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Karma cast, being descended from woman is flogged; but, after she the five sons of ihat person, who has been purified by some conselives in heaven, and is the chief artist crated food, and water, her busband among the Brahıná Lóka, or angels. receives, ber back again. If a woAll the Panchalar in southern India man has criminal connection with a wear a thread like the Brábmans. man of any other cast, she is exin the dispute about precedency, comununicated. Some of these peotheir bereditary chiefs lead the right ple eat animal food, others do not. hand side. On this account Coim- They are allowed to driok intoxicalbetore' has been long divided into ing liquors. They never offer sacriseparate quarters. In its own quar- fices to any of the destructive spirits, ter, each party may perform its either male or female. The deity ceremonies in whatever manner it peculiar to the cast is Camachuma, pleases; but it is not a:lowed to go or Kalima, who is, they say, the into the adversary's quarters with same with Parvati, the wife of Siva. any procession. This keeps the The priests in her temples are all peace; and, although the killing of Brahmans; but in the southern parts a jackass, is known by report to the of India no sacrifices are offered to natives in this part of the country, this idol, as is done ir Bengal. The it never has been practised. A Pan- images of this goddess in the two cliala may follow any of the five arts countries are very differently shaped. that he pleases; but there are many The Panchalas are frequently. indivisions among them, that prevent structed to read and write, and there interinarriage.
No man can marry is a book called Vishwa Puráram, a woman of a different nation; a which any of them may read. It is Telinga Pauchala, for instance, could written in the vulgar languages. The not marry a woman of this country.. Gurus of the Panchalas are not Again, a man cannot marry any wo- Brahmans, but persons of the cast. man of the same family with him. They have four Matams, the authoself; and, in order to prevent mis- rity of all which is equal. One Matam, takes, marriages are always made situated beyond the Tunga-bhadra with families who are well kuown to river, is under the government of a each other. The men are allowed a Sannyási, who appoints his succesplurality of wives, and the women sor from among his relations in the continue to be marriageable after the male line. The persons of this family age of puberty. Widows are not who are not called upon to fill this allowed to marry again; nor are sacred office work at the anvil as they permitted to live with another usual, and are not too proud to inman in the kind of concubinage termarry with ordinary families. called Jaty-bidda, of whom none The heads of the other three families belong to this tribe. Widows, in- marry, and their office is hereditary deed, ought to burn themselves with in the male line: one of them panied the dead bodies of their husbands; Parsamium, lives at Tinevelly; anbut, for at least a century, the prac- other, named Vepuru Vencata Achátice has gove into disuse. When rya, lives at Andëuru; the name of two persons of the cast commit the third, and his place of residence, adultery, they are carried before the are unknown to the people of CoiinGuru. The man is fined, and the betore. To their followers these Vol. XLIX.
Gurus read Mantrams and Charitra, The bridegroom generally gives his or prayers and legends, in the Te- father-in-law forly Fanams (Il. 55.): linga language. They also bestow but this is only to assist in defraving Upadésa, and receive the gifts called the expence of the ceremony, which Dána and Dharma; for which pur- is performed at the father's house, pose they once a year travel round, and which costs more money. la and receive from each person a Fa- cases of adultery, the husband does pam at least.
not always turn his wife away, but The Panchanga of the village acts contents himself with flogging her. as Puróhita for the Panchalar, and A woman loses cast if she cohabits reads to thein Mantrams, in an un- with a strange man. This cast las known language, at marriages, births, two deities peculiar to itself; the the building of a new house, and at one a male, the other a female. The the monthly and annual celebrations male is called Siduay Dévaru, and is of the ceremonies for their deceased usually represented by a stone place parents. He also receives the charity in the Betel-leaf-garden. The chest called Dána.
man of every house acts as priest for The Toreas, or Torearu, are a bis own family, and "ffers up blooty tribe of Karnata, although many of sacrifices to this stone, in order to them have been long settled in this appease the wrath of the god which country. They are rather a low it represents. Once in three or four cast, and their proper duty is the years a feast is celebrates ir bonour cultivation of the Betel-leat. Many of Sidday Dévaru, in order to isof them formerly were armed mes- duce him to bestow prosperity on the sengers, employedd to collect the re- cast. . This is done by a contribuvenue; but, having been deprived tion, and costs fifteen Pagodas (Al. in a great measure of this resource 135. 7d.) On this occasion Sidday by the reduction made in that body Dévaru is represented by a pot, of troops, or rather rabble, they which is placed in a house, and lias have become small dealers in grain, worship (Puja) performed in its and cutters of firewood; both of honour; that is to say, flowers, and which are considered as low em- water dyed yellow with turmeric, are ployments. They have hereditary poured over it, and incense is buried chiefs called Gotugaras, or Ijyamá- before its throne. The female deity nas, who with the advice of a coun- is nanied Urucate, and is represented cil reprimand all troublesome per- by a stone placed in a wood. To sons, and inflict slight punishments this, sacrifices and Puja are offered on those wlio transgress the rules of eight days after the great feast of cast. The Toreas may eat animal Sidday Dévaru, and the goddess is food, but are not permitted to drink solicited to bestow prosperity on her intoxicating liquors. They are not votaries. Although these are the allowed to marry a second wife, peculiar deities of the Toreas, these without obtaining the consent of poor people pray to any image that the first; and this is never asked comes in their way, and use the for, if she has any children. The mark of Siva. They have no Guru. girls continue to be marriageable The Panchanga acts as Puróhita, after the age of puberty, and widows and reads Mantrams at niarriages, may marry again without disgrace, and when they build a new house. His fee is a Fanam and a half the man who seduced her keeps the (114d.) .lu cases of sickness, the woman as his wife, and pacifies his Toreas frequently vow Dáséri one relations by a small fine. All this day in the week; that is to say, to produces no disgrace, either to the live upon what they can procure by woman or to her children. A wobegging.
man loses cast by criminal commuThe Pallí are a very numerous pication with any man except a cast in all the countries where the. Palli; a man may without disgrace' Tamul lavguage, their native tongue, indulge himself with any woman, is prevalent. They pretend to be except those belonging to the PanSúdras, but are looked upon as ra- chama, or impure casts. ther a low tribe. They have many The gods peculiar to the Pallis subdivisions, none of which inter- are a male named Manar Swami, marry with each other; but all car and Pachumma bis mother. the eat in common. Those from whom temples of these deities the priests I have my information are called are Pallís. Threy are represented by Arisha Pallí, and act as cultivators stone images, and, as usual in the of fields, and of gardens watered by province of Coimbetore, have plamachinery, both as farmers and ser- ced in the yard belonging to their vants, and also as poners. They temple a great many figures in pothave hereditary chiefs, called here ter's work, which represent horses, ljyamáira. On all public ceremo- elephants, and Munis, or devils, who nies these receive Betel first; and, are supposed to be the attendants of with the assistance of an assembly of these gods. When a person is sick, the people, settle disputes, when the he frequently vows to place some of members of their tribes are willing these images of potter's work at the to refer the matter to their decision; temple of the spirit who is supposed but a reference to the officers of to be the cause of his disease. None government is in general preferred. of these are ever presented to the Some of this tribe are able to read great gods of the Bráhmans, but only and write accompts. They can to the deities peculiar to the casts lawfully eat animal food, and drink of the lower tribes. No sacrifices spirituous liquors. They are per- are offered to Mannar, 'or Pachummitted to marry several women, and ma; but they are frequently prepay to the father of each from nine sented to the attendant Munis, of to eleven Pagodas. The father pays whom a great many have appropriove-third of the marriage-expences, ate names and characters; such as and the bridegroom the remainder. Val, Shem, Car, Vayda, Muttu, &c. Girls continue to be marriageable They are all males. The Pallis after the age of puberty; but after frequently offer sacrifices to Marithat period sell lower than while ma, Putalima,and the other Saktis, and children. A widow may marry pray to Siva, Vishnu, or any thing again without disgrace. In cases of which they meet, that is called a god. adultery within the cast, the hus- The Panchanga, or astrologer of band in general flogs the woman, the village, acts as Purobita for the and takes her back, giving a small Pallís, and reads Mantrams at their time to his relations ; but sometimes births and marriages, at the annual he turns her away; in which case cominemorations of their deceased
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parents, and at the building of a new the herds I had met on the road; house.
but they were so fierce, that, without Some of the Pallís are of Siva's protection from the keepers, it would side, and others of Vishnu's. The have been unsafe to approach tbem. former have a Guru peculiar to I determined, therefore, to remain a themselves, who is called Palli Swá. day at Madhu-giri and examine the mi, and lives at Andëuru. His particulars. office is hereditary, and he wears 11th August. I went with Thi the Linga. He receives the charity mula Nayaka, and examined three of his followers, and gives them herds of breeding cows, one of them consecrated food, and holy water. chiefly his own property. From him, On such as choose to wear the and from sone of the most sensible Linga, he bestows an Upadésa ; but Goalas, I afterwards took the followvery few apply for this, as ever ing account. afterwards they must abstain from In this country the Cadu Goalas, animal food. The Pallís who wear or Goalaru, are those who breed the mark of Vishnu have for Gurus cattle. Their families live in small the Sri Vaishnavam Bráhmans. villages near the skirts of the woods,
where they cultivate a little ground, Account of the Goalas, or Cow- and keep some of their cattle, selling keepers, of Madhu-giri. in the towns the produce of the
dairy. Their families are very 00[From the same.]
merous, seven or eight young men in 10th August.
In the morning I each being common. Two or three went three cosses to Madhu-giri. of these attend the flocks in the The road led through pretty vallies, woods, while the remainder cultisurrounded by detached rocky bills. vate their fields, and supply the These vallies showed marks of bav. towns with fire-wood, and with straw ing once been in a great measure for tbatch. Some of them also hire cultivated, and contained the ruinous themselves to the farmers as servillages of their former inhabitants. vants. They are a very dirty people, Ever since the devastation committed much worse than even the generality by Purseram Bhow, and the subse- of the people of Karnata; for they quent famine, they have been nearly wear no cloathing but a blanket, and waste; and many of the fields are generally sleep among the cattle; overgrown
with young trees. A few which, joined to a warm climate, wretched inhabitants remain, and a and rare ablutions, with vermin, itch, few fields are cultivated; and it is ring-worms, and other cutaneous said, that this year greater progress disorders, render them very offensive. would have been made toward the In criminal matters relating to recovery of the country, had not the cast, the Goalas are under the jurisseason been remarkably dry and un- diction of a renter, who in the laufavourable.
guage of Karnata is called Beny On my arrival at Madbu-giri, and Chavadi, or in the mussulnian dialect questioning Trimula Nayaka on the Musca Chavadi, which signifies the subject, I found, that every town and head of the butter-office. He revillage in this billy country bad sides at the capital, and pays to goberds of breeding cattle. One of vernment an annual revenue. He
goes to every village where any re- tilence, the sufferers go and solicit a gular families of Goalas are esta- new stock from the other persons of blished, and from each levies the tax the cast, each of whom will give a which they pay to government for , beast or two for that purpose. Should liberty to pasture their flocks on its they be so unreasonable as to refuse property. In this neighbourhood, this bounty, the Beny Chavadi will every family, whether it consists of compel them to assist their distressed
many persons or of few, or whether neighbours. : it be rich or poor, pays the same There are a great many different
tax; which is indeed a mere trifle, races of Goalas, with whom the being only six Fanams, or about 4s. Cadu Goalas neither eat nor intera year. For this small sum they are marry. These last are a tribe of exempted from any tax or rent for Karnata; and persons, who consider grass, and may feed their cattle in themselves as of any rank, marry whatever woods they please. In into such families only, with the some villages there is often only one purity of whose origin they are well family of privileged Goalas, in others acquainted; for in this tribe there is there are two. If a family change a very numerous race of Cutigás, or its place of abode, it must always bastards. Widows who prefer dispay its tax, and also certain dues grace to celibacy, and women who owing to the temples, at its original commit adultery, connect themselves village. The same happens to the with the bastard race, who also keep individuals of a family, which some- Hadras, or concubines; a practice times may occupy ten houses ; the that is not permitted to Goalas of a whole of them, wherever settled, pure descent. These, however, inay must send their share of the tax to keep as many wives as they please. the head of the family. The head A woman who is incontinent with a man of the family is generally the man of any other cast, is inevitably eldest son of tbe last man who held excommunicated. If the adultery the office; but in case of his being has been committed with a Goala, incapable, from stupidity, of trans- she will be received as a Cutiga; and acting business, the Beny Chavadi both the man who seduced her, and appoints an acting chief, or ljyamána. her husband, are fined in twelve There are some Goalas, who are pot Fanams, or about 8s.' The Goalas privileged, nor under the authority of are not permitted to drink spirituous the Beny Chavadi, who in proportion liquors, nor to eat tislı, or hags; but to the extent of their focks pay a they may eat sheep, goats, deer, and rent for the grass to the Gydda Ca- fowls. They bury the dead, and vila, or keeper of the forest. This have no knowledge of a future life, also is very moderate; 100 cows pay- except believing that those who die ing annually five Fanams, or 38. 4d. unmarried will become Virigas, whom
The Ijyamánas, or hereditary chiefs they worship in the usual manner. of Goala families, setile all disputes; The gods peculiar to their cast are, but the Beny Chavadi punishes all Jinjuppa and Ramuppa. The Brahtransgressions against the rules of maps say, that the former is the cast. When the flocks of any family same with Lechmana, the younger have perished, either by war or pes. brother of Ráma; but of ihis the
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