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travellor will be struck with the beauty of the prospect orer more heard of, having, as is supposed, foundered at sea. isles that crown the Ægean deep' But for an English- The captain was a stranger to the navigation, and had man Colonna has yet an additional interest, as the actual obstinately persisted in proceeding by the Mozambique spot of . Falconer's Shipwreck. Pallas' and Plato are Channel instead of stretching as usual into the Indian forgotten in the recollection of Falconer and Campbell ---- Ocean south of Madagascar. Every commander of a vessel,
"". Here in the dead of niglit, by Lonna's steep, as Fielding has remarked, claims absolute dominion in his The seaman's cry was heard along the deep.'
little wooden world, and in too many instances shows the After the wreck of the “ Britannia" and his return to dangerous consequences of absolute power. England, Falconer, in his nineteenth year, appeared as a Thus miserably perished William Falconer in the thirty: poet. Ho printed at Elinburgh an elegy on Frederick, seventh year of his age. His fame rests on his poem of The prince of Wales, —a puerile inflated performance, and Shiproreck, and rests securely. In that work he did not afterwards contributed short pieces to the Gentleman's aspire to produce a great effect by a few bold touches, or Magazine. Somo of these descriptive and lyrical effusions the rapid and masterly grouping of appalling or lorrible possess merit. The fine naval song of The Storm (“Cease, circunstances. He labours in detail, bringing before us rade Boreas "), reputed to be by George Alexander Stevens, the events as they arise, and conducting us with an interest the dramatic writer and lecturer, has been ascribed to constantly increasing towards the catastrophe. Such a Falconer, but apparently on no authority. It is foreign to tremendous picture of shipwreck as that which Byron has, bis usual style. Had he been the author he would assuredly in wild sportiveness, thrown out in Don Juan, immeasurhave claimed it. Falconer continued in the merchant service ably transcends the powers of Falconer, and, indeed, stands until the spring of 1762, when he gained the patronage of alone in its terrible seblimity; but, on the other hand, the Edward, duke of York, by dedicating to him his poem of naval poet, by the truth and reality of his descriptions, The Shipwreck, which appeared in May of that year, ultimately impresses the mind of the reader, if not with "printed for the author.” The duke advised him to enter such vivid force, perhaps with even more enduring effect. the royal navy, and before the end of summer the poet-sailor Some of the classic invocations to the shores of Greece, and was rated as a midshipman on board the “ Royal George.” some descriptive passages, are a little tawdry, but the But as this ship was paid off at the peace of 1763, and as grand incidents of the poem are never forgotten. The Falconer's period of service had been too short to enable personification of the ship in its last struggles is sublime him to obtain the commission of lieutenant, he was advised as well as affecting, and the reader's anxiety and symto exchange the military for the civil department of the pathy with the principal characters and the hapless crew navy, and in the course of the same year, he received an never slumber. · Nor are the technical expressions and appointment as purser of the “Glory” frigate, a situation directions a drawback to the general reader. They are which he held until that vessel was laid up on ordinary at explained in footnotes, and give a truth and reality to the Chatham. In 1764 he published a new edition of The narrative; and they do not occur in the more impassioned Shipwreck, corrected and enlarged, and printed, not for the
(R. CA..) author, as in the former instance, but for Andrew Millar, FALCONET, ETIENNE MAURICE (1716–1791), a French the publisher of Hume and Robertson, and whom Johnson sculptor, was born at Paris in 1716. His parents were called the Mæcenas of the age. About nine hundred lines poor, and he was at first apprenticed to a carpenter, but were added to this new edition of the poem, including what some of his clay-figures, with the making of which lie occu. may bo termed its character-painting and elaborated pied his leisure hours, having attracted the notice of description and episodes. In the same year, 1764, Falconer Lemoine, that sculptor made him liis pupil. While dilipublished a political satire, a virulent rhyming tirade gently prosecuting his profession he found time to study against Wilkes and Churchill, entitled The Demagogue; Greek and Latin, and also wrote several brochures on art, and in 1769 appeared his Universal Marine Dictionary, an in which many names both ancient and modern of great elaborate and valuable work. While engaged on this reputation are treated in a remarkably disparaging way. dictionary, Mr Murray, a bookseller in Fleet Street, father His artistic productions are characterized by the same of Byron'e munificent publisher and correspondent, wished defects as his writings, for though manifesting considerable him to juin him as a partner in business. The poet declined cloverness and some power of imagination, they display in the offer, probably because his dictionary was then near many cases a false and fantastic taste, the result most procompletion, and he might reasonably anticipate from its bably of an excessive striving after originality. One of publication
some favourable naval appointment. He did his most successful statues was one of Milo of Crotona, receive this reward; he was appointed purser of the which secured his admission to the membership of the "Aurora" frigate, which had been commissioned to carry Academy of Fine Arts. Many of his works, being placed out to India certain supervisors or superintendents of the in churches, were destroyed at the time of the French East India Company. Besides his nomination as purser
, Revolution. At the invitation of the empress Catherine was promised the post of private secretary to tlie he went to St Petersburg, where lie executed a colossal statue commissioners. Before sailing he published a third edition of Peter the Great in bronze. On his return to Paris in of luis Shipwreck, which had again undergone "correction,” 1788 he became director of the French Academy of Paint: but not improvement. Mr Stanier Clarke conceived that the ing. He died 4th January 1791. poet , in his agitation and joy on being appointed to the
Among his writings are Réflexions sur la sculpture (Par. 1768), Aurora,” had neglected this edition, and left the last and Observations sur la statue de Marc Aurèle (Par. 1771). The alterations to his friend Mallet; but Mallet had then been whole were collected under the title of Euvres littéraires (6 vols., more than four years in his grave, and Falconer, in the Lausanne, 1781-82; 3 vols., Paris, 1787). " advertisement” which he prefixed to the volume, and FALCONRY, the art of employing falcons and hawks which is dated from Somerset House, October 1, 1769, in the chase,- sport the practice of which is usually said he had been encouraged by the favourable reception termed hawking. Falconry was for many ages of the Old the poem had met with to give it " a strict and thorough World's history one of the principal sports. Probably it revision.” The day after this announcement the poet may be considered as having been always as purely a Bailed in the "Aurora" from Spithead. The vessel arrived sport as it is at the present day; for even in the rudest safoly at the Cape of Good Hope, and having passed a fort- times man must have been possessed of means and applinight there, left on the 27th of Decembar. Sho was never anccs for the capture of wild birds and beasts more
effectual than the agency of hawks, notwithstanding the bustards, sand grouse, storks, ibiscs, spoonbills, pea-fowl, trained hawks may be brought. The antiquity of falconry is trained hawks Io Mongolia and Chinese Tartary, and very great. It seems impossible to fix the exact period of among the nomad tribes of Central Asing the sport still its first appearance. There
appears to be little doubt that flourishes; and though some late accounts are not satisit was practised in Asia at a very remote period, for which factory either to the falconer or the naturalist, yet they we have the concurrent testimony of various Chinese and leave no doubt that a species of eagle is still trained in Japanese works, some of the latter being most quaintly those regions to take large game, as antelopes and wolves. and yet spiritedly illustrated. It appears to have been Mr Atkinson, in his account of his travels in the country known in China some 2000 years B.C., and the records of a of the Amoor, makes particular mention of the sport, as King Wen Wang, who reigned over a province of that does also Mr Shaw in his work on Yarkand; and in a letter country 689 B.C., prove that the art was at that time in very from the Yarkand er bassy, under Mr Forsyth, C.B., dated high favour. In Japan it appears to have been known at Camp near Yarkand, Nov. 27, 1873; the following passage least 600 years B.c., and probably at an equally early date occurs :-“Hawking appears also to be a favourite amusein India, Arabia, Persia, and Syria. Sir A. H. Layard, as ment, the golden eagle taking the place of the falcon or we learn from his work on Nineveh and Babylon, considers hawk. This novel sport seemed very successful.” It is that in a bas-relief foand by him in the ruins of Khorsabad questionable whether the bird here spoken of is the golden “there appeared to be a falconer bearing a hawk on liis eagle. In Africa gazelles are taken, and also partridges wrist,” from which it would appear to have been known and wildfowl. there some 1700 years B.C. In all the above-mentioned
The hawks used in England at the present time are the countries of Asia it is practised at the present day. three great northern falcons, viz., the Greenland, Iceland,
Little is known of the early history of falconry in and Norway falcons, the peregrine falcon, the hobby, the Africa, but from very ancient Egyptian carvings and draw- merlin, the goshawk, and the sparrow-hawk. In former ings it seems to have been known there many ages ago. days the saker, the lanner, and the Barbary or Tunisian It was probably also in vogue in the countries of Morocco, falcon were also employed. (See Falcon.) Oran, Algiers, Tunis, and Egypt, at the same time as in Of the foregoing the easiest to keep, most efficient in the Europe. The older writers on falconry, English and Con- field, and most suitable for general use at the present day tinental, often mention Barbary and Tunisian falcons. It are the peregrine falcon and the goshawk. is still practised in Africa; the present writer has visited In all hawks, the female is larger and more powerful two hawking establishments in Egypt.
than the male. Perhaps the oldest records of falconry in Europe are Hawks are divided by falconers all over the world into supplied by the writings of Pliny, Aristotle, and Martial. two great classes. The first class comprises “falcons," Although their notices of the sport are slight and some- “long-winged hawks," or "hawks of the lure," distinguished what vague, yet they are quite sufficient to show clearly by Eastern falconers as “dark-eyed hawks.” In these thie that it was practised in their days--between the years 384 wings are pointed, the second feather in the wing is the B.C. and 40 A.D. It was probably introduced into England longest, and the irides are dark-brown. Merlins must, from the Continent about 860 A.D., and from that time however, be excepted ; and here it would seem that the down to the middle of the 17th century falconry was Eastern distinction is the best, for though merlins are much followed with an ardour that perhaps no sport in our more falcons than they are hawks, they differ from falcuns country has ever called forth, not even our grand national in having the third feather in the wing the longest, while sport of fox-hunting. Stringent laws and enactments, they are certainly “dark-eyed hawks.” notably in the reigns of William the Conqueror, Edward The second class is that of “hawks," "short-winged III., Henry VIII., and Elizabeth, were passed from time hawks,” or “hawks of the fist,” called by Eastern falconers to time in its interest. Falcons and hawks were allotted "yellow (or rose) eyed hawks.” In these the wings ara to degrees and orders of men according to rank and rounded, the fourth feather is the longest in the wing, and station, for instance, to royalty the jerfalcons, to an earl the irides are yellow, orange, or deep-orange. the peregrine, to a yeoman the goshawk, to a priest the The following glossary of the principal terms used in sparrow-hawk, and to a knave or servant the useless falconry may, with the accompanying woodcut, assist the kestrel. The writings of Shakespeare furnish ample testi- reader in perusing this notice of the practice of the arte mony to the high and universal estimation in which it was Useless or obsolete terms are omitted :held in his days. About the middle of the 17th century Bale. -A hawk is said to " bate” when she Autters off from the fist, falconry began to decline in England, to revive somewhat
perch, or block, whether from wildness, or for exercise, or in at the Restoration. It never, however, completely recovered
the attempt to chase. its former favour, a variety of causes operating against it, Bowits. --Straps of leather by which the bells are fastened to a such as enclosure of waste lands, agricultural improvements,
Bind.-A hawk and the introduction of fire-arms into the sporting field,
said to “bind” when she seizes a bird in the
air and clings to it. till it fell, as a national sport, almost into oblivion. Yet it
This term is properly only applied to the
seizure of large quarry, taken at a height in the air. has never been even temporarily extinct, and it is still Block. —The conical piece of woou, of the form of an inverted very successfully practised at the present day.
flowerpot, used for hawks to sit apon; for a peregrine it In Europe the game or
should be about 10 to 12 inches high, 5 to 6 in diameter at top, quarry” at which hawks are · flown consists of grouso (confined to the British Isles), black- Brail.-A thong of soft leather used to secure, when di sirable, the game, pheasants, partridges, quails, landrails, ducks, teal, wing of a hawk. It has a slit to admit the pinion joint, and tho woodcocks, snipes, herons, rooks, crows, gulls, magpies,
ends are tied together. jays, blackbirds, thrushes, larks, hares, and rabbits. In Cadge. ---The wooden frame on which hawks, when numerous, are former days geese, cranes, kites, ravens, and bustards were
Cadger.- The person who carries the cadge. also flown at. Old German werks make much mention of the Calling off.–Luring a hawk (see Lure) from the hand of an Assista use of the Iceland falcon for taking the great bustard, a ant at a distance for training or exercise is called “calling off." flight scarcely alluded to by English writers. In Asia the Curry:-A hawk is said to "carry". when she flies away with the list of quarry is longer, and, in addition to all the fore- Cast. --Two hawks which
may be used for flying together are called coing, or their Asiatic representatives, various kinds of
and 8 to 9 in diameter at base.
carried to the field.
LENCTH & INCHCS
Casting.—The oblong or egg-shaped ball, consisting of feathers, Intermowod.-A hawk moulted in confinement is said to be "inter.
bones, &c., which all hawks (and insectivorous birds) throw up mewed."
after the nutritious part of their food has been digested. Jesses. - Strips of light but very tough leather, some 6 to 8 inches Cere.-Tho naked wax-like skin above the benk.
long, which always remain on a hawk's legs—one on each Check. -A hawk is said to fly at "check" when she flics at a bird leg. (See cut.)
other than the intended object of pursuit,- for instance, if a Leash. -A strong leathern thong, some 2 or 3 feet long, with a
bawk slipped at a heron goes off at a rook, she flies at check. knot or button at one end. See 7 in cut.) Clutching.–Taking the quarry in the feet as the short-winged hawks Lure. The instrument used for calling long-winged hawks,- a dead do. Falcons occasionally “clutch."
pigeon, or an artificial lure made of leather and feathers or Come to.- A tawk is said to "come to " when she begins to get wings of birds, tied to a string.
Man a hawk.—To tame a hawk and accustom her to strangers.
and a wing simultaneously, a common action of hawks when
hawk, or from man. In the last case it is a fault.
Make hawk.-A hawk is called a "make hawk" when, as a 3
thoroughly trained and steady hawk, she is nown with young
ones to teach them their work. Mew.- A hawk is said to "mew" when she moults. The place
whero a hawk was kept to moult was in olden times called her "mew.” Buildings where establishments of hawks were kept were called "mews "—an appellation which in many
cases they have retained to this day, Pannel.-The stomach of a hawk, corresponding with the gizzard
of a fowl, is called her pannel. To it the casting is formed.
Passage.--The line herons take over a tract of country on their way 5
to and from the heronry when procuring food in the breeding
season is called a "passage." Passage hawks.--Are hawks captured when on their passage or mi,
gration. This passage takes place twice a year, in, spring and
autumn. Pell. The dead body of any quarry the hawk has killed. Pitch.—The height to which a hawk, when waiting for game to be
flushed, rises in the air is called her “pitch." Plume. - A hawk is said to "plume" a bird when she pulls off the
feathers. Point. -A hawk “makes her point" when she rises in the air in a
peculiar manner over the spot where quarry has saved itself
from capture by dashing into a hedge, or has otherwise secreted 8
itself. Pull through the nood. -A hawk is said to pull through the hood
when she eats with it on. Put in. —A bird is said to "put in" when it saves itself from the
hawk by dashing into covert or other place of security. Implements used in Falconry.
Quarry.—The bird or beast flown at. 1. lood; 2. Back view of hond, showing braces a, a, 6, 6: by drawing the braces
Rake out.-A hawk is said to “rake out" when she flies, while 6,6, the hond, now open, is closed; 3. Rafter hood; 4. Imping-needle; 8. Jess; “waiting on" (sce Wait on), too far and wide from her master. d is the space for the hawk's leg; the point and slit a, a are brought round Red hawk.-Hawks of the first year, in the young plumage, are the leg, and passed throngh slit b, after which the point c and slite, and also the whole remaining length of jess are pulled through slits a and b; c is tho
called "red hawks." sit to which the upper ring of swivel is attached; 6. Hawk's leg with bella, Ringing.–A bird is said to "ring" when it rises spirally in the bewitd. jess e; 7. Jesses, swirel, and leash; 8. Portion of Arst wing-fcather of air. male peregrine falcon, tiercel,"
half natural size iu process of imping: a, the Rufter hood. -An easy fitting hood, not, however, convenient for living hawk's feather; 0, plece supplied from another tiercel, with the imping needlo e pushed Salf Its length into it and ready to be pushed home into
hooding and unhooding used only for hawks when first
cap the living bird's feather.
tured (see 3 in cut). Coping.–Cutting the beak or talons or a hawk is called “coping." Seeling-closing the eyes by a fine thread drawn through the lid
of each eye, the threads being then twisted together above the Crabbing.–Hawks are said to "crab " when they scize ono another head,-a practice long disused in England.
fighting Creance.-X long line or string.
Serving a hawk.- Driving out quarry which has taken refuge, or Crop, lo put away.-A hawk is said to "put away her crop" when
has "put in."
Take the air.-A bird is said to “take the air” when it seeks to the food passes out of the crop into the stomach.
escape by trying to rise higher than the falcon. Deck feathers.--. The two centre tail-feathers.
T'icrccl. --The malo of various falcons, particularly of the peregrine, Eyas.-A hawk which has been brought up from the rest is an is called a " tiercel;" the term is also applied to the male of the eyas.”
goshawk. Eyry.-The next of a hawk.
Trussing.- A hawk is said to “ truss" a bird when she catches it Fool. -A hawk is said to "foot” well or to he a "good footer "
in the air, and comes to the ground with it in her talons · this when she is successful in killing. Many hawks are very fine flyers without being “good footers."
term is not applied to large quarry. (See Bind.)
Varvels. —Small rings, generally of silver, fastened to the end of the Frounce.- A disease in the mouth and throat of hawks.
jesses-not much uscu now. Gu in. - To go up to a hawk when she has killed her quarry is to Wait on.-A hawk is said to "wait on" when she flies above her "get in."
master waiting till game
sprung: Hack. The state of partial liberty in which young hawks inust Wecuthering.--Hawks are “ weathered” by being placed unhooded always at first be kept-loose to fly about where they like, but
in the open air. This term is applied to passage hawks which panctually fed early in the morning and again in the day, to
arc.not sufficiently reclaimed to be left ont by themselves up. keep them from seeking food for theniselves as long as pos. hooded on blocks, they are "weathered " by being put out for sible.
an hour or two under the falconer's eye. Haggard. - A wild-caught hawk in the adult plumage. Hood. The cap of leather used for the purpose of blindfolding thic
Parak. -An Eastern term, generally applied to short-winged
hawks. When a hawk is keen, and in hunting condition, she hawk. (See woodcut.)
is said to be “in yarak." Hoodsky. -A hawk is said to be “loodshy" when she is afraid of, or resists, having her hood put on.
The training of hawks affords much scope for judgment, imping. The process of niending broken feathers is callod, experience, and skill on the part of the falconer, who must
" imping." (See 8 in cut.) Imping reedie. -A piece of tough soft iron wire from abont 11 to
carefully observe the temper and disposition as weil as the ? inches long rough filod so as to be three-sided and taper constitution of cach bird ; and various practices are reing from the middle to the ends. (See 4 in cut.)
sorted to which cannot be here described. It is through
tho appetite principally that lawks, liko most wild animals, | lier. If her casting is not thrown it is bettor for him to are tamed; but to fit them for use in the field much rotiro, leaving the room quite dark, and come in again later. patience, gentleness, aud care must be used. Sloveuly She must now be taught to know tho voice,-tho shout taming necessitates starving, and low condition and weak that is used to call her in this field, -and to jump to the fist ness are the result. The aim of the falconer must bo for food, the voice being used every time she is fed. to have his hawks always keen, and the appetite wlien | When slio comes froely to tlo fist she must be made acthey are brought into the field should be such as would in- quainted with the lure. Kneeling down trith the hawk on duce the bird in a state of nature to put forth its full his fist, and gently unbooding her, the falconer casts out a powers to obtain its food, with, as near as possible, a cor- | lure, which may be either a dead pigeon or an artificial responding condition as to flesh. The following is an out- lure garnished with beefsteak tied to a string, to a distance line of the process of training hawks, beginning with the of a couple or three fect in front of her. When she jumps management of a wild-caught peregrine falcon. When first down to it, she should be suffered to eat a little on it-tlio taker, a rufter hood should be put on her head, and she voice being uscd--tho while receiving morsols from the must be furnished with josses, swivel, leash, and bell. A falconer's hand; and before her mcal is finished she must thick glove or rather gauntlet must be worn on the left be taken off to the hand, being induced to forsake the luro hand (Eastern falconers always carry a hawk on the right), for the hand by a tempting piece of meat This treatment and she must be carried about as much as possible, late into will help to check her inclination hereafter to carry her the night, every day, boing constantly stroked with a bird's quarry. This lesson is to be continued till the falcon feeds wing or feather, very lightly at first. At night she should very boldly on the lure on tho ground, in the falconer's be tied to a perch in a room with the window darkened, so presence-till sho will suffor him to walk round her whilo that to light cau enter in the morning. The perch should she is feeding. All this time sho will have been held by be a padded pole placed across the room, about four and a the leash only, but in the next step a strong but light half feet from the ground, with a canvas screen underneath. creance must be made fast to the leash, and an assistant She will easily bo induced to feed in most cases by draw- holding the hawk should onhood hor, as the falconer, standing a piece of beefsteak over her feet, brushing her legs ing at a distance of 5 to 10 yards, calls her by shouting at the time with a wing, and now and then, as she snalis
, and casting out tho lura Gradually day after day the disslipping a morsel into her mouth. Care must be taken to tonco is increasod, till the hawk will come 30 yards or so make a peculiar sound with the lips or tongue, or to use a without hesitation ; then she may be trusted to fly to the low whistle as she is in the act of swallowing; she will very lure at liberty, and by degrees frun any distanco, say 1000 soon learn to associate this sound with feeding, and it will yards. This accomplished, she should learn to stoop at the be found that directly she hears it, she will gripe with her lure. Instead of allowing the hawk to seizo upou it as sho talons, and bend down to feel for food. When the falconer comes up, tho falconer should snatch tho lure away and lot perceives this and other signs of her “coming to," that slo her pass by, and immediately put it out that sho may no longer starts at the voice or touch, and steps quictly up readily scizo it when she turns round to look for it. This from the perch when the band is placed under her feet, should bo done at first only once, and thon progressively it will be timo to change her rufter hood for the ordinary until she will stoop backwards and forwards at the lure as hood. This latter should be very carefully chosen,—an oasy often as desired. Next she should be enterod at her quarry. fitting one, in which the braces draw closely and yet casily Should she be intended for rooks or herons, two or three and without jerking. An old one previously worn is to be of these birds should be procured. One should be given her recomiended. The hawk should be taken into a very from the hand, then one should be released closo to her, dark room,--one absolutely dark is bost, -and the change and a third at a considerable distance. If she take these should be made if possible in total darkness. After tliis , keonly, she may be flown at a wild bird. Care must, howshe must be brought to feed with her hood off ; at first she cver, be taken to let her bavo every possible advantage iu must be fed every day in a darkened room, a gleam of light her first flights - wind and weather, and the position of the being admitted. The first day, the hawk having seized the quarry with regard to the surrounding country, must be food, and begun to pull at it freely, the hood must be considered. gently slipped off, and after she has eaten a moderate quan- Young hawks, on being received by the falconer besure tity, it must be replaced as slowly and gently as possible, they can fly, must be put into a sheltered place, such as an and she should be allowed to finish her meal through the, outhouso or shed. The basket or hampor should be filled hood. Next day the hood may be twice reinoved, and so with straw. A hamper is best, with the lid so placed as to on ; day by day the practice should be continued, and form a platform for the young hawks to come out upon to more light gradually admitted, until the hawk will feed fced. This should be fastened to a beam or prop a few freely in broad daylight, and suffer the hood to be taken off feet from the ground. · The young hawks must be mort and replaced without opposition. Next she must be accus- plentifully fed on the best fresh food obtainable--good beeftomed to see and feed in the presence of strangers and steak and fresh-killed birds; the falconer when feeding dogs, &c. A good plan is to carry her in the streets of a them should uso his voice as in luing. As they grow town at night, at first where the gaslight is not strong, and old enough they will come out, and peich about the roof where persons passing by are few, unhooding and hooding of their shed, by degrees extending their flights to neighher from time to time, but not letting her get frightened. | bouring buildings or trees, never failing to como at feeding Up to this time she should be fed on lean beefsteak with time to the place where they are fed. Soon they will be no castings, but as soon as she is tolerably tame and sub- continually on the wing, playing or fighting with one anmits well to the hood, slie inust occasionally be fod with other, and later the falconer will observe them chasing other pigeons and other birds. This should be done not later than birds, as pigeons and rooks, which may be passing by. 3 or 4 P.H., and when she is placed on her perch for the As soou as one fails to come for a meal, it must be at once night in the dark room, she must be unhooded and left so, caught with a bow net or a snare the first time it comes of course being carefully tied up. The falconer should back, or it will be lost. It must be borne in mind that enter the room about 7 or 8 A.M. next day, admitting as the louger lawks can be left at hack the better they are little light as possible, or using a candle. He should first likely to be for use in the field,- those hawks being always obscrve if she has thrown her casting; if so, he will at once the best which have preyed a few times for themselves take her to the fist giving her a bite of food, and re-hond | before being caught Of courso thero is great risk of losing bawks when they begin to prey for themselves. When a | is sighted winging his way at a height in the air over an hawk is so caught, she is said to be taken up" from hack open tract of country free from water. Though he has She will not require a rufter hood, but a goad deal of the no chance whatever of competing with a falcon in straight. management described for the passage falcon will be forward flight, the heron has large concave wings, a very necessary. She must be carefully tamed and broken to light body proportionately, and air-cells in his bones, and the hood in the same manner, and so taught to know the can rise with astonishing rapidity, more perpendicularly, lure; but, as might be expected, very much less difficulty or, in other words, in smaller rings, than the falcon can, with will be experienced. As soon as the eyas knows the lure very little effort. As soon as he sees the approach of the sufficiently well to come to it sharp and straight from a dis- falcon, which he usually does almost directly she is cast off, tance, she must be taught to "wait on.” This is effected he makes play for the upper regions. Then the falcon by letting the hawk loose in an open place, such as a commences to climb too to get above him, but in a very down. It will be found that she will circle round the different style. She makes very large circles or rings, falconer looking for the lure she has been accustomed to travelling at a high rate of speed, due to her strength and seg, -perhaps mount a little in the air, and advantage must weight and power of flying, till she rises above the heron. be taken of a favourable moment when the hawk is at a Then she makes her attack by stooping with great force at little height, her head being turned in towards the falconer, the quarry, sometimes falling so far below it as the blow is to let go a pigeon which she can easily catch. When the 'evaded that she cannot spring up to the proper pitch for hawk has taken two or three pigeons in this way, and the next stoop, and has to make another ring to regain her mounts immediately in expectation, in short, begins to lost command over the heron, which is ever rising, and wait on, she should seo no more pigeons, but be tried at so on,—the "field" meanwhile galloping down wind in the game as soon as possible. Young peregrines should be direction the flight is taking till she seizes the heron aloft, flown at grouse first in preference to partridges, not only " binds" to him, and both come down together. Absurd because the season commences earlier, but because, grouse stories have been told and pictures drawn of the heron rebeing the heavier birds, they are not so much tempted to ceiving the falcon on its beak in the air. It is, however, "carry" -as with partridges.
well known to all practical falconers that the heron has no The training of the great northern falcons, as well as power or inclination to fight with a falcon in the air ; so that of merlins and hobbies, is conducted much on the long as he is flying ho seeks safety solely from his wings. above principles, but the jerfalcons will seldom wait on When on the ground, however, should the falcon be de. well, and merlins will not do it at all.
ficient in skill or strength, or have been mutilated by the The training of short-winged hawks is a simpler pro coping of her beak and talons, as was sometimes formerly cess. They must, like falcons, be provided with jesses, done in Holland with a view to saving the heron's life, the swivel, leash, and bell. In these hawks a bell is some heron may use his dagger-like bill with dangerous effect, times fastened to the tail. Sparrow-hawks can, however, though it is very rare for a falcon to be injured. It is scarcely carry a bell big enough to be of any service. The never safe to fly the gosbawk at a heron of any description. hood is seldom used for short-winged hawks,-never in the Short-winged hawks do not immediately kill their qnarry field. They must be made as tame as possible by carriage as falcons do, nor do they seem to know where the life lies, on the fist and the society of man, and taught to come to and seldom shift their hold once taken even to defend the fist freely when required-at first to jump to it in a themselves; and they are therefore easily stabbed ky a heron. room, and then out of doors. When the goshawk comes Rooks are flown in the same manner as hercns, but the freely and without hesitation from short distances, she ought night is generally inferior. Although rooks dy very well, to be called from long distances from the hand of an as they seek shelter in trees as soon as possible. sistant, but not oftener than twice in each meal, until sho For game-hawking eyases are generally used, though will come at least 1000 yards, on eacb- occasion being well undoubtedly passage or wild-caught hawks are to be prerewarded with some food sho likes very much, as a fresh. ferred. The best game hawks we liave seen have been killed bird, wario. When she does this freely, and endures passage hawks, but there are difficulties attending the the presence of strangers, dogs, &c., a few bagged rabbits use of them. It may perhaps be fairly said that it is should be given to her, and she will be ready to take the easy to make all passage hawks "wait on” in grand field. Some accustom the goshawk to the use of the lure, style, but until they have got over a soacon or two for the purpose of taking her if she will not come to the they are very liable to be lost. Among the advanfist in the field when she has taken stand in a tree after tages attending the use of eyases are the following:—they being baulked of her quarry, but it ought not to be are easier to obtain and to train and keep; they also necessary to use it.
moult far better and quicker than passage bawks, while ii Falcons or long-winged hawks are either " flown out of lost in the field, they will often go home by themselves, or the hood," i.e., unhooded and slipped when the quarry is remain about the spot where they were liberated. Experiin sight, or they are made to "wait on" till game is flushed. ence, and, we must add, some good fortune also, are requisite Herons and rooks are always taken by the former method. to make eyases good for waiting on for game. Slight mis. Passage hawks are generally employed for flying at these takes on the part of the falconer, false points from dogs, or birds, though we have known some good eyases quito | bad luck in-serving, will cause a young hawk to acquire bad equal to the work. For heron-hawking a well-stocked habits, such as sitting down on the ground, taking stand heronry is in the first place necessary. Next an open in a tree, raking out wide, skimming the ground, or lazily country which can be ridden over-over which herons flying about at no beight. "A good game hawk in proper Bre in the constant habit of passing to and from their her flying order goes up at once to a good pitch in the aironry on their fishing excursions, or making their “pas- the higher she flies the better-and follows her master sage." A heron found at his feeding place at a brook or from field to field, always ready for a stoop when the quarry pond affords no sport whatever. If there be little water any is sprung. Hawks that have been successfully broken and peregrine falcon that will go straight at bim will seize him judiciously worked become wonderfully clever, and soon boon after he rises. It is sometimes advisable to fly a young learn to regulate fight by the movements of their falcon at a heron so found, but it should not be repeated. master. Eyases were not held in esteem by the old falIf there be much water the heron will neither show sport coners, and it is evident from their writings that these bor be captured. It is quite a different affair whou ho hawks have been very much better understood and man