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of Freetown in Sierra Leone, at the foot of the Kon-authentic information,-one accrunt carrying it back u kodugor, and on the Fala river, a tributary of the Little Scar- the days of Solomon and his hypoinctical son Menelek by cies. It was founded by the Sulimas, who revolted from the the queen of Sheba, another to che time of the Babylonian Mahometan Foulas, and its warlike inhabitants soon attained captivity, and a third only to the 1st century of the Chris supremacy over the neighbouring villages and country. tian era That one or other of the enrlier dates is probably The defences consist of a lofty stockade, and a moat about correct may be gathered for the fact that the Falaslas 20 feet deep and as many in breadth From a distance know nothing of either the Babylonian or Jerusalem Talthe town appears like a grove of silk-cotton trees, and only mud, make no use of the rephilin, and observe neither tha at intervals are the brown roofs seen peering through the feast of Purim nor the d,uication of the temple. They posfoliage Major Laing about 1825 estimated the number of sess-not in Hebrew, ci which they are altogether ignorant, huts at about 4000. They are arranged in clusters round but in Ethiopic (or Geez)—the canonical and apocryphal squares or court-yards, and though only built of clay are books of the Old Testament; a volume of extracts from the neat and even elegant Winwood Reade, who was detained Pentateuch, with comments .given to Moses by God on in the town during his Niger journey in 1869, has given a Mount Sinai; the To-e-sa-sa Sanbat, or laws of the Sabbath, graphic description of life in Falaba in his African Sketch the Ardit, a book of secrets revealed to twelve saints, which Book, vol. ii., 1873. See also Laing, Travels in IV. Africa, is used as a chann against disease ; lives of Abraham,
Moses, &c.; and translation of Josephus called Sana FALAISE, & town of France, the capital of an arron- Aihud. A copy of the Orit or Mosaic law is kept in the dissement in the department of Calvados, is situated on holy of holies in every mesgeed or synagogue. "Various the right bank of the Ante, 21 miles S. by E of Caen. pagun observances are mingled in their ritual: every newly. It was formerly a place of some strength, and is still built house is considered aninbabitable till the blood of a surrounded by old walls. The principal object of in- sheep or fowl has been spilt in it; a wonian guilty of a terest is the castle, now partly in ruins, but formerly the breach of chastity has to undergo purification by leaping seat of the dukes of Normandy, and the birthplace of into a flaming fire; the Sabbath has been deified and, as William the Conqueror. Near the castle, in the Place de la the goddess Sanbat, receives adoration and sacrifice, and is Trinité, is an equestrian statue in bronze of William the said to have ten tlousand times ten thousand angels to wait Conqueror, by Louis Rodel. Falaise has two large and on her commands. There is a monastic system, introduced populous suburbs;'one of which, Guibray, rivals in size and it is said in the 4th century A.D. by Aba Zebra, a pious man importance the town itself, and is celebrated for its annual who retired from the world and lived in the cave of fair , which lasts from 10th to 25th August
. The town Hoharewa, in the province of Armatshobo. The monks contains a town-hall
, a hospital, a theatre, several ancient i must prepare all their food with their own hands, and no churches, and a public library. The manufactures are lay person, male or female, may enter their houses., Celibacy chiefly cotton goods, hosiery, leather, and paper. The is not practised by the pricsts, but they are not allowed to population in 1872 was 7749.
marry a second time, and no one is admitted into the order FALASHAS (i.e., Exiles), the degenerate Jews of Abys- who has eaten bread with a Christian, or is the son or binia, found in considerable numbers in the provinces west grandson of a man thus contaminated. Belief in the evil of Takazze, namely, Semien, Wogara, Armatshoho, Walkait, eye or sbadow is universal, and spirit-raisers, soothsayers, Tchelga, Dembea, Tenkel, Dagusa, Alafa, Kunsula, Aschafer, and rain-doctors are in repute. Education is in the land: Agarv-Jeder, and Quara. It is doubtful whether they are of the monks and priests, and is confined to boys. Fasts, to be ethnologically identified with the seed of Abraham, or obligatory on all above seven years of age, ore held on every regarded, like the Khazars of the 8th century, as, for the Monday and Thursday, on every new moon, and at tbe passmost part, mere proseiytes to Judaism. As to the date over (the 21st or 22d of Aprill The annual festivals are
the passover, the harvest feast, the Baala Mazålat or feast the “Duck-Hawk," and those from Australia have been of tabernacles (during which, however, no booths are built), described as distinct under the name of F. melanogenys. the day of covenant or assembly, and Abraham's day. It Here, as in so many other cases, it is almost impossible is believed that after death the soul remains in a place of to decide as to which forms should, and which should darkness till the third day, when the first taskar or sacrifice not, be accounted merely local races. In size not surfor the dead is offered; prayers are read in the mesgeed for passing a Raven, this Falcon (fig. 1) is perhaps the most the repose of the departed, and for seven days a formal powerful Bird-of-Prey for its bulk that flies, and its lament takes place every morning in his house. No collins courage is not less than its power. It is the species, are used, and a stone vault is built over the corpse so that in Europe, most commonly trained for the sport of hawkit may not come into direct contact with the earth. The ing (see FalconeY). Volumes have been written upon Falashas are an industrious people, living for the most part it, and to attempt a complete account of it is, within the in villages of their own, or, if they settle in a Christian or limits now available, iinpossible. The plumage of the adult Mahometan town, occupying a separate quarter. They en. gage in agriculture, manufacture pottery, iron ware, and cloth, and are specially sought after for their skill in nasonwork. Their numbers are variously estimated at from 80,000 to 200,000.
See Nott and Gliddon, Types of Mankind, 1868; Flad, Zwölf Jahre in Abyssinia, Basel, 1869, and his Falashes of Abyssinia, translated from the German by S. P. Goodhart, London, 1869.
FALCON (Latin, Falco;l French, Faucon; Teutonic, Falk or Valken), a word now restricted to the high-couraged and long-winged Birds-of-Prey which take their quarry as it moves ; but formerly it had a very different meaning, being by the naturalists of the last and even of the present century extended to a great number of birds comprised in the genus Falco of Linnæus and writers of his day,? while, on the other hand, by falconers, it was, and still is, techni. cally limited to the female of the birds employed by them in their vocation (see FALCONRY), whether “ long-winged and therefore "noble," or "short-winged” and “ignoble.”
According to modern usage, the majority of the Falcons, in the sense first given, may be separated into five very distinct groups (1) the Falcons pure and simple. (Falco proper); (2) the large northern Falcons (Hierofalco, Cuvier);
Fro, 1.-Peregrine Falcon. (3) the "Desert Falcons” (Gennæa, Kaup); (4) the Merlins is generally blackish-blue above, and white, with a more or
Esalon, Kaup); and (5) the Hobbies (Hypotriorchis, less deep cream coloured tinge, beneatb—the lower parts, Boie). The precise order in which these should be ranked except the chin and throat, being barred transversely need not concern us here, but it must be mentioned that a with black, while a black patch extends from the bill sixth group, the Kestrels (Tinnunculus, Vieillot) is often to the ear-coverts, and descends on either side beneath added to them. This, however, appears to have been justi- the mandible. The young have the upper parts decp fiably reckoned a distinct genus, and its consideration may blackish-brown, and the lower white, more or less strongly for the present be deferred.
tinged with ochraceous-brown, and striped longitudinally The typical Falcon is by common consent allowed to be with blackish-brown. From Port Kennedy, the most that almost cosmopolitan species to which unfortunately the northern part of the American continent, to Tasmania, and English epithet "peregrine” (i.e., strange or wandering) from the shores of the Sea of Ochotsk to Mendoza in the has been attached. It is the Falco peregrinus of Tunstall Argentino territory, there is scarcely a country in which (1771) and of most recent ornithologists, though some 3. this Falcon has not been found. Specimens have been reprefer the specific name communis applied by J. F. Gmelin ceived from the Cape of Good Hope, and it is only a queså few years later (1788) to a bird which, if his diagnosis betion of the technical differentiation of species, whether it correct, could not have been a true Falcon at all, since it does not extend to Cape Horn. Fearless as it is, and adapthad yellow irides—a colour never met with in the eyes of ing itself to almost every circumstance, it will form its eyry. any bird now called by naturalists & " Falcon." This equally on the sea-washed cliffs, the craggy mountains, or species inhabits suitable localities throughout the greater (though more rarely) the drier spots of a marsh in the part of the globe, though examples from North America northern hemisphere, as on trees (says Schlegel) in the forests have by some received specific recognition as F. anatum— of Java, or the waterless ravincs of Australia. In the United
Kingdom it was formerly very common, and hardly a high Unknown to classical writers the earliest uso of this word is said | rock from the Shetlands to the Isle of Wight but had a to be by Servius Honoratus (circa 390-480 a. D.) in his notes on Æn.
pair as its tenants. But the British gamekeeper has long lib. x. vers. 145. It seems possibly to be the Latinized form of the
held the mistaken faith that it is his worst foe, and the Teutonic Falk, though falx is commonly c.ccounted its root.
* The nomonclature of nearly all the older writers on this point is number of pairs which are now allowed to rear their brood extremely confused, and the attempt to unravel it would hardly repay unmolested in these islands must be small indeed. Yet its' the trouble, and would undoubtedly occupy moro space thau could here utility to the game-preserver, by destroying every one of
What many of them, even so lately as Pennant's time. his most precious wards that shews any sign of infirmity, termed the “Gentle Falcon" is certainly the bird we now call the Gos. Hawk(i.e., Goose-Hawk), which name itself may have been transferred can hardly be questioned by reason, and no one has moro to the Astur palumbarius of modern ornithologists, from one of the earnestly urged its claims to protection than Mr G. E. Freelong-winged Birds-of-Prey.
man (Falconry, &c., p. 10).* Nearly allied to this Falcon Among them Mr Sharpe, who, in his recent Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum, has besides rejected much of the evidence that the experience of those who have devoted years of study, to the
• It is not to be inferred, however, as many writers liave done, that Falcons has supplied.
Falcous habitually prey upon birds in which diseaso has made any
are several species of which it is impossible here to treat known about them, their position must remain doubtat length, such as F. barbarus of Mauritania, F. minor of ful. South Africa, the Asiatic F. babylonicus, F. peregrinator Wo have then a small but very beautiful group
the of India—the Shaheen, and perhaps F. cassini of South Berlins? (Æsalon of some writers, Lithofalfo of others). The America, with some others.
Next to the typical Falcons comes a group known as the "great northern" Falcons (Hierofalco). Of these the most remarkable is the Gyrfalcon (F. gyrfalco), whose home is in the Seandinavian mountains, though the young are yearly visi. tants to the plains of Holland and Germany. In plumage it very much resenibles F. peregrinus, but its flanks have generally a bluer tinge, and its superiority in size is at once manifest. Nearly allied to it is the Icelander (F. islandus), which externally differs in its paler colouring, and in almost entirely wanting the black mandibular patch. Its proportions, however, differ a good deal, its body being elongated. Its country is shown by its name, but it also inhabits South Greenland, and not unfrequently makes its way to the British Islands. Very close to this comes the Greenland Falcon (F. candicans), a native of North Greenland, and perhaps of other countries within the Arctic circle. Like the last, the Greenlaki Falcon from time to time occurs in the United Kingdom, but it is always to be distinguished by wearing a plumage in which at every age the prevailing colour is pure white. In North-Eastern America these European Merlin (F. æsalon) is perhaps the boldest of the birds are replaced by a kindred form (F. labradorus) first Accipitres, not hositating to attack birds of twice its own detected by Audubon, and lately recognized by Mr Dresser. size, and even on occasion threatening human beings. Yet (Orn. Miscell., i. p. 135). It is at once distinguished by it readily becomes tame, if not affectionate, when reolaimed, its very dark colouring, the lower parts being occasionally and its ordinary prey consists of the smaller Passeres. Its almost as deeply tinted at all ages as the upper.
“pinion of glossy blue has become almost proverbial, and All the birds hitherto named possess one character in a deep ruddy blush suffuses its lower parts ; but these are common. The darker markings of their plumage are longi. characteristic only of the male—the female maintaining tudinal before the first real moult takes place, and for ever very nearly the sober brown plumage she wore when as a afterwards are transverse. In other words, when young the nestling she left her lowly cradle in the heather. Very markings are in form of stripes, when old in form of bars. Close to this bird comes the Pigeon-Hawk (F. columbarius) The variation of tint is very great, especially in F. pere- of North America—so close, indeed, that none but an exgrinus; but the experience of falconers, whose business it is pert ornithologist can detect the difference. The 'Turumti of to keep their birds in the very highest condition, shews that Anglo-Indians (F. chicquera), and its representative from & Falcon of either of these groups if light-coloured in Southern Africa (F. ruficollis), also belong to this group, youth is light coloured when adult, and if dark when young but they are considerably larger than either of the former. is also dark when old-age, after the first moult, making Lastly, we have the Hobbies (Hypotriorchis) comprising no difference in the complexion of the bird. The next a greater number of forms—though how many seems to be, group is that of the so-called " Desert-Falcops” (Gennæu), wherein the difference just indicated does not obtain, for long as the bird may live and often as it may moult, tho original style of markings never gives way to any other. Foremost among these are to be considered the Lanner and the Saker (commonly termed F. lanarius and F. sacer), both well known in the palmy days of Falconry, but only within the last forty years or so -admitted to full recognition. Both of these birds belong properly to South-eastern Europe, North Africa, and South-western Asia. They are, for their bulk, less powerful than the members of the preceding group, and though they may be trained to high flights are naturally captors of humbler game. The precise number of species belonging here is very doubtful, but among the many candidates for recognition are especially to be named the Lugger (F. jugger) of India, and the Prairie Falcon (F. mexicanus) of the western plains of North America.
The systematist finds it hard to decide in what group he should place two somewhat large Australian species (F. hypoleucus and F. subniger), both of which are rare
Fig. 3.-Hobby. in collections—the latter especially; and, until more is
doubtful. They are in life at once recognizable by their serious progress.
Such birds meet their fate from the less noble bold upstanding position, and at any time by their long Accipitres, or predatory animals of many kinds. But when a bird is wings. The type of this group is the English Hobby (P. Airst affected by any disorder, its power of taking care of itself is at subbuteo),' a bird of great power of flight, chiefly used in once impaired, and hence in the majority of cases it may become an easy victim under circumstances which would enablo a perfectly sound bird to escape from the attack even of a Falcon.
| French, Emérillon; Icelandic, Smirill.
the capture of insects, which form its ordinary food. It is coveries he and Captain Cautley received in 1837 tho a summer visitant to most parts of Europe, including these Wollaston medal in duplicate from the Geological Society islands, and is most wantonly and needlessly destroyed by of London. In 1834 Falconer was appointed to inquire gamekeepers. A second European species of the group is into the sitness of India for the growth of the tea-plant, and the beautifal F. eleonoræ, which hardly comes further north it was on his recommendation that it was introduced into than the countries bordering the Mediterranean, and, thongle that country. He also made large natural history collec. in some places abundant, is an oxtremely local bird. The tions, not only of the productions of the country round largest species of this section seems to be the Neotropical F. Saharunpoor, but also of the valley of Kashmir and the femoralis, for F. diroleucus though often ranked here is now countries to the north of it, exploring at the same time the supposed to belong to the group of typical Falcons. (A. N.) glacier on the southern dank of the Muztagh range, and
FALCONE, ANIELLO (1600-1665), a battle-painter, was the great glaciers of Arindoh and of the Braldoh valley. the son of a tradesman, and was born in Naples. He He was compelled by illness to leave India in 1842, and showed his artistic tendency at on early age, received some during his stay in England, besides reading various papers instruction from a relative, and then studied under Ribera on his discoveries before several learned societies, he occu(Lo Spagnoletto), of whom he ranks as the most eminent pied himself with the classification and arrangement of the papil Besides battle-pictures, large and small, taken from Indian fossils presented to the British Museum and East biblical as well as secular history, he painted various reli. India House, chiefly by himself and Captain Cautley. In gious subjects, which, however, count for little in his 1848 he was appointed superintendent of the Calcutta general reputation. He became, as a battle-painter, almost botanical garden, and professor of botany in the medical as celebrated as Borgognone (Courtois), and was named college ; and on entering on his daties he was at once em" L'Oracolo delle Battaglie." His works have animation, ployed by the Indian Government and the Agricultural and variety, truth to nature, and careful colour. Falcone was Horticultural Society as their adviser on all matters conbold, generous, used to arms, and an excellent fencer. In nected with the vegetable products of India Being com. the insurrection of Masaniello (1647) le resolved to be pelled by the state of his health to leave India in 1855, he bloodily avenged for the death; at the hands of two spent the remainder of his life chiefly in examining fossil Spaniards, of a nephew, and of a pupil in the school of art species in England and the Continent corresponding to which he had established in Naples. He and many of his those which he had discovered in India In the course of scholars, including Salvator Rosa and Carlo Coppola, formed his researches he became interested in the question of the an armed band named the Compagnia della Morta They antiquity of the human race, and actually commenced a scoured the streets by day, exulting in slaughter; at night work on " Primeval Man," which, however, he was not they were painters again, and handled the brush with im. spared to finish. He died 31st January 1865. He was a petuous zeal. Peace being restored, they had to decamp. member of many learned societies, both British and foreign. Falcone and Rosa made off to Romo; here Borgognono Shortly after his death a committee was formed for the noticed the works of Falcone, and became his friend, and a promotion of a "Falconer Meinorial" This took the shape French gentleman induced him to go to France, where of a marble bust, which was placed in the rooms of the Louis XIV. became one of his patrons. Ultimately Colbert Royal Society of London, and of a Falconer scholarship obtained permission for the painter to return to Naples, and of the annual value of £100, open for competition to there lie died in 1665. Two of his battle-pieces are to be graduates in science or medicine of the university of Edinseen in the Louvre and in the Naples museum; he painted burgh. a portrait of Masaniello, and engraved a few plates.
Dr Falconer's botanical notes, with 450 coloured drawings of Among his principal scholars, besides Rosa and Coppola Kashmir and Indian plants, have been deposited in the library at (whose works are sometimes ascribed to Falcone himself), Kew, and his Palæontological Memoirs and Noles, comprising all were Domenico Gargiuolo named Micco Spadaro, Paolo his papers read before learned societies, have been edited, with a
biographical sketch, by Charles Murchison, M.D., London, 1868. Porpora, and Andrea di Lione.
FALCONER, Hugh (1808-1865), distinguished FALCONER, William, our greatest naval poet, -Charles palæontologist and botanist, descended from an old Scotch Dibdin taking rank as second, -- was born in Edinburgh, family, was born at Forres, 29th February 1808. · In 1826 February 11, 1732. His father was a wig-maker, and he graduated as M. A. at Aberdeen, where he began to carried on business in one of t'e sinall shops with wooden manifest a decided taste for the study of natural history fronts at the Netherbow Port, an antique castellated strucand botany. He afterwards studied medicine in the uni. ture which remained till 1764, dividing High Street from versity of Edinburgh, taking the degree of M.D. in 1829. the Canongate. The old man, who is described as a sort of Proceeding to India in 1830 as assistant-surgeon on the humorist, was unfortunate. Of his three children two Bengal establishment of the East India Company, he male were deaf and dumb; he became bankrupt, then tried busi. on his arrival an examination of the fossil bones from Ava ness as a grocer, and finally died in extreme poverty. in the possession of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, and a William, the son, having received a scanty education, was description of the collection which he published immediately put to sea Ho served on board a Leith merchant vessel, gave him a recognized position among the scientists of India and in his eighteenth year was fortunate enough to obtain In 1831 he was appointed to the army station at Meerut, in the appointment of second mate of the “ Britannia,” a the north-wee'ern provinces, and in 1832 he succeeded his vessel employed in the Levant trade, and sailed from friend Dr Koyle as superintendent of the botanic garden of Alexandria for Venice. The “ Britannia” was overtaken Sanaruupoor. He was thus placed in a district particularly by a dreadful storm off Cape Colonna and was wrecked, rich in palæontological remains, the existence of which were, only three of the crew being saved. Falconer was happily however, then unknown; and he immediately set to work one of the three, and the incidents of the voyage and its to investigate both its natural history and geology. In disastrous termination formed the subject of his poem of 1834 he published a description of the geological character The Shipwreck. “In all Attica,” says Byron, "if we ex: of the neighbouring Sewalik hills, in the Tertiary strata of cept Athens itself and Marathon, there is no scene more in. which he discovered bones of crocodiles, tortoises, and other teresting than Cape Colonna. To the antiquary and artist, fossil remains ; and subsequently, along with other conjoint sixteen columns are an inexhaustible source of observation labourers, he brought to light a sub-tropical fossil fauna of and design: to the philosopher the supposed scene of unexampled extent and richness. For these valuable dis- | Plato's conversations will not be unwelcome ; and the