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used in making sumptuous furniture during the first period of the Renaissance. A folding chair of wrought iron (made at Augsburg), with numerous groups of figures in complete relief, is preserved at Longford Castle, Wiltshire. Mirrors, caskets, and other objects in damascened iron (Milan) are shown in the South Kensington Museum. Subjects of carving or relief were generally drawn from the theological and cardinal virtues, from classical mythology, from the seasons, months, &c. Carved altarpieces and woodwork in churches partook of the change in style. The stalls of the cathedral of Amiens, of the Certosa of Pavia, the cathedral of Siena, and a great number of churches in Venice, Florence, Rome, Perugia, and other Italian cities, illustrate first the transition, then the full change from Gothic to

classic detail in ecclesiastical furniture.

The elegance of form and perfection of detail, which are noticeable in the furniture of the 16th century, declined during the 17th all over Europe. The framework became bulky and heavy, and the details coarse. Silver furniture was made in considerable quantities by the Spaniards in Spain and Italy, and it was used in the courts of the French and English kings. A few examples of silver tables, mirrors, &c., now in Windsor Castle and at Knole, in Kent, are reproduced in electrotype in the South Kensington Museum. To this period belongs the name of André Charles Boule, who furnished the palace of Versailles. He invented or perfected a beautiful system of veneering with brass and tortoiseshell, brass and ebony, occasionally using white metal besides. Examples of this buhl or boule are shown in the Apollo gallery of the Louvre.

The system of veneering, or coating common wood with slices of rare and costly woods, fastened down with glue by screw presses made to fit the surface to be covered, came into general use in the 18th century. Marquetry is veneer of different woods, forming a mosaic of pictorial or ornamental designs. In Italy, in Spain, and throughout the dominions of Charles V. and his successors, figure subjects, architectural views, and quaint interiors were represented in these materials. Usually two or three woods were employed; they were tinted by means of heated sand in iron frames, and the tints graduated to the utmost nicety. Sometimes these effects were produced by splitting and laying slices of the same wood with the grain running in different directions. The fine marquetry of the last century was made of tulip wood or mahogany, with lime, pear, holly, beech, and other light-coloured woods; sometimes in ebony and ory, in Italy particularly; or ebony and motherof-pearl, the latter in Holland. Woods were occasionally stained green, blue, and othor colours, but these tints were sparingly employed by the more fainous makers. Curiously grained specimens of mahogany, known as letter wood and by other names, were used for veneering late in the century by the ciseleurs or makers of rich brass and gilt metal edgings, which that wood shows off to perfection. The golden-coloured satin wood, which was imported towards the end of the last century, was much used as a ground in English marquetry.

Looking-glasses in large sheets began to be exported from Venice at the end of the 17th century; some were engraved with figures on the backs. The manufacture was established at Tourlaville, then in Paris, and about the same time at Battersea on the Thames-under Government protection in both countries. The light fantastic frames which came into fashion in France were called rococo (from roquaille, coquaille, rock and shell work). Carved and gilt furniture was made in Italy, where it was best designed, and all over Europe till late in the 18th century. Robert Martin, who used fine lac polish, gave the name of "Vernis Martin" to painted and polished furniture of all kinds, from carriages and wardrobes

to fans and snuff-boxes. He died in 1763. The discovery of Herculaneum and Pompeii about the middle of the last century turned attention to the elegant designs of the Greco-Roman period. Riesener, David Roentgen (known as David), and the ciseleur Gouthière are well known names of French cabinetmakers; Chippendale, Lock, Sheraton, and Heppelwhite were Englishmen of the same period-the last half of the 18th century. James and Robert Adam designed beautiful satin wood and other furniture at that date. Medallions of porcelain

were sometimes inlaid in cabinet fronts. Most of these manufactures came to au end during the French Revolu tion and the long war. The "empire" style, a stiff, affected classicalism, prevailed in France during the reign of Napoleon. It is shown in the metal mounts of veneered mahogany furniture, and in the carvings of chair legs and backs.

A return has been made during recent years to mediaval designs. In England there is a going back to the fashions prevalent during the first fifty years of the last century. The elegant Louis XVI. style is more popular in France.

As regards furniture of the day, and the proprieties which ought to be observed in form and decoration, it is a matter of regret that no definite style is recognized in Europe; there cannot but be some consequent waste of power and uncertainty of aim. A few general principles, however, are held to be applicable to the shape and arrangements of furniture of whatever style.

Bedsteads are now very generally made of iron in most countries of Europe. They are plain; the portions not covered with hangings are made in brass, or coated with enamelled paint. In most cases no attempt is made to decorate them. They are clean, and easily taken to pieces and moved. They need no criticism. Bedroom furniture is no longer as rich or costly as when it was the fashion to include state bed-chambers among suites of rooms thrown open for the entertainment of guests. Wardrobes, chests of drawers, toilet tables, aro only required to be of suitable size, and as conveniently arranged inside as possible, in order that light and heavy objects may be put away so as to be got at with the least possible exertion. Such pieces of furni ture should have no projections of cornices or ornaments which do but take up space. Light-coloured woods, with the simplest decorations, are preferred, on account of their freshness and cheerfulness. Common timber, such as pine, ash, oak, maple, &c., French polished, with coloured lines sparingly employed, are much used by London makers for bedroom furniture; but they are less durable than mahogany. Imitations of graining are general-indeed the practice was common even in ancient Rome. But the Japanese methods of staining, powdering with gold dust, and polishing common timber without hiding the grain, deserve adoption; and efforts have latterly been made in London to bring them into use.

Chairs.-The good construction of chairs is a test of workmanship. If the wood is well seasoned, the tenons and mortices cut with exactness, the glue hot and good, and proper pressure used in putting them together, the various parts of chairs should be as perfectly united as if the wood had grown in the form required. Sir G. Wilkinson speaks of the admirable skill of the makers of Egyptian chairs, which required no cross bars to the legs. Lightness is another requisite. Very light chairs made of white wood with plaited grass seats are made at Chiavari in Italy. Large manufactories of chairs are carried on at High Wycombe, and other places where beech timber is easily obtained. If chairs are carved, the carving should be so subordinate to the outline and the comfort of the sitter as not to interfere with the dress, or be liable to breakage from having salient points, masses, or ornaments. The


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mahogany carved chairs of Chippendale and Sheraton are often copied, but the repetitions have not the spirit of the originals. The slight irregularities and variations made by carvers, who never absolutely repeat themselves in a series or set of such pieces, save them from the monotony so often seen in copies.

Couches. In ancient times couches were used as actual beds. A cast of an antique bronze couch can be seen in the South Kensington Museum. The general shape has not changed in modern times. It is the chair without arms elongated or the arm chair widened. The proprieties observed in such furniture are such as are applicable to chairs. If parts of the furniture of state rooms, they are generally framed in wood, carved and gilt or painted. The seats, backs, and ends are stuffed and upholstered with rich materials, like the chairs, -the most costly material being tapestry, formerly woven in fanciful designs after Boucher, Fragonard, and other "genre" painters, in the looms of Beauvais, or, in England, of Mortlake and Soho. Such tapestries can seldom be procured now. Inferior imitations of these designs are still produced. Couches or sofas of this kind are made for conversation rather than repose, and admit of the backs being shaped in curves or carved at the top, provided that the inequalities are but slight (a rule often violated in cheap modern furniture), and the carvings so arranged as not to interfere with the comfort of sitters, or of those who may occasionally lean on them. The ends should generally be square. In rooms not intended for receptions shallow couches, with rounded ends, and awkward showy carvings on the backs, are out of place. Another kind of couch, thickly stuffed on the back, ends, and seat, may be considered as the Oriental divan raised on legs. It is practically a framework of fixed cushions, intended for repose. Its excellence depends on the upholstery, as does that of the modern stuffed arm chair.

as not to interfere with their general outlines or surfaces. An example of flat carving may also be seen in a Flemish 17th century ebony cabinet in the same collection (No. 1651-56). As to the proper arrangements and colours of marquetry decoration, there also the masses of the design should be symmetrical, or balanced by compensating parts where absolute symmetrical arrangement is not suitable. In marquetry, as in carving, there ought to be agreeable dispositions of lines and masses of ornament, such as will look in proportion at distances at which details are not distinguishable. The colours should be few and harmonious, even when the materials are contrasted as decidedly as ebony with ivory, or satin wood with mahogany. We may compare the crowded patterns and the garish contrasts of colour of much modern marquetry with the work of Riesener. His marquetry is laid out with diapers of two woods, or with medallions and pattern work,-much space being left plain. A good example is in the large secrétaire now in the Louvre, signed and dated 1769. The same may be said of Chippendale's furniture, and of that in satin wood designed by the brothers Adam in the last century.

The manufacture of furniture is, to a great extent, in the hands of large factories both in England and on the Continent. Owing to the necessary subdivision of labour in these establishments, each piece of furniture passes through numerous distinct workshops. The master and few workmen formerly superintended each piece of work, which, therefore, was never far removed from the designer's eye. Though accomplished artists are retained by the manufacturers of London, Paris, and other capitals, there can no longer be the same relation between the designer and his work. Many operations in these modern factories are carried on by steam. Even the carving of copies and repetitions of busts, figures, and ornaments is done in some instances by a special machine. This, though an economy of labour, entails loss of artistic effect. The chisel and the knife are no longer in such cases guided and controlled by the sen sitive touch of a human hand.

Tables.-Good workmanship and careful regard for comfort and use are absolutely necessary in making tables. They are to be firm, and easily moved, and the legs or supports out of the way of persons sitting at them; their proper ornamentation is veneer of fine grained wood, split and arranged in patterns or buhl and other marquetry. Carved and gilt tables with marble tops, made as ornaments to galleries and halls, should have the carvings so arranged as not to interfere with the general look of support, or be too liable to breakage. The same may be said of sideboards. Much skilful carving on such pieces is either too close an imitation of nature, and looks as if it were hung on, not part of, the structure, or is crowded and not arranged in parts in which it would be subordinate to leading lines of division, panels, borders, &c.


Cabinets.-Cabinet fronts are flat, with metal edgings, or shallow and delicate carvings; or they are subdivided by architectonic members, columns, deep mouldings, &c. In FÜRST, JULIUS (1805-1873), Orientalist, was born of divisions protected by these salient features carvings of Jewish parents at Zerkowo in Posen, 12th May 1805. His regular figure compositions are in place. The interiors may friends designed him for the rabbinical profession, and at be subdivided into any varieties of quaint and ingenious a very early age he had gained an extensive acquaintance drawers and receptacles. It is to cabinets that the greatest both with Biblical and with Talmudical Hebrew. In his skill is devoted. The perfect fitting of small interior fifteenth year he entered the Berlin gymnasium, whence he drawers, &c., is a test of excellence in workmanship. On passed to the university in 1825; but straitened circumcornices, brackets, and other projections, busts, figures, and stances compelled his return to Posen, long before the comcarving of the finest kind can be placed effectively,-great pletion of his studies. He then taught for some time in sare being taken not to break up running mouldings, cor. the Jewish school at his native place, with the result that nices, and other members that mark the structure, or form he experienced a growing feeling of repugnance to what was lines of division. The French, and after them the Italians, then regarded as rabbinical orthodoxy. In 1827 he was are the first masters of this kind of carving. London able to resume a university career at Breslau, where he cabinetmakers rarely attempt the figure. A cabinet by studied theology and Oriental philology; and in 1831 he Fourdinois (No. 721-69) in the South Kensington Museum, removed to Halle, where he heard the lectures of Gesenius, purchased from the exhibition of 1867, may be referred to Wegscheider, and Tholuck. He ultimately fixed his resifor careful observation of these proprieties; even the mould-dence in Leipsic, where, after having taught privately for ings of the panelling are covered with carving, but so delicate some vears, he obtained an appointment as lecturer in the

Collections of Furniture.-1. Antique.-British Museum; Louvre; Vatican; Royal Museum, Naples. 2. Mediaval and 16th century.— Musée de Cluny, Paris; S. Kensington Museum; Sauvageot Collection, Louvre; National Museum, Nuremberg; Museum of Madrid. 3. 18th century.-Louvre Galleries; collection of Sir R. Wallace, Manchester Square, London. Fine examples have been exhibited from Windsor Castle, Carriages, in the royal palaces at Lisbon and Vienna.

Books.-Description de l'Egyple; Wilkinson, Ancient Egyptians;
Forefathers; Agincourt, Histoire de l'Art; Du Sommerard, Arts
Layard, Nineveh, &c.; Hamilton's Vases; Wright's Homes of our
Somptuaires; Viollet-le-Duc, Dictionnaire du Mobilier; Jacque
mart, History of Furniture; Pollen, Furniture and Woodwork,

where references to books will be found and notes on materials
and construction.
(J. H. P.)

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| (1879) represented by his son Charles Egon. There are two subordinate branches, the Pürglitz with its chief residence at Lana in Bohemia, and the Königshof with its chief residence at Königshof in Bohemia.

II. The second Fürstenberg family has its possessions in Westphalia and the country of the Rhine, and takes its name from the castle of Fürstenberg on the Ruhr, which is said to have been built by count Dietrich or Theodoric of Oldenburg, in the 11th century. The two most remarkable men whom it has produced are Francis Frederick William and Francis Egon. The former (1729-1811) became ultimately minister of the prince-bishop of Münster, and effected a great number of important reforms in the admini stration of the country; the latter (1797-1859) was an enthusiastic patron of art, zealously advocating the completion of the Cologne cathedral, and erecting the beautiful church of Apollinaris, near Remagen on the Rhine.

university in 1839. From the year 1864 till his death, which occurred on the 9th of February 1873, he held the rank of professor. In 1835 he published the first part of the Lehrgebäude der aramäischen Idiome, a work which he did not live to complete; and from 1837 to 1840 he was engaged upon his Concordantiæ, an admirable edition of Buxtorf's Hebrew and Chaldee Concordance, with valuable appendices, in the preparation of which he was largely assisted by Delitzsch. In 1851 appeared the Hebräisches u. Chaldäisches Handwörterbuch, which reached a third edition in 1876, and which has been translated into English by Dr Samuel Davidson (4th edition, 1871). Though a work of considerable merit, this cannot on the whole be said to have superseded that of Gesenius. In particular its philological theories, and its method of reducing triliteral to biliteral roots, are not likely to meet with general acceptance among scholars. His Geschichte des Karderthums appeared in 1865 and the Geschichte der Biblischen Literatur und des jüdisch-hellenischen Schriftthums, begun in 1867, was completed in 1870. Fürst also edited a valuable Bibliothecaenbergisches Urkundenbuch, hrsggbn von dem fürstlichen HauptJudaica (1849-1863), and was the author of some other archiv in Donaueschingen, 1877, 1878. works of minor importance. From 1840 to 1851 he was also editor of Der Orient, a journal devoted to the language, literature, history, and antiquities of the Jews. FÜRSTENBERG, the name of two noble honses of

See (for the first family) Münch's Geschichte des Hauses und Landes Fürstenberg, Aix-la-Chapelle, 1830-1832, and Riczler, Fürst


I. The more important is in possession of a mediatized principality in the district of the Black Forest and the Upper Danube, which comprises the countship of Heilegenberg, about 7 miles to the N. of the lake of Constance, the landgravates of Stühlingen and Baar, and the lordships of Jungnau, Trochtelfingen, Hausen, and Möskirch or Messkirch. The territory is discontinuous; and as it lies partly in Baden, partly in Würtemberg, and partly in the Prussian province of Sigmaringen, the head of the family is an hereditary member of the first chamber of Baden and of the chamber of peers in Würtemberg and in Prussia. The relations of the principality with Baden are defined by the treaty of May 1825, and its relations with Würtemberg by the royal declaration of 1839. The Stammort or ancestral seat of the family is Fürstenberg in the Black Forest, about 13 miles N. of Schaffhausen, but the principal residence of the present representatives of the main line is at Donaueschingen. The Fürstenbergs are descended from the counts of Urach, in the valley of the Ems, to the east of Tübingen,-Henry I., the youngest son of Egon VI. of Urach, ranking as the founder of the family. He was born about 1215, signalized himself as a supporter of the house of Hapsburg (which in the person of Rudolf, a relative of his own, ascended the throne in 1273), and died in 1284. On the death of Frederick III. in 1559, the family broke up into two lines, the Heiligenberg and the Kinzigerthal. To the former, which became extinct 1716, belonged the well-known William Egon of Fürstenberg, who, in spite of his elevation to the rank of elector by the emperor Leopold, played into the hands of the French, had to leave Germany, and as a reward for his services was made archbishop of Strasburg in 1682. The latter furnished a large number of military and diplomatic servants to the German states. The various possessions of the family were united in 1744 under Joseph William Ernest, who was born in 1699 and died in 1762; and to him his descendants were indebted for the right that they all possess of taking the title of prince. On the failure of the male issue of his elder son in 1804, the inheritance passed to the representativo of a younger Bohemian branch, Charles Egon, a prince memorable for the liberal spirit by which he was actuated, and for the number of his benevolent and scientific foundations, such as the infirmary at Donaueschingen and the blind asylum at Neidingen. The family is at present

FÜRSTENWALDE, a town in the Prussian province of Brandenburg, government of Frankfort, on the right bank of the Spree, and on the railway between Berlin and Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 28 miles E. of the former city. Its beautiful cathedral church contains a good many old monuments. The town possesses manufactures of linen and woollen goods, breweries, meal-mills, tile-works, and a chemical work. Fürstenwalde is one of the oldest towns of Brandenburg. Since 1385 it was the seat of the bishop of Lebus, whose bishopric was incorporated with the duchy of Brunswick in 1595. The town was taken by the Swedes in 1631, and burned by the imperialists in 163. The population in 1875 was 9688.

FÜRTH, an important manufacturing town of Bavaria, circle of Middle Franconia, at the confluence of the Pegnitz with the Rednitz, 5 miles N. W. of Nuremberg, with which it is connected by railway. It is largely indebted for its importance to the industry and perseverance of the Jews, who at the beginning of the present century composed nearly one-half of the whole population, and now amount to about 3600. They have a college, a separate court of justice, several schools and synagogues, and two Hebrew printing establishments. The principal building of the town is the new town-house, with a tower 215 feet high. The manufactures include mirrors, jewellery, lacquered wares, chandeliers, spectacles, machines of various kinds, turnery wares, surgical, instruments, lead pencils, artificial flowers, liqueurs, tobacco, leather, and woollen and cotton goods. There are also several breweries. A large annual fair is held at Michaelmas, which lasts for fourteen days. The population in 1875 was 27,360.

In 1632 Gustavus Adolphus was defeated near Fürth, in attempting to carry the intrenchments of Wallenstein; and in 1634 the town was burned down by the Croats. It was originally under the protection of the burggrafs of Nuremberg, but in 1806 it came into the possession of Bavaria. In the latter half of the 18th century it rose rapidly in importance through its manufactures, but it was not raised to the rank of a town till 1818.

FURZE, GORSE, or WHIN, Ulex, Linn. (German, Stechginster; French, Ajonc), a genus of thorny papilionaceous shrubs, of few species, confined to west and central Europe and north-west Africa. The leaves, except those of seedling plants, which are trifoliate, are exstipulate, and have the form of prickles; the flowers are axillary, yellow, and sweetscented, and have a coloured calyx deeply divided into two concave segments, the upper bi-serrate and the lower triserrate at the apex, the carina and alæ obtuse, stamens united into a sheath, style smooth, and stigma capitale. The pods are few-seeded; their crackling as they burst may often be heard in hot weather. Common furze, U. europaus,

Linn., is found on heaths and commons in western Europe | from Denmark to Italy, and in the Canaries and Azores, and is abundant in nearly all parts of the British Isles. It grows to a height of 2-6 feet; it has hairy stems, and the smaller branches end each in a spine; the leaves, sometimes lanceolate on the lowermost branches, are mostly represented by spines from 2 to 6 lines long, and branching at their base; and the flowers, about 4-inch in length, have a shaggy, yellowish-olive calyx, with two small ovate bracts at its base, and appear in early spring and late autumn. This species comprises the varieties U. vulgaris, or U. europaeus proper, which has spreading branches, and strong, many-ridged spines, and U. strictus (Irish furze), with erect branches, and slender 4-edged spines. Its seeds, according to Babington (Man. Brit. Bot., p. 80, 6th ed., 1867), produce either U. europaeus or U. strictus. The other British species of furze is U. nanus, Forst., an inmate of Belgium, Spain, and the west of France; it is a procumbent plant, less hairy than U. europaeus, with smaller and more orangecoloured flowers, which spring from the primary spines, and have a nearly smooth calyx, with minute basal bracts. From U. nanus have been formed the subspecies U. eunanus (Dwarf Furze), common in the south of England, and U. Galli, of Planchon, confined in Britain to the western counties, with the exception of Northumberland. During the winter of 1837-38 the furze perished wholly above ground, not only around London, but even in South Wales, Cornwall, and Devonshire; the double U. europaeus was observed to be more hardy than the wild species, and U. strictus suffered more than either. (See Trans. Hort. Soc. Lond., 2d ser., ii. p. 225.) Furze, or gorse, is sometimes employed for fences. On its use as a forage-plant see AGRICULTURE, vol. i. p. 378. In various parts of England it is cut for fuel. The ashes contain a large proportion of alkali, and are a good manure, especially for peaty land.

See Morton, Cyclopædia of Agriculture, 1855; J. T. Boswell Syme, Sowerby's English Botany, vol. iii. pp. 3-7, 1864; Bentham, Handbook of British Flora, vol. i., 1865; J. D. Hooker, The Student's Flora.

FUSELI, HENRY (1741-1825), an eminent painter and writer on art, was born at Zurich in Switzerland on the 7th February 1741; he himself asserted, in 1745, but this appears to have been a mere whim. He was the second child in a family of eighteen. His father was John Caspar Füssli, of some note as a painter of portraits and landscapes, and author of Lives of the Helvetic Painters. This parent destined his son for the church, and with this view sent him to the Caroline college of his native town, where he received an excellent classical education. One of his schoolmates there was Lavater, with whom he formed an intimate friendship. After taking orders in 1761, Fuseli was obliged to leave his country for a while in consequence of having aided Lavater to expose an unjust magistrate, whose family was still powerful enough to make its vengeance felt. He first travelled through Germany, and then, in 1763, visited England, where he supported himself for some time by miscellaneous writing; there was a sort of project of promoting through his means a regular literary communication between England and Germany. He became in course of time acquainted with Sir Joshua Reynolds, to whom he showed his drawings. By Sir Joshua's advice he then devoted himself wholly to art. In 1770 he made an art-pilgrimage to Italy, where he remained till 1778, changing his name from Füssli to Fuseli, as more Italian-sounding. Early in 1779 he returned to England, taking Zurich on his way. He found a commission awaiting him from Alderman Boydell, who was then organizing his celebrated Shakespeare gallery. Fuseli painted a number of pieces for this patron, and about this time published English edition of Lavater's work on physiognomy. He

likewise gave Cowper some valuable assistance in preparing the translation of Homer. In 1788 Fuseli married Miss Sophia Rawlins (who it appears was originally one of his models, and who proved an affectionate wife), and he soon after became an Associate of the Royal Academy. Two years later he was promoted to the grade of Academician. In 1799 he exhibited a series of paintings from subjects furnished by the works of Milton, with a view to forming a Milton gallery corresponding to Boydell's Shakespeare gallery. The number of the Milton paintings was fortyseven, many of them very large; they were executed at intervals within nine years. This exhibition, which closed in 1800, proved a failure as regards profit. In 1799 also he was appointed professor of painting to the Academy. Four years afterwards he was chosen keeper, and resigned his professorship; but he resumed it in 1810, and continued to hold both offices till his death. In 1805 he brought out an edition of Pilkington's Lives of the Painters, which however, did not add much to his reputation. Canova, when on his visit to England, was much taken with Fuseli's works, and on returning to Rome in 1817 caused him to be elected a member of the first class in the Academy of St Luke. Fuseli, after a life of uninterrupted good health, died at Putney Hill, 16th April 1825, at the advanced age of eighty-four, and was buried in the crypt of St Paul's Cathedral. He was comparatively rich at his death, though his professional gains had always appeared to be meagre

As a painter, Fuseli had a daring invention, was original, fertile in resource, and ever aspiring after the highest forms of excellence. His mind was capable of grasping and realizing the loftiest conceptions, which, however, he often spoiled on the canvas by exaggerating the due proportions of the parts, and throwing his figures into attitudes of fantastic and over-strained contortion. He delighted to select from the region of the supernatural, and pitched everything upon an ideal scale, believing a certain amount of exaggeration necessary in the higher branches of historical painting. "Damn Nature! she always puts me out," was his characteristic exclamation. In this theory he was confirmed by the study of Michelangelo's works and the marble statues of the Monte Cavallo, which, when at Rome, he used often to contemplate in the evening, relieved against a murky sky or illuminated by lightning. But this idea was by him carried out to an excess, not only in the forms, but also in the attitudes of his figures; and the violent and intemperate action which he often displays destroys the grand effect which many of his pieces would otherwise produce. A striking illustration of this occurs in his famous picture of Hamlet breaking from his Attendants to follow the Ghost: Hamlet, it has been said, looks as though he would burst his clothes with convulsive cramps in all his muscles. This intemperance is the grand defect of nearly all Fuseli's compositions. On the other hand, his paintings are never either languid or cold. His figures are full of life and earnestness, and seem to have an object in view which they follow with rigid intensity. Like Rubens he excelled in the art of setting his figures in motion. Though the lofty and terrible was his proper sphere, Fuseli had a fine perception of the ludicrous. The grotesque humour of his fairy scenes, especially those taken from the Midsummer Night's Dream, is in its way not less remarkable than the poetic power of his more ambitious works. As a colourist Fuseli has but small claims to distinction. He scorued to set a palette as most artists do; he merely dashed his tints recklessly over it. Not unfrequently he used his paints in the form of a dry powder, which he rubbed up with his pencil with oil, or turpentine, or gold size, regardless of the quantity, and depending for accident on the general effect. This recklessness may perhaps be explained by the fact that he did not paint in

its bulk that body exercised on them a poisonous influence. The widely different actions of common alcohol and of such compounds as the potato-oils in intoxicating drinks, he points out, render it necessary to distinguish between the excitable ethylism produced by the former, and the dull and heavy amylism, or more properly polyalcoholism of the latter. (See Le Progrès Médical, 1878, p. 979, "Société de Biologie.") To remove fusel oil from spirits, a matter of prime importance to the distiller, a great number of methods have been resorted to. A practically pure spirit can be obtained by rectification several times after dilution with water, or by the use of specially constructed stills, as Coffey's (see DISTILLATION, vol. vii. pp. 265–6). Among the materials which have been employed for the complete defuselation of spirit are the powder of freshly burnt charcoal, which acts best when the vapour of the liquid is passed through it, and charcoal with manganese peroxide, with slaked lime, and with soap-boilers' lye; also saturated solution of chloride of lime, alone or with zinc chloride; and calcium chloride, olive oil, soda-soap, and milk. The presence of fusel oil in spirit may be suspected when the addition of four parts of water causes milkiness. It is detected by its odour when the spirit is diluted with warm water, or when its ethylic alcohol has been allowed to evaporate. To remove the last-named body and water from fusel oil calcium chloride has been employed. The estimation of the alcohols of fusel oil may be effected by Dupré's process, in which their corresponding acids are obtained by oxidizing with sulphuric acid and potassium dichromate, and eventually the quantity of barium in the barium salts of the purified acids is determined (see Analyst, Mar. 31, 1871). Fusel oil is employed in the arts as a source of amylic alcohol.

oil till he was twenty-five years of age. Despite these drawbacks, he possessed the elements of a great painter. Fuseli painted more than 200 pictures, but he exhibited only a minority of them. His earliest painting represented Joseph interpreting the Dreams of the Baker and Butler; the first to excite particular attention was The Nightmare, exhibited in 1781. He produced only two portraits. His sketches or designs numbered about 800; they have admirable qualities of invention and design, and are frequently superior to his paintings.

His general powers of mind were large. He was a thorough master of French, Italian, English, and German, and could write in all these tongues with equal facility and vigour, though he preferred German as the vehicle of his thoughts. His writings contain passages of the best art-criticism that English literature can show. The principal work is his series of Lectures in the Royal Academy, twelve in number, commenced in 1801.

Many interesting anecdotes of Fuseli, and his relations to contemporary artists, are given in his Life by John Knowles, who also edited his works in 3 vols. 8vo, London, 1831. He was a man of abrupt temper, sharp of tongue, energetic in all his ways, in stature short, but robust, with a head full of fire and character.

FUSEL OIL, the name applied to the volatile oily liquids, of a nauseous fiery taste and smell, which are obtained in the rectification of spirituous liquors made by the fermentation of grain, potatoes, the marc of grapes, and other material, and which, as they are of higher boilingpoint than ethylic alcohol, occur in largest quantity in the last portions of the distillate. Besides ethylic or ordinary alcohol, and amylic or pentylic alcohol, which are present in them all, there have been found in fusel oils several other bodies of the CH2n+1.OH series, also certain ethers, and members of the CHO series of fatty acids. Normal propylic alcohol, C,H,.OH, is contained in the fusel oil of the marc brandy of the south of France, and isoprimary butylic alcohol, CH (CH),CH,OH, in that of beet-root molasses. The chief constituent of the fusel oil procured in the manufacture of alcohol from potatoes and grain, usually known as fusel oil and potato-spirit, is isoprimary amylic alcohol, or isobutylcarbinol, CH(CH),CH,CH2OH, boiling at 129°-130° C., and inactive as regards polarized light. Ordinary fusel oil yields besides another isomeric amylic alcohol, boiling at about 128°, and lævorotatory. The formation of amylic alcohol is stated by Liebig (Familiar Letters on Chemistry, p. 217, 4th ed., 1859) never to take place in fermenting fluids in the presence of tartar, of racomic, tartaric, or citric acid, or of certain bitter substances, as hops. It is produced principally in alkaline or neutral liquids, and in such as contain lactic or acetic acid. Schorlemmer (Proc. Roy. Soc., xv., 1866, p. 131) has shown that amyl-compounds prepared from fusel oil and from American petroleum agree in specific gravity and boiling point, and are therefore to be regarded as identical. Variable quantities of fusel oil, less or greater according to the stage of ripening, exist in commercial spirits. Administered in small amount, it exercises a poisonous action, causing thirst and headache, with furred tongue (Brit. and For. Med.-Chir. Rev., xxviii., 1861, p. 101). In crude spirit made from potatoes, after its purification in the cold from noxious gases by means of charcoal, M. Rabuteau found 50 per cent. of ethylic, and 1.5 per cent. of isopropylic alcohol, and traces of propylic, and of ordinary and a more complex amylic alcohol. He discovered that in aqueous solution ethylic alcohol was not injurious to frogs, isopropylic alcohol killed after some hours, and propylic alcohol in a single hour, whilst the vapours of a similar solution of amylic alcohol were instantaneously fatal to them, and even diluted to as much as 500 times


FUST, JOHANN (?....-1466), often considered as the inventor or one of the inventors of printing, belonged to a rich and respectable burgher family of Mainz, which is known to have flourished from 1423, and to have held many civil and religious offices, but was not related to the patrician family Fuss. The name was always written Fust, until in 1506 Johann Schöffer, in dedicating the German translation of Livy to the emperor Maximilian, called his grandfather Faust. After that the family called themselves Faust, and the Fausts of Aschaffenburg, an old and quite distinct family, placed John Fust in their pedigree as one of their most distinguished ancestors. John's brother Jacob, a goldsmith, was appointed baumeister of the town in 1445, and was first burgomaster in 1462, when Mainz was stormed and sacked by the troops of Count Adolf of Nassau. There is no evidence that, as is commonly asserted, John Fust was himself a goldsmith. He appears to have been a money-lender or banker and speculator, better known for prudence than for uprightness and disinterestedness. His connexion with Gutenberg, who is now generally, though not universally, admitted to be the real inventor of printing, has been very variously represented, and Fust has been put forward by some as the inventor of typography, and the instructor as well as the partner of Gutenberg, by others as his patron and benefactor, who saw the value of his discovery and had the courage to supply him with means to carry it out. This view has been the most popular; but during the present century Fust has been frequently painted as a greedy and crafty speculator, who took advantage of Gutenberg's necessity and robbed him of the fruits of his invention. Gutenberg, many years resident in Strasburg, where he was long engaged in the experiments and attempts which resulted in his discovery of typography, is not known to have been there after 1444. His uncle Henne (or Johann) Gutenberg, senior, on 28th October 1443 took the house in Mainz called Zum Jungen, where Gutenberg afterwards carried on printing. Having already exhausted his own resources in his long-continued and costly eariments,

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