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who has since acquired such cele- a custom, that no Pacha, whether

brity as a chief of the Mamelukes, and who was likewise purchased in early youth by the same master. Arriving in the seraglio in the very flower of youthful beauty, and a proficient in all the little arts that are practised in the Haram, she was fortunate enough to gain the favour of sultan Mustapha, and to become the mother of a prince of the race of the Osmanides. The affection of the sultanas for their children, whom they suckle themselves, is almost always peculiarly strong in the seraglio; and the attachment of the latter to the mother, is not less remarkable. The sultana mothers have, therefore, from a remote period, enjoyed the privilege of acting important parts at the Ottoman


Sultan Selim cherished the highest degree of veneration and gratitude for her who gave him life. The sultana Valide, (who died in October 1805, in her 73d year) always manifested a particular kindness and regard for the French; and even during their invasion of Egypt she never abandoned their cause. France and the Porte are now again intimately connected; and the former has declared itself the protector and defender of the Turkish empire.

Sultan Selim has three sisters, daughters of sultan Mustapha, but by a different mother. They are all living. The eldest, who has the title of Schack Sultana, or Imperial Princess, is married to Nulandschi Mustapha, formerly Pacha of Salonichi. As he is not a man of much ambition, and his character excites no suspicion in the court, he is suffered to live peaceably with his wife, in a palace contiguous to the suburb of Eyub. As far as respects him,

in office or not, shall reside in the capital, unless he occupies a place in the divan, or fills some of the high offices of state, has been dis pensed with. The second sister, known by the name of Beiham sultana, is the widow of Selikdar Mus tapha Pacha, formerly Kai-Makar, or deputy of the grand vizir, who died Pacha of Bosnia. The third is called Hedischa Sultana, and is the widow of Seid Achmed Pacha, who died Pacha of Wan, on the frontiers of Persia.

Sultan Selim has, as yet, no issue; and such is his neglect of the women of the haram, that it is scarcely expected that he will ever become a father. The heirs apparent to the throne are his first cousins, sultan Mustapha, and sultan Mahmud, sons of the sultan Abdul Hamid, the elder of whom is 27, and the younger ?? years of age. Both of them are very kindly treated by the present grand signior, out of gratitude for the kindness he himself experienced from their father, his uncle. Nevertheless, they are, according to custom, obliged to live secluded from all society, in the inmost recesses of the great seraglio; and they are permitted, but very rarely, to leave their quarters, in order to kiss the hand of the reigning sovereign. With no other companions than women doomed to sterility, and no other attendants than black eunuchs, are these princes obliged to pass their lives.

Such are the successors of the celebrated Ottoman heroes of past ages; of those mighty and warlike sultans, who, bred in camps, struck terror into all Christendom: these are imbued only with the precepts of the Koran, and the sentiment of


atred to the christians: without the east knowledge of the world, from which they are totally excluded; ind ignorant alike of the business of war, and of the important duties mposed on the sovereign of so immense an empire.

Russian Soldiers Characterized.

In their discipline and tactics, the Russians are the disciples of the Prussians, and adhere strictly to the school of Frederick the Great; they practise what the Prussians did 30 years ago.

The Russian soldier is deficient in instruction rather than intelligence; the servile obedience, to which he is accustomed from his birth, the rigorous discipline of the army, and his absolute separation from all other nations (whose language and manners are totally unknown to him) make him more obedient to his officers, and more patient and hardy, than the soldiers of any other service. Courage is the general characteristic: it is, if we may so express ourselves, the faith and creed of the Russian soldier. Implicit obedience occasious in him the same effects that enthusiasm does on other nations. The effect which servitude produces, is, in this instance, the same with that of the most ardent patriotism; it is more sure and durable than that of enthusiasm, the artificial warmth of which cannot be long kept up. Thus, what by philosophers is called the last state of degradation, places man in the same level with heroism.-The Russian soldiers do not conceive it possible to give up the contest, so long as they have life to

continue it. The officers are ingeneral very ignorant, for this reason strangers are in high esteem among them; they are brave in the ranks, but, like the soldiers, they are so from the effect of discipline. The same horror is conceived in the Russian armies of cowardice, as is entertained in other countries against irreligion and villainy. Bravery is a duty from which nobody considers himself exempt. A Russian camp resembles a horde of Tartars. In the same manner that a people accustomed to obey the laws, mechanically observe them; so do the Russians constantly follow the rules of discipline, without daring to depart from them.

Their method is to engage the enemy with the bayonet, at full speed, crying Owri, Owri; no troops in the world can withstand this charge: the firing does not abate their impetuosity; they attack a battery in front, if that be a readier way than to attack it in flank.

To withstand this shock, the enemy must not wait for it, but proceed to meet it with the same resolution. The French are more remarkable for boldness and rashness, than intrepidity; the approach of the long and broad Russian bayonets always alarmed them, and the grenadiers could never stand their impression. The courage of the Russians is proof against every thing; they know how to die to insure victory, and to die rather than be beaten. They will beat all other troops, if they can but bring them to action: they are moving machines of fire, that consume all in their way. No troops in the world are so careless of being attacked in flauk, or turned; they think, let the enemy be where he

will, if he can but face about to meet him, that he is in front and regular array before them.

The Russian discipline is extremely rigorous, and has all the ingredients of an autocratical government. The subordination amongst the officers of different ranks is almost as great as that of private soldiers to their officers in other services; they are sometimes treated in the same manner as the privates. Their bravery, is the effect of discipline, more than of elevated sentiments.

Each company has its hero; it is a distinction he obtains from the suffrages of his comrades: he has no pre-eminence determined by order, though he has in effect a very great one; he is the example, the model, and the chief of the mess; he enjoys great consideration among his comrades, and never fails to give them an example of bravery, firmness, and good conduct.-When men are accustomed to any thing, it is sufficient for one to give an example, to induce the other to follow it: this it is, that renders the hero in question so useful in action. Few persons are capable of setting an example, though almost all of following it.

and insignificance of the remaining princes, whose collective force was great, but whose powers could not be brought to act in harmony, or on an emergency be called into exertion. The greater part of those princes were philanthropic admia istrators of their little territories; but few of them possessed that dignity and those energies of character which their exalted rank demanded, and their high titles imported. Hence we cannot wonder that, when the mighty foe advanced, and the concentrated power of France pressed upon them, they soon shrunk from the conflict, and yielded to the victor almost without opposition. But there were splendid exceptions to this general debility, and an heroism of character was sometimes found in the minor princes, which, had it subsisted in the breasts of the still powerful sovereigus, might have preserved from violation the august memorial and shade of Roman dominion; nor would the Teuton then have lain prostrate before the Gaul.

Among the few who retained the elevation of the ancient German character, even at the moment of its lowest degradation, was the reigning duchess of Saxe Weimar, Louisa, daughter of the Landgrave of Hesse Darmstadt. Her consort, as is well known, was one of the generals of

Buonaparte and the Duchess of the king of Prussia, in the ever


The recent annihilation of the German empire is, above all things, to be attributed to the wretched absurdities of its constitution; to the establishment of the power of Prussia as a balance against Austria, by. which dissention and division were organized; and to the weakness

memorable campaign of 1806. When the allied armies collected themselves in the little territory of the duke, where it was resolved to wait the arrival of the French; when it was determined to hazard the battle which was to decide the fate of all Germany, in the vicinity of Weimar, the duchess resolved to abide in her residence. The


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aged and venerable duchess dowager, the mother of the duke, and sister of the commander in chief the duke of Brunswick, and the hereditary prince of Weimar, with his imperial consort, the sister of the emperor Alexander, retreated precipitately to Brunswick; but the duchess, even after the fatal issue of the battle of Jena was foreseen, retired within the walls of her palace, and waited the event with calmness and resignation. She had assembled round her the ladies of her court, and generously offered an asylum to the English, whose situation was then so perilous. Her amiable friend Miss Gore, with her aged parent, since deceased, and Mr. Osborne, a gentleman who formerly filled a diplomatic charaeter in several of the continental courts, were among the select party whom the duchess collected together in a wing of the castle, while the state apartments were opened for the reception of the unwelcome and terri fic guest. During the awful 14th of October, the duchess and her friends were immured in their recess, and had no nourishment but a few cakes of chocolate found by accident. When the fortunes of the day began to be decided (and that took place early in the morning), the Prussians, retreating through the town, were pursued by the French, and slaughtered in the streets. Some of the inhabitants were murdered, and a general plunder began. In

the evening the conqueror approached and entered the palace of the duke, now become his own by the right (!) of conquest. It was then that the duchess left her apartment, and, seizing the moment of his entering the hall, placed herself on the top of the staircase, to greet him with the formality of a courtly reception. Napoleon started when he beheld her: "Qui étes vous? (Who are you?)" he exclaimed with his characteristic abruptness. “Je suis la duchess de Weimar (I am the duchess of Weimar.)" "Je vous plains," he retorted fiercely, “j’ecraserai votre mari (I pity you, I shall crush your husband.)" He then added, “I shall dine in my apartment," and rushed by her.

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The night was spent, on the part of the soldiery, in all the horrid excesses of rapine. The inhabitants were exposed, without defence, to all the licentious excesses of a military, intoxicated with victory. The duchess and her friends remained in a state hardly less deplorable; for though not exposed to personal danger, their feelings were sharpened by a finer sensibility.-Though exhausted by suffering, the duchess had resolved not to abandon the unhappy inhabitants, without an effort in their favour. Accordingly, she sent her chamberlain early in the morning to inquire concerning the health of his majesty the emperor, and to solicit an audience. The morning dreams of Napoleon had

One instance only the writer of this article is induced to single out, from the aceident of his being personally acquainted with the unhappy subject of it. The apartments of an old gentleman (he was upwards of 70) were broken into, and every thing in them rifled and destroyed. The soldiers had found below some fowls, and insisted that he should instantly pluck them. He very placidly complied, and began his task, they deriding him in the performance of it. Upon his rising, however, to fetch his spectacles, he was knocked down, and beaten so cruelly that he died.

had possibly soothed his mind to gentleness, or he recollected that he was a monarch as well as general, and could not refuse what the emperor owed to the duchess: he accordingly returned a gracious answer, and invited himself to breakfast with her in her apartinent.

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On his entrance, he began instantly with an interrogative (his favourite figure): "How could your husband, madam, be so mad as to make war against me?" "Your majesty would have despised him if he had not," was the dignified answer he received. "How so?" he hastily replied. The duchess slowly and deliberately rejoined, My husband has been in the service of the king of Prussia upwards of 30 years; and surely it was not at the moment that the king had so mighty an enemy as your majesty to contend against, that the duke could abandon him. A reply so admirable, which asserted so powerfully the honour of the speaker, and yet conciliated the vanity of the adversary, was irresistible. Buonaparte became at once more mild, and, without noticing the answer already received, continued his interroga tories. "But how came the duke to attach himself to the king of Prussia?"—"Your majesty will, on enquiry, find, that the dukes of Saxony, the younger branches of the family, have always followed the example of the electoral house; and your majesty knows what motives of prudence and policy have led the court of Dresden to attach itself to Prussia rather than Austria."

This was followed by further inquiries and further answers, so impressive, that in a few minutes Napoleon exclaimed with warmth, "Madame, vous êtes la femme la

plus respectable que j'ai jamais con nu; vouz avez sauvez votre Mari. "Madam, you are the most estimable woman I ever knew-You have saved your husband!"-Yet he could not confer favour unac companied with insult; for reilerating his assurances of esteem, be added, "Je le pardonne, mais c'est a cause de vous seulement; car, pour lui, c'est un mauvais Sujet." "I pardon him, but it is entirely on your account; for, as to himself, he is a bad subject." The duchess to this made no reply; but, seizing the happy moment, interceded successfully for her suffering people. Napoleon gave orders that the plundering should cease; and afterwards ordered that Mr. Osborne should be released, who had in the mean while been arrested.

There are not wanting those who have affected to consider this incident as honourable to the conqueror. But the praise of generosity cannot well be given where the motives of policy are apparent. The court of Weimar is connected more closely than any other with Russia, by the marriage of the em peror Alexander's sister with the hereditary prince. Buonaparte has never overlooked the necessity of ultimately conciliating the favour of Russia. It is the only power on the continent of Europe which he had a motive to conciliate. Subsequent events have shewn, that his efforts have not been ineffectual; and it is not the least of his victories, that we see the emperor of the North in the train of his instruments and accessaries.

After the departure of Buonaparte from Weimar to Berlin and Poland; he continued to express the same opinion of the duchess that he first uttered.

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