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Here then we may discover the of“ placing sprigs of ivy, holly, &e. honourable origin of Christmas, and in our churches at Christmas;" : by consulting Kennet or any other season of more dissolute pleasure and writer on Roman antiquities, we may criminal indulgence than any other in also discover how the Bacchanalia the whole year, as if Christ was bewere observed, the gross licentious- come the minister of sin! ness of that festival, and the reason

MISCELLANEOUS

901

MISCELLANEOUS ESSAYS,

&c. &c.

American Expedition of Discovery, order the more effectually to explore

under the Command of Captain the country, and discover the most Lewis.

pràcticable route which does exist

across the continent by the way of He following is a copy of a let- the Missouri and Columbia rivers.

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second in command, to bis brother, ful, and have therefore no hesitation general Clark; which ascertains that in declaring, that such as nature has this Expedition succeeded in pene- permitted, we have discovered the trating through the continent between best route which does exist across the rivers Missouri and Columbia, the continent of North America in and in navigating the Columbia down that direction. Such is that by way to the Pacific.

of the Missouri to the foot of the

Rapids below the great falls of that “St. Louis, Sept. 23, 1805. river, a distance of 2575 miles; “ Dear brother,

thence by land passing by the Rocky “ We arrived at this place at Mountains, to a navigable part of twelve o'clock to-day, from the the Kooskooske, 340 ; and with the Pacific Ocean, where we remained Kooskooske 73 miles, Lewis's River during the last winter, near the en- 154 miles, and the Columbia 413 trance of the Columbia river. This miles to the Pacific Ocean, making station we left on the 27th of March the total distance from the confluence last, and should have reached St. of the Missouri and Mississippi, to Louis early in August, had we not the discharge of the Columbia into been detained by the snow, which the Pacific Ocean, 3554 miles. The barred our passage across the Rocky navigation of the Missouri may be Mountains, until the 24th of June. deemed good—its difficulties arise In returning through those moun- from its falling banks, timber emtains, we divided ourselves into se bedded in the mud of its channels, veral parties, digressing from the its sand-bars and steady rapidity of route by which we went out, in its current, all wbici may be over

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come

CON

we

were, of

come with a great degree of cer- in pine tenths of the most valuable tainty, by using the necessary pre. fur country in America, may be co cautions. The passage by land of veyed to ihe mouth of the Colum340 miles from the falls of the Mis- bia, and shipped from thence to the souri to the Kooskooske, is the most East Indies, by the 1st of August in formidable part of the tract proposed each year; and will of course reach across the continent. Of this dis- Canton earlier than the furs which tance, 200 miles is along a good are annually exported from Montreal road, and 110 miles over tremen- arrive in Great Britain. dous mountains, which for 60 miles “ In our outward-bound vosage, are covered with eternal snow's. A we ascended to the foot of the rapassage over these mountains, is, pirls below the great falls of the however, practicable from the latter Missouri

, where we arrived on the part of June to the last of Septem- 141h of June, 1805. Not Isaving ber; and the cheap rate at which met with any of the natives of the horses are to be oblained from the Rocky Mountains, Indians of the Rocky Mountains, and course, ignorant of the passes by west of them, reduces the expences and which existed through these of transportation over this portage mountains to the Columbia river; to a mere trifle. The navigation of and bad we even known the route, the Kooskooske, Lewis's river, and we were destitute of horses, wbich the Columbia, is safe and good, from would have been indispensably new the 1st of April to the middle of cessary to enable us to iransport the August; by making three portages requisite quantity of ammunition and on the latter river; the first of other stores to ensure the remaining which, in descending, is 1200 paces part of our voyage down the Columat the falls of Columbia, 261 miles bia; we therefore determined to taup that river: the second of two vigate the Missouri, as far as it was miles, at the long narrows sis miles practicable, or unless we niet with below the falls; and a third, also of some of the natives from whom ne two miles at the great rapids, 65 could obtain horses and informatica miles still lower down. The tide of the country. Accordingly ire took flows up the Columbia 183 miles, a most laborious portage, at the fall and within seven miles of the great of the Missouri, of 18 miles, which rapids. Large sloops may with

we effected with our canoes and safety ascend as high as tide water, baggage by the $d of July. From and vessels of soo tons burthen thence, ascending the Missouri, we reach the entrance of the Multuo- penetrated the Rocky Mountain at mab river, a large southern branch the distance of 71 miles above the of the Columbia, which takes it's upper part of the portage, and perise on the contines of New Mexico, netrated as far as the three forks of with the Callerado and Apostle's that river, a distance of 180 miles rivers, discharging itself into the further. Here the Missouri divides Columbia, 125 miles from its en- into three nearly equal branches at trance into the Pacific Ocean. I the same point: the two largest consider this tract across the conti- branches are so nearly of the same nent of inmense advantage to the dignity that we did not conceive that fur trade, as all the furs collected either of them could, with propriets,

relain retain the name of the Missouri; ing mountains betaveen the walers of and, therefore, called these streams the Missouri and Columbia, and Jefferson's, Madison's, and Galla- descended the river, which I since tin's rivers. The confluence of these called the East Fork of Lewis's ririvers, is 3848 miles from the mouth ver, about 70 miles. Finding that of the Missonri by the meanders of the Indians' account of the country that river. We arrived at the three in the direction of that river was corforks of the Missouri the 27th of rect, I relurned and joined capt. July. Not having yet been so for. Lewis on August 2), at the Shoturate as to meet with the natives, shove camp, excessively fatiguel, as although I had previously made se- you may suppose; having passed veral exertions for that purpose, we mountains almost inaccesible, and were compelled to continue our roule been compelled to subsist on berries by water.

during the greater part of iny route. “ The most northerly of the three We now purchased seventeen horses forks, that to which we have given of the Indians, and hired a guide, the name of Jefferson's river, was who assured us, that he could, in deemed the most proper for our pur- 15 days, take us to a large river, in poses, and we accordingly ascended an open country west of these nioun. it 248 miles, to the upper forks, tains, by a route some distance to and its extreme navigable point. On the north of the river on which they the morning of the 17th of August, lived, and that by which the natives 1805, I arrived at the forks of Jef- west of the mountains visit the plain ferson's river, where I met Capt. of the Missouri, for the purpose of Lewis, who had previously pene- hunting the buffalo. Every preparatrated with a party of three men to tion being made, we set forward with the waters of the Columbia, dis- our guide on the 31st of August, covered a band of the Shoshone na- through these tremendous mountains, tion, and had found means to induce in wbich we coutinued till the 22d 35 of their chiefs and warriors to of September, before we reached accompany him to that place. From the lower country beyond them.these people we learned, that the On our way we met with the O!criver on wbich they resided was not lachshook, a band of the Tuchanavigable, and that a passage through paks, from whom we obtained an the mountains in that direction was accession of seven horses, and eximpregnable. Being unwilling to changed eight or ten others; this confide in this unfavourable account proved an infinite service to us, as of the natives, it was concerted be- we were compelled to subsist on tween capt. Lewis and myself, that horse beef about eight days before one of us should go forward imme- we reached Kooskooske. During diately with a small party and ex- our passage over these mountains, plore the river; while the other, in we suffered every thing which hunthe interim, would lay up the ca- ger, cold, and fatigue, could impose; noes at that place, and engage the nor did our difficulties terniinate on natives with their horses to assist in our arrival at the Kooskooske; for transporting our stores and baggage although the Poliotepallors, a nuto their camp. Accordingly I set merous nation inhabiting that counout the next day, passed the divid- try, were extremely hospitable, and,

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for

for a few trifling articles, furnished therefore, searched for an eligible us with an abundance of roots and situation for that purpose, and se dried salmon, the food to which they lected a spot on the south-side of a were accustomed, we found that we little river, called by the natives Necould not subsist on these articles, tat, which discharges itself at a small and almost all of us grew sick on bar on the south-side of the Columeating them; we were obliged there- bia, and fourteen miles within point fore to bave recourse to the flesh of Adams. Here we constrncled some horses and dogs, as food to supply log-houses, and defended them with the deficiency of our guns, which a common stockade work; this place produced but little meat, as game we called Fort Clatsop, after a nawas scarce in the vicinity of our tion of that name who were our camp on the Kooskooske, where we nearest neighbours. In this country were compelled to remain, in order we found an abundance of elk, og to construct our perogues lo descend which we subsisted principally during the river. At this season the salmon the last winter. We left Fort Clatis meagre, and forms but indifferent sop on the 27th of March. On our food. While we remained here I homeward-bound voyage, being much was myself sick for several days, better acquainted with the country, and my friend capt. Lewis suffered we were enabled to take such prea severe indisposition.

cautions as in a great measure se-1 “ Having completed our perogues cured us from the want of provision and a small canoe, we gave our at any time, and greatly lessened horses in charge to the Pollotepal- our fatigues, when compared with lors until we returned, and on the those to which we were compelled 7th of October re-embarked for the to submit in our outward-bound Pacific Ocean. We descended by journey. We have not lost a man the route I have already mentioned. since we left the Mandians, a cirThe water of the river being low at cumstance which I assure you is a this season, we experienced much pleasing consideration to me. As I difficulty in descending: we found shall shortly be with you, and the it obstructed by a great number of post is now waiting, i deem it undifficult and dangerous rapids, in necessary here to attempt minutely passing of which our perogues seve- to detail the occurrences of the last ral tinies filled, and the men escaped 18 months. narrowly with their lives. -How

“ I am, &c. ever, this difficulty does not exist

“ Your affectionate brother, in high water, which happens within

WILLIAM CLARK." the period which I have previously mentioned. We found the natives extremely numerous, and generally Remarkable Instance of Propensity friendly, though we have on several to the Savage State. occasions owed our lives and the fate

[From a Jamaica Paper.] of the expedition to our number, which consisted of 31 men. On the To the Editors of The Royal Gazette, 17th of November we reached the Gentlemen, ocean, where various considerations I request you will have the goodinduced us to spend the winter; we, ness to insert the following extraor

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