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of it being adapted to this purpose, and the ground on the sides of it still bearing certain vestiges of a Roman intrenchment; that the brick-kiln was built for the use of the Romans, or for their civilized British subjects, about the year 418, in which year, according to the Saxon chronicle, the Romans left this island, carrying with them all their treasures; that, in consequence of this event, and of the confusion which followed it, from the inroads of the Picts, Scotch, and Saxons, the Britons had no leisure nor inclination to raise new buildings; until, at length, they were driven out of the open country, and confined to the mountains of Wales and Coruwall; that the Saxons were too much employed, and too little civilized for almost a century after their arrival here, to think of new buildings; and that, when they did begin to build, they, as was the practice with their successors the Normans, used stones, or even flints, in preference to bricks; that, during all this time, the dust and earth accumulated, as I said before, upon the heap of bricks, till they completely covered it. With respect to the focus, floors, &c. at the house which I suppose belonged to the Roman fort, these being in situations where no cellars were dug, they must have escaped the mattocks of the workmen, when they were digging the foundations for the old house, How demolished.

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gory, bishop of Neocesarea, in Ponshould be celebrated to them who tus, instituted, that festival days had contended for the faith, that is, to the martyrs." And Nysen adds this reason for the institution, viz. the simple and unskilful multitudes, "When he (Gregory) observed that by reason of corporeal delights, remained in the error of idols, that the principal thing might be corrected among them, namely, that instead of this vain worship, they might turn their eyes upon God, he permitted, that, at the memories of the holy martyrs, they might make merry, delight themselves, and be dissolved into joy.

lighted with the festivals of their The heathens were degods, and unwilling to part with those delights; and therefore Gregory, to facilitate their conversion, instituted annual festivals to saints and martyrs."

pass, that for exploding the festivals
of the heathens, the principal festivals
Hence it came to
of the christians succeeded in their
room; as the keeping of Christmas
with ivy, and feasting in the room of
the Bacchanalia and Saturnalia: the
celebrating of May-day with flowers,
in the room of the Floralia; and the
keeping of festivals to the Virgin
Mary, John the Baptist, and divers
of the apostles, in the room of the
solemnities used at the entrance of
the sun into the signs of the zodiac
in the old Julian calendar,
church (says an ingenious writer)
"The
hath only christened these heathen fes-

Origin of placing Holly in Churches tivals with the name of some saints;

at Christmas.

The great Newton, in his dissertations on prophecy, says, "Gregory Nyssen tells us, that after the persecution of the emperor Decius, Gre

and as December was a dead time their Saturnalia, and gave loose to of the year, when the heathens had recreation, the christians honoured the season with the name of their Saviour."

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Here

Here then we may discover the honourable origin of Christmas, and by consulting Kennet or any other writer on Roman antiquities, we may also discover how the Bacchanalia were observed, the gross licentiousness of that festival, and the reason

of " placing sprigs of ivy, holly, &c. in our churches at Christmas;" a season of more dissolute pleasure and criminal indulgence than any other in the whole year, as if Christ was become the minister of sin!

MISCELLANEOUS

MISCELLANEOUS ESSAYS,

&c. &c.

American Expedition of Discovery, under the Command of Captain Lewis.

HE

a

ter from captain Clarke, the second in command, to his brother, general Clark; which ascertains that this Expedition succeeded in penetrating through the continent between the rivers Missouri and Columbia, and in navigating the Columbia down to the Pacific.

order the more effectually to explore the country, and discover the most practicable route which does exist across the continent by the way of

In this we were completely successful, and have therefore no hesitation in declaring, that such as nature has permitted, we have discovered the best route which does exist across the continent of North America in that direction. Such is that by way of the Missouri to the foot of the Rapids below the great falls of that "St. Louis, Sept. 23, 1805. river, a distance of 2575 miles; "Dear brother,

"We arrived at this place at twelve o'clock to-day, from the Pacific Ocean, where we remained during the last winter, near the entrance of the Columbia river. This station we left on the 27th of March last, and should have reached St. Louis early in August, had we not been detained by the snow, which barred our passage across the Rocky Mountains, until the 24th of June. In returning through those mountains, we divided ourselves into several parties, digressing from the route by which we went out, in

thence by land passing by the Rocky Mountains, to a navigable part of the Kooskooske, 340; and with the Kooskooske 73 miles, Lewis's River 154 miles, and the Columbia 413 miles to the Pacific Ocean, making the total distance from the confluence of the Missouri and Mississippi, to the discharge of the Columbia into the Pacific Ocean, 3554 miles. The navigation of the Missouri may be deemed good-its difficulties arise from its falling banks, timber embedded in the mud of its channels, its sand-bars and steady rapidity of its current, all which may be over3 M3

come

come with a great degree of certainty, by using the necessary precautions. The passage by land of 340 miles from the falls of the Missouri to the Kooskooske, is the most formidable part of the tract proposed across the continent. Of this distance, 200 miles is along a good road, and 140 miles over tremendous mountains, which for 60 miles are covered with eternal snows. A passage over these mountains, is, however, practicable from the latter part of June to the last of September; and the cheap rate at which horses are to be obtained from the Indians of the Rocky Mountains, and west of them, reduces the expences of transportation over this portage to a mere trifle. The navigation of the Kooskooske, Lewis's river, and the Columbia, is safe and good, from the 1st of April to the middle of August; by making three portages on the latter river; the first of which, in descending, is 1200 paces at the falls of Columbia, 261 miles up that river: the second of two miles, at the long narrows six miles below the falls; and a third, also of two miles at the great rapids, 65 miles still lower down. The tide flows up the Columbia 183 miles, and within seven miles of the great rapids. Large sloops may with safety ascend as high as tide water, and vessels of 500 tons burthen reach the entrance of the Multuomab river, a large southern branch of the Columbia, which takes its rise on the confines of New Mexico, with the Callerado and Apostle's rivers, discharging itself into the Columbia, 125 miles from its entrance into the Pacific Ocean. I consider this tract across the continent of immense advantage to the fur trade, as all the furs collected

in nine tenths of the most valuable fur country in America, may be conveyed to the mouth of the Columbia, and shipped from thence to the East Indies, by the 1st of August in each year; and will of course reach Canton earlier than the furs which are annually exported from Montreal arrive in Great Britain.

"In our outward-bound voyage, we ascended to the foot of the rapids below the great falls of the Missouri, where we arrived on the 14th of June, 1805. Not having met with any of the natives of the Rocky Mountains, we were, of course, ignorant of the passes by land which existed through these mountains to the Columbia river; and had we even known the route, we were destitute of horses, which would have been indispensably né cessary to enable us to transport the requisite quantity of ammunition and other stores to ensure the remaining part of our voyage down the Columbia; we therefore determined to navigate the Missouri, as far as it was practicable, or unless we met with some of the natives from whom we could obtain horses and information of the country. Accordingly we took a most laborious portage, at the fall of the Missouri, of 18 miles, which we effected with our canoes and baggage by the Sd of July. From thence, ascending the Missouri, we penetrated the Rocky Mountain at the distance of 71 miles above the upper part of the portage, and penetrated as far as the three forks of that river, a distance of 180 miles further. Here the Missouri divides into three nearly equal branches at the same point: the two largest branches are so nearly of the same dignity that we did not conceive that either of them could, with propriety,

retain

retain the name of the Missouri; and, therefore, called these streams Jefferson's, Madison's, and Galla tin's rivers. The confluence of these rivers, is 3848 miles from the mouth of the Missouri by the meanders of that river. We arrived at the three forks of the Missouri the 27th of July. Not having yet been so for tunate as to meet with the natives, although I had previously made several exertions for that purpose, we were compelled to continue our route by water.

"The most northerly of the three forks, that to which we have given the name of Jefferson's river, was deemed the most proper for our purposes, and we accordingly ascended it 248 miles, to the upper forks, and its extreme navigable point. On the morning of the 17th of August, 1805, I arrived at the forks of Jefferson's river, where I met Capt. Lewis, who had previously penetrated with a party of three men to the waters of the Columbia, discovered a band of the Shoshone nation, and had found means to induce 35 of their chiefs and warriors to accompany him to that place. From these people we learned, that the river on which they resided was not navigable, and that a passage through the mountains in that direction was impregnable. Being unwilling to confide in this unfavourable account of the natives, it was concerted between capt. Lewis and myself, that one of us should go forward immediately with a small party and explore the river; while the other, in the interim, would lay up the canoes at that place, and engage the natives with their horses to assist in transporting our stores and baggage to their camp. Accordingly I set out the next day, passed the divid

ing mountains between the waters of the Missouri and Columbia, and descended the river, which I since called the East Fork of Lewis's river, about 70 miles. Finding that the Indians' account of the country in the direction of that river was correct, I returned and joined capt. Lewis on August 29, at the Shoshone camp, excessively fatigued, as you may suppose; having passed mountains almost inaccessible, and been compelled to subsist on berries during the greater part of my route. We now purchased seventeen horses of the Indians, and hired a guide, who assured us, that he could, in 15 days, take us to a large river, in an open country west of these mountains, by a route some distance to the north of the river on which they lived, and that by which the natives west of the mountains visit the plain of the Missouri, for the purpose of hunting the buffalo. Every preparation being made, we set forward with our guide on the 31st of August, through these tremendous mountains, in which we continued till the 22d of September, before we reached the lower country beyond them.On our way we met with the Olelachshook, a band of the Tuchapaks, from whom we obtained an accession of seven horses, and exchanged eight or ten others; this proved an infinite service to us, as we were compelled to subsist on horse beef about eight days before we reached Kooskooske. During our passage over these mountains, we suffered every thing which hunger, cold, and fatigue, could impose; nor did our difficulties terminate on our arrival at the Kooskooske; for although the Pollotepallors, a numerous nation inhabiting that country, were extremely hospitable, and, 3 M 4

for

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