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nds, and passed the king of at Britain's bankrupt servant his own country, for which ane action this friendly officer, rchetti by name) was arrested aris, and by the count D'Aranemanded back to Madrid, there ake his chance for what the inace of France may find occasion evise against him.

Your memorialist, since his rn to England, having, after inerable attempts, gained one only ittance to your lordship's perfor the space of more than ten, ths, and not one answer to the quent and humble suit he has le to you by letter, presumes for the last time to solicit your sideration of his case, and as he persuaded it is not, and cannot in your lordship's heart to dee and abandon to unmerited an old and faithful servant of crown, who has been the father four sons, (one of whom has ly died, and three are now carng arms in the service of their g) your memorialist humbly ys, that you will give order for to be relieved in such manner, to your lordship's wisdom shall m meet.

Il which is humbly submitted by
Your lordship's most obedient,

And most humble servant,
Richard Cumberland.'

This memorial, which is, perps, too long and loaded, I am rsuaded lord North never took pains to read, for I am unwil. g to suppose, that, if he had, he uld have treated it with absolute glect. He was upon the point of itting office when I gave it in, d being my last effort, I was de

sirous of summing up the circumstances of my case so, that if he had thought fit to grant me a compensation, this statement might have been a justification to his successor for the issue; but it produced no compensation, though I should presume it proved enough to have touched the feelings of one of the best tempered men living, if he would have devoted a very few minutes to the perusal of it.

"It is not possible for me to call to mind a character in all essential points so amiable as that of this departed minister, and not wish to find some palliation for his oversights; but if I were now to say that I acquit him of injustice to me, it would be affectation and hypocrisy; at the same time I must think, that Mr. secretary Robinson, who was the vehicle of the promise, was more immediately bound to solicit and obtain the fulfilment of it, and this I am persuaded was completely in his power to do: to him, therefore, I addressed such remon strances, and enforced them in such terms as no manly spirit ought to have put up with; but anger and high words make all things worse; and language, which a man has not courage to resen, he never will have candour to forgive."

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lordship's skill as a translator of poetry. We cannot quit our task without further noticing, that in an Appendix his lordship gives the following account of a memorial to the Royal Academy of History, on the games, spectacles, and public diversions of that country, which, at the moment we are writing, affords to all Europe the affecting spectacle of a people breaking the bonds of slavery, and rising against their foreign oppressors, to avenge the injured honour of their monarchy, and the insulted dignity of their nation. At such a time, therefore, even this fragment which illustrates the character of their late government, deserves the attention of all who feel for the sufferings of a people whose honour is proverbial.

"Informe dado à la Real Academia de Historia, sobre Juegos, Espectaculos, y Diversiones Publicas.

"This treatise is the work of don Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, late minister of grace and justice in Spain: a man, who, after having devoted the labours, and even the amusements, of his useful life, to the improvement and happiness of his fellow countrymen, is now languishing in the dungeons of Palma; imprisoned without an accusation, and condemned without the form of a trial.

"The paper on the games, exhibitions, and public diversions of Spain, was undertaken at the request of the Royal Academy at Madrid, and completed in 1790, during his retirement at Gijon; at a time when the displeasure of a minister did not necessarily imply the ruin, persecution and imprisonment of its

object. It has never been printe probably owing to the fastifie severity with which this excele author has generally viewed own productions. As he is, i ever, the only person who is de tisfied with them, copies of treatise in MS. are not difficul be obtained in Madrid.

"After a rapid historical sk of the Roman exhibitions in Sp and a short account of the dy sions introduced by the norar barbarians and their descend he describes the state of the Spe theatre, from its first regula pearance in Ferdinand and bella's time, to the commencent of the present reign. He take view of the controversies to it has given rise; and thour condemns such scandalous ab of theatrical representations as a occasionally prevailed in Span. vindicates the use of that ra diversion, from the imputations the clergy, with his usual eloqu and success. The latter part e work is devoted to the expostof plans for the revival of a exercises and diversions, and to suggestion of expedients for reim the character of the drama, exa the profession of players, and a mating the exertions of poets. E it must be acknowledged that : allows his zeal for letters, and anxiety to direct them to bene purposes, to divert him from © clusions to which his own pr ples would more naturally cond him; and be somewhat incor tently expects from such regulat more than any interference of vernments or academies was e yet able to produce. His avers to the bull feasts induces him

to under-rate their popularity, and to exaggerate the evil consequences produced by that barbarous but not unmanly amusement. But even where his reasoning is least conclusive, one is fascinated by the beauties of his style, which always seem to arise from the discussion, and to be as much the result of the sincerity of his conviction, and the benevolence of his views, as of an enlightened education, and a correct taste in composition and language. Such, indeed, is the character of all his writings, though it may possibly excite surprize, that a dissertation on games and exhibitions should af ford any room for displaying it. Jovellanos has, however, contrived, even on such a topic, to throw into the compass of a few pages, much curious information, and sound philosophical reflexion, without wandering from the subject, or betraying any disposition to pedantry or affectation.

"To justify the above commendations of his work, I subjoin a passage, which may serve also to illus. trate a remark in the text, and to shew that the gloomy appearance, so often objected to Spaniards, is to be ascribed to the perverse spirit of their municipal laws, and not to the natural disposition of that highspirited and warm-hearted people.

"The labouring class of society require diversions, but not exhibitions; the government is not called upon to divert them, but to permit them to divert themselves. For the few days, the short moments, which they can devote to recreation and entertainment, they will naturally seek, and easily find amusement for themselves. Let them merely be unmolested, and protected in the enjoyment of them. A bright sky

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and fine weather, on a holiday, which will leave them at liberty to walk, run, throw the bar, to play at ball, coits, or skittles, or to junket, drink, dance, and caper on the grass, will fill all their desires, and yield them complete gratifica. At so cheap tion and contentment.

a rate may a whole people, how. ever numerous, be delighted and amused.

"How happens it then, that the majority of the people of Spain have no diversion at all? For every one who has travelled through our provinces must have made this meEven on the lancholy remark. greatest festivals, instead of that merriment and noise boisterous which should bespeak the joy of the inhabitants, there reigns through. out the market-places and streets, a slothful inactivity, a gloomy still. ness, which cannot be remarked without the mingled emotions of surprise and pity. The few persons who leave their houses, seem to be driven from them by listlessness, and dragged as far as the threshold, the market, or the church-door. There, muffled in their cloaks, leaning against some corner, seated on some bench, or lounging backwards and forwards, without object, aim, or purpose, they pass their hours, aye, I may say their whole evenings, without mirth, recreation, or amusement. When you add to this picture, the dreariness and filth of the vil lages, the poor and slovenly dress of the inhabitants, the gloominess and silence of their air, the laziness, the want of concert and union so striking every where, who but would be astonished; who but would be afflicted by so mournful a phænomenon? This is not indeed the place to expose the errors which conspire

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conspire to produce it; but whatever those errors may be, one point is clear that they are all to be found in the laws. Without wandering from my subject, I may be permitted to observe, that the chief mistake lies in the faulty police of our villages. Many magistrates are misled by an ill-judged zeal, to suppose that the perfection of municipal government consists in the subjection of the people; they imagine that the great object of subordination is accomplished, if the inhabitants tremble at the voice of Justice, and no one ventures to move, or even to breathe, at the very sound of her name. Hence any mob, any noise, or disturbance, is termed a riot or a tumult; and every little dispute or scuffle becomes the subject of a criminal proceeding, involving in its conse. quences examinations and arrests, imprisonments and fines, with all the train of legal persecutions and vexations. Under such an oppressive police, the people grow dispirited and disheartened; and sacrificing their inclinations to their security, they abjure diversions, which, though public and innocent, are replete with embarrasments, and have recourse to solitude and inaction, dull and painful indeed to their feelings, but at least unmolested by law, and unattended with danger.

"The same system has occasioned numberless regulations of police, not only injurious to the liberties, but prejudicial to the welfare and prosperity of the villages, yet not less harshly or less rigorously en

forced on that account. There 17? some places where music and ring ng of bells*, others where balls marriage suppers are prohibe In one village the inhabitants m retire to their houses at the cere in another they must not appear the streets without a light; the must not loiter about the corners, stop in the porches; and in all the are-subject to similar restraints a privations.

The rage for governing. some cases perhaps the avarice the magistrates has extended to m most miserable hamlets, regulatio which would hardly be necessary all the confusion of a metropolis a the wretched husbandman who watered the earth with the sweats his brow, and slept on the groun¦ throughout the week, cannot Saturday night bawl at his will int streets of his village, or chaunti ballad at the door of his sweethea

"Even the province in which. live (Asturias), remarkable for natural cheerfulness and innocer. manners of its inhabitants, is p exempt from the hardship of simult regulations. Indeed the discont which they produce, and which have frequently witnessed, has s gested many of these reflections the subject. The dispersion of population fortunately prevents th municipal police, which has be contrived for regular villages a towns; the cottagers assemble f their diversions at a sort of a wak called Romerias, or Pilgrimage And there it is that the regulation of the police pursue and moles them. Sticks, which are used mutt

*There is a custom in Spanish villages of parading the streets on holiday migh with the bells taken from the mules and wethers. The rude kind of music the produce is called cencerrada.

on account of the inequality of the country, than as a precaution for self defence, are prohibited in these wakes. Men dances are forbidden; those of women must close early in the evening; and the wakes themselves, the sole diversion of these innocent and laborious villagers, must break up at the hour of evening prayer. How can they reconcile themselves with any cheer. fulness to such vexatious interference? It may indeed be said they bear it all." Yes, it is true, they do hear it all; but they bear it with an ill will; and who is blind to the consequences of long and reluctant submission? The state of freedom is a state of peace and cheerfulness; a state of subjection is a state of uneasiness and discontent. The former then is perma. nent and durable, the latter unstable and changeable.


“All, therefore, is not accomplished when the people are quiet; they should also be contented; and it is only a heart devoid of feeling, or a head unacquainted with the principles of government, that can harbour a notion of securing the first of these objects without obtaining the second. They who disregard it, either do not see the necessary connexion between liberty and prosperity; or, if they see it, they neglect it. The error in either case is equally mischievous. For surely this connexion deserves the attention of every just and mild government. A free and cheerful people are always active and laborious; and an active and laborious people are always attentive to morals, and observant of the laws. The greater their enjoyments, the more they love the government under which they live, the better they obey

it, and the more cheerfully and wil lingly do they contribute to its maintenance and support. The greater their enjoyments, the more they have to lose; and the more therefore they fear any disturbance, and the more they respect the au thorities intended to repress it. Such a people feel more anxiety to enrich themselves, because they must be conscious that the increase of their pleasures will keep pace with the improvement of their fortunes. In a word, they strive more ardently to better their condition, because they are certain of enjoying the fruits of their exertion If such then be one of the chief objects of a good government, why is it so disregarded among us? Even public prosperity, as it is called, if it be any thing but the aggregate of individual happiness, depends upon the attainment of the object in question? for the power and strength of a state do not consist entirely in multitudes or riches, but in the moral cha racter of its inhabitants. In point of act, can any nation be strong whose subjects are weak, corrupt, harsh, unfeeling, and strangers to all sentiments of public spirit and patriotism? On the other hand, a people who meet often, and in security, in public, for the purposes of diversion, must necessarily become an united and affectionate people; they can feel what a common interest is, and are consequently less likely to sacri. fice it to their own personal views and individual advantage. They have a higher spirit, because they are freer; a consciousness of which improves their notions of rectitude, and exalts their sentiments of honour and courage. Every individual respects his own class in such a society, because he respects himself; 4 A4


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