, for boilers, furnaces, hot-houses, and any other fire-place where bars are used. Dated July 13, 1807.
Gorden Howden, of Oxford-street, in the county of Middlesex, sadler; for his girth ponimel, which most effectually prevents the saddle from getting forward upon any description of horses, however much nature may, in the shape of the animal, work against it. Dated July 20, 1807.
Charles Lucas Birch, of GreatQueen-street, in the parish of St. Giles in the Fields, in the county of Middlesex, coach-maker; for certain improvements in the construction of the roofs and upper quarters of landaus, landaulets, barouche landaus, barouches, barouchets, curricles, and other
carriages, the upper parts of which are made to fall down. Dated July 21, 1807.
John Phillips, of East-Stonehouse, in the county of Devon, stone-mason, and sculptor; for his method or methods of constructing and moving offices, counting-houses and other rooms, with desks, drawing boards, and other similar conveniences, which method or methods may also be ap plied in the constructing and reino7ing bridges, coltages, sentry boxes, and to other purposes or erections of a smaller or larger extent." Dated July 28, 1807.
Joseph Astley, of Borrowstounness, in that part of the united kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland called Scotland, chemist; for certain improvements in the manufacture of saíammoniac. Dated July 28, 1807.
Enoch Wood, of Burslem, in the county of Stafford, polter; for a method or contrivance of applying power for the purpose of raising water from a lower to a higher level. Dated July 30, 1807.
Robert Dickinson, of Long Acre, in the county of Middlesex, esq; for certain improvements on, or in machinery for improving turnpike and other roads, and for other purposes. Dated August 1, 1807.
Edward Coke Wilmot, of Birmingham, in the county of Warwick, gent. for an instrument for the purpose of warming beds, and which may be applied to various other purposes. Dated August 10, 1807.
Richard Rees, of Red Lion passage, in the county of Middlesex, cutler; for certain improvements in trusses for persons afflicted with ruptures. Dated August 25, 1807.
Samuel Hill, of Whiteley Wood, in the county of York, Saw-maker; for a method of making iron and
steel backs for fixing upon, and using with, the blades of scythes, and of straw and bay knives, whether the blades thereof be rolled, forged, cast, hammered, or otherwise manufactured. Dated August 26, 1807.
Ralph Dodd, of Exchange-alley, in the city of London, engineer; for astill or alembic, with a refrigeratory worm or condenser, and a piston and rod, for the use of distillers, brewers, and other persons using the like machinery. Dated September 8, 1807. James Day, of Church-lane, Whitechapel, in the county of Middlesex, merchant; for a method of making and compounding a certain liquid composition, called Danzig or Dantzic spruce, or Danzig or Dantzic Black Beer. Dated Sept. 9, 1807.
William Pedder, of Norfolk-street, Strand, in the county of Middlesex, esquire; for an addition and improvement to the cattle-mills and water-mills for grinding sugar-canes, or any other mill or machine requiring additional velocity and power. Dated October 19, 1807.
Tebaldo Monzani, of Old Bondstreet, in the county of Middlesex, and of Cheapside, in the city of London, music-seller; for certain improve ments in the musical-instrument called the german flute. Dated October 19, 1807.
Edward Shorter, of the parish of St. Giles, Cripplegate, in the city of London, mechanic; for certain improvements in the machine or instrument, called or known by the name of a Jack for roasting meat. Dated October 21, 1807.
Louis Carou, of the city of Paris, now residing in the city of London, manufacturer; for certain new methods of weaving or manufacturing hair along with silk or thread, or other materials, and of making the
same into perukes or wigs, and vari ous other articles, so as to imitate ture, and of taking the measure or section, or profile, of the head, by instrument applicable to that a other useful purposes. Dated Ocker ber 21, 1807.
William Chapman, of the town and county of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, civi engineer, and Edward Walton Chap man, of the same place, rope-maker: for a method or methods of making a belt, or flat-band, for the purpose of drawing coals and other minerals up the pits or shaf's of mines, and for raising of heavy articles, in any situation whatever. Dated October 30, 1807.
Henry Thompson, of Tottenham, in the county of Middlesex, merchant; for an invention which consists in impregnating Cheltenham or other uatural medicinal waters, or such as are usually denominated," mineral wa ters," with one or more of the different gases or aëriform fluids, and in adding other substances to, or combining the same with, such waters. Dated October 30, 1807.
George Hawks, of Gateshead, in the county of Durham, iron-manufacturer; for a method of making, and likewise of keeping in repair, cast-iron wheels for coal-waggons, and other carriages, where such wheels are applicable. Dated October 30, 1807.
of Suffolk, I was much struck with his account of the culture of carrots, and the advantages resulting from the application of them as food for horses. From the very general opinion which prevails, that none but particular soils are applicable to the growth of carrots, the culture of them to any extent has been confined to small districts. I presume, therefore, that it may not be unacceptable to the society to be informed of the success of trials in this matter upon a stiff loam, partaking in a great measure of clay.
Mr. Young's observations are confined to sowing by broad-cast, which can be successful solely in sandy soils. The method I have pursued has been to trench, plough, and stitch up the ground intended for carrots, as soon as it was clear, leaving it in that state during winter, which greatly facilitates its working in the spring. In April I break it up by giving it three or four ploughings, harrowings, and rakings, which bring it into garden tilth. Previous to the last ploughing,, I give from ten to fifteen cart-loads of ashes per acre. The second week in May I have it stitched up, and inade ready for sowing, allowing three feet between each stitch; and I throw the ridges as high as they can be put. The tops of the stitches are smoothed with a very light roller, so as to admit of a furrow being drawn with a hand-hoe.
The seed, ten days or a fortnight before it is used, is mixed with wet sand, and placed in some warm situation, so as to be in a full state of vegetation before it is sown. A fortnight is gained by this method, and the carrots are less liable to be injured by the weeds. The plough and harrow are kept at work during the whole summer. The plants are twice
hand-weeded, and afterwards thinned. The expence attending this is considerable, but the value of the crop amply compensates it.
In 1804 I had an acre and a rood, which had been previously occupied by cabbages, and afterwards by tares. The soil was very heavy and strong. The tops of this crop were so abundant, that they would have fed twenty head of cattle for a month. I began cutting them too late, by which means I lost a great part. It is essentially necessary to get the carrots dry, to enable them to keep. I endeavour, if the weather be favourable, to have them up by the first or second week in October. I employ women to take them up with forks, which costs 101. The crop yielded 829 Winchester bushels, equal to 4143 stone (of 14 pounds). Estimating the carrots at 6d. per stone (the price of oats at that time) they were worth to me 1031.
Each working horse in my employ is allowed 8 pounds of oats per day. One half was taken away, and supplied by an equal weight of carrots, and this was continued while they lasted. The general opinion was, hat the horses improved in their condition upon this food.
In 1805 I had three acres and three roods of a similar soil sown with carrots, which had previously borne a crop of oats. The first part of the season was uncommonly cold, and afterwards unusually wet, which checked the growth of the tops, so that they never got to any size, and were eaten off by sheep. In order to facilitate the work, and at the same time to save expence, I made a trial of the plough to take off the earth from the carrots, and then setting in and turning them up.
The injury was trifling, and the expence
expence not a tenth part what it had been. There were 108 carts, of 80 stone each, or 2246 stoue per acre, which, at 6d. per stone, would amount to 601. and upwards per acre. I have made use of them as in the preceding year, with the most complete success, and saved 60 bushels of oats per week, and shall be able to continue to do so for a fortnight or three weeks longer.
In the first trial an acre of carrots was equal in food to 23 of oats, allowing 60 Winchester bushels of oats per acre, and at three stone the bushel. On taking up the carrots a small piece was cut from the top of each, to prevent it from vegetating, and these were immediately used. The remainder were piled in rows two feet thick, and five feet high, leaving a space between each row for a free circulation of air. I do not doubt but that they would keep in this way for a length of time. I have always made immediate use of them, as old oals are more valuable than new, and, moreover, the saving of oats is in itself a matter of much import.
The success of these trials has determined me to extend the cultivation of carrots, and I have prepared ten acres for the ensuing season..
Mr Young recommends carrots as a substitute for hay: when they can be procured with little or no expence, this may answer; but when the ground. is to be prepared for them at a considerable expence, cheaper substitutes may be found. Though the expences are great in cultivating carrots, yet the giving of them in part instead of oats, will most abundantly repay them. The expence of each acre in sowing, cleaning, and housing, will not be short of 151.
Whatever system can multiply the produce of one acre into that of two
or more, is, I conceive, an object to a country where the consumption of the first necessary of life exceeds what is at present produced within the empire. In this point of view I flatter myself that the present paper may not be thought unworthy the atter tion of the society.
We, Isaac Kendall, bailiff, and Thomas Moore, groom, to J.C. Curwen, esq; do certify, that Mr. Car wen's working horses had 4lb. of carrots given them in the room of so much oats, from October 1805 to January 1806, being three months: that without the use of carrots Mr. Curwen allows his working horses from 8 to 12lb. of oats per day, ac cording to the size and work of the horses; that the carrots answered every purpose, and that the horses were never in better condition than at the time when they were in use; and we believe that they would not have been better, nor fitter for work, with the whole allowance of oats; that the crops of carrots have been extremely good by Mr. Curwen's mode of management. The saving of oats was fifty-eight Winchester bushels per week, by the use of carrots, upon the food of seventy-six horses.
Workington, May 10, 1806.
Method of preserving Turnips in the Winter Season. By Mr. James Dean, of Exeter.
[From the Same.] When surveying an estate in the South-Hams of Devon, in February last, my attention was attracted by the singular appearance of a crop turnips in an orchard, so thick as to touch each other, and closely sur round the stems of the apple-trees I enquired of the farmer the reason of so unusual a crop, and I received from
from him some curious information. It was the constant practice, he said, in his neighbourhood, for farmers, after they had broken up ley ground, first to take a crop of turnips, and in the autumn, or rather winter, to sow wheat in the same ground. Should winter fodder be scarce, they then preserve the turnip crop for stock, and consequently could not put in wheat before January; and even then with no probability of having more than two thirds of an usual crop, because of the late sowing. This was an evil of great magnitude, and led him, he added, to make trial of a mode peculiarly successful, enabling him to sow his seed in the proper season, and to save the most valuable of his turnip crop during the winter.
He got, he said, his turnip seed into the ground early in June; and in October, by which time the turnips would have grown to a large size, he had the largest of them drawn without injuring the leaves, and then placed close to each other on the grass in the orchard, in the same position in which they grew. Their leaves preserved them from external injury; and their tap-roots put out in a short time other fibrous roots into the grass, which in orchards is generally long in the autumn; and thus the turnips were preserved good for use.
I enquired whether the turnips acquired any additional size after their removal into the orchard, and whether, from the warmth occasioned by the turnips to the ground, any advantageous effect was apparent in the apple-trees. On these questions he was not able to speak positively, though he thought the turnips had increased in size; and he thought, likewise, that the crops of apples appeared larger, and the annual bearings more certain, in the orchard I
was observing, than in those where no turnips were put; though, till the time I spoke, he had not even guessed at the cause.
On the Culture of Spring Wheat. By Sir Joseph Banks, Bart.
[From the Same.]
Real spring wheat, the Triticum Estivum, or summer wheat of the botanists, is a grain too tender to bear the frosts of the winter; but as quick in progress from its first shoot to ripeness, as barley, oats, or any other spring corn.
It is well known on all parts of the continent, and much used in France, where it is called Blé de Mars, from the season in which it is usually sown; and in some provinces Bleds Tremois, from the time it takes between seed-time and harvest; in Spanish it is called Trigo de Marzo; in Portuguese, Trigo Tremes; and in German Sommer Waitzen; all which names mark distinctly the difference between this and winter corn. It does not appear from the older books on husbandry, that it was at any former period much cultivated in England; the more modern ones are in general silent on the subject of it. They mention, indeed, under the name of spring wheat, every kind of winter wheat which will ripen when sown after turnips in February. This is probably the reason why the real spring wheat has been so little known; agriculturalists in general, conceiving themselves to be actually in the habit of sowing spring wheat, when in reality they were substituting winter wheat in its place, have been little inclined to enquire into the properties of the real spring wheat when they had an opportunity of so doing.