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and he respects that of others, as the best mode of ensuring respect for his own. If once the people respect the government, and the subordination established by law, they re. gulate their conduct by it, they grow attached to the institutions of Their country, and defend them with spirit; because in so doing, they are convinced that they are defending themselves. So clear is it that freedom and cheerfulness are greater enemies of disorder than subjection and melancholy.
Let me not, however, be sus pected of considering a magistracy or police, appointed to preserve the public peace, as in itself either use Jess or oppressive. On the contrary, it is my firm persuasion, that with out such an institution, without its unremitting vigilance, neither tran. quillity nor subordination can be preserved. I am well aware that license hovers on the very confines of liberty, and that some restraint must be devised to keep-in those who would pass the limits. This is indeed the most delicate point in civil jurisprudence; and it is this, that so many injudicious magistrates mistake, by confounding vigilance with oppression. Hence, at every festival, at every public diversion, or harmless amusement, they obtrude upon the people the insignia of magistracy and power. To jndge by appearances, one should suppose tha their aim was to build their authority on the fears of the subject, and to purchase their own convenience at the expence of the freedom and pleasure of the public. every other view, such precautions are idle. For the people never divert themselves without complete exemption from restraint in their diversions. Freedom is scared away
by watchmen and patroles, constables and soldiers; and at the sight of staves and bayonets, harmless and timorous mirth takes the alarm, and disappears. This is surely not the method of accomplishing the pur. poses for which magistracy was established; whose vigilance, if I may be permitted so awfni a comparison, should resemble that of the Supreme Being, should be perpetual and certain, but invisible; should be acknowledged by every body, but seen by nobody; should watch license, in order to repress it, and liberty, in order to protect it. In one word, it should operate as a restraint on the bad, as a shield and protection to the good. The awful insignia of justice are otherwise the mere symbols of oppression and tyranny`; and the police, in d rect opposition to the views of its institution, only vexes and molests the persons whom it is bound to shelter, comfort, and protect.
"Such are my ideas upon popular diversions. There is neither province nor district, town nor village, but has particular usages in its a musements, practised either habitnally, or at particular periods of the year; various exercises of strength, for instance, or feats of agility: balls too, and junketings, walks, holidays, disguises, maskings, and mummeries. Whatever their diversions may be, if they are public they must be innocent. It is the duty then of the good magistrate to protect the people in these simple pastimes, to lay out and keepin order the places destined for them, to remove all obstacles, and to leave the inhabitants at full liberty to abandon themselves to their boister ous merriment, their rude but harm. less effusions of joy. If he appear sometimes
sometimes among them, it should be to encourage, not to intimidate them; it should be like a father, gratified at the mirth of his children; not like a tyrant, envious of the gaiety of bis slaves.
"In short, to return to our former remark, the people do not call upon the government to divert them, but merely to permit them to divert themselves,"
Memoirs of the Life of Colonel Hutchinson, Gecernor of Notting ham Castle and Town, Representative of the County of Nottingham in the long Parliament, and of the town of Nottingham in the first Parliament of Charles II. &c. with original Anecdotes of many of the most distinguished of his Contemporaries, and a summary Review of Public Affairs: written by his Widow Lucy, Daughter of Sir Allen Apsley, Lieutenant of the Tower, &c. Now first published from the original Manuscript by the Rev. Julius Hutchinson, &c. &c. To which is the Mrs. Hutchinson, written by Her. self, A Fragment.
This is really a curious work, as will be seen from the title-page. It is the history of a puritan in the time of Cromwell, written by his wife in a stile that does high honour to her age, and which has remained unpublished till the present period.
The following account of the MSS. is given by the editor.
The Memoirs of the Life of Col. Hutchinson had been seen by many persons, as well as the editor, in the possession of the late Thomas Hutchinson, esq. of Owthorpe, in Nottinghamshire, and of Hatfield Woodhall, in Hertfordshire; and he had been frequently solicited to permit
them to be published, particularly by the late Mrs. Catharine Maccaulay, but had uniformly refused. This gentleman dying without issue, the editor, his nephew, inherited some part of his estates which were left unsold, including his mansionhouse of Hatfield Woodhall. In the library he found the following books, written by Mrs. Lucy Hutchinson. 1st. The Life of Col. Hutchinson. 2d. A book without a title, but which appears to have when she came to write the life of been a kind of diary made use of col, Hutchinson. 3d. A Fragment, giving an account of the early part giving an account of the early part of her own life. This book clearly appears to have been Mrs. Hatchinson's first essay at composition, and life and family, several short copies contains, besides the story of her of verses, some finished, some unfinished, many of which are above mediocrity. And, 4th. Two Books jects; in which, although the fancy treating entirely of religious submay be rather too much indulged, the judgment still maintains the ascendancy, and sentiments of exalted piety, liberality and benevolence are delivered in terms apposite, dignified, and perspicuous.
These works had all been read, and marked in several places with his initials, by Julius Hutchinson, esq. of Owthorpe, the father of the late Thomas Hutchinson, esq. just mentioned, and son of Charles Hutchinson, esq. of Owthorpe, only son of sir Thomas Hutchinson by his second wife, the lady Catharine Stanhope. Lady Catharine Hutchinson lived to the age of 102, and is reported to have retained her faculties to the end of her life. Some remarks made by the abovementioned Julius Hutchinson, are declared by him to have been communicated
municated by his grand-mother lady Catharine; and as this lady dwelt in splendor at Nottingham, and had ample means of information; as there is only one instance wherein the veracity of the biographer is at all called in question, and even in this, it does not appear to the editor, and probably may not to the reader, that there was sufficient ground for objection; the opposition and the acquiescence of her grandson and herself seem alike to confirm the authenticity and faithfulness of the narrative.
There will be found annexed a pedigree of the family of Hutchin son, taken from a very handsome emblazoned genealogy in the possession of the editor, originally traced by Henry St. George, king of arms, and continued and embellished by Thomas Brand, esq. his majesty's writer and embellisher of letters to the eastern princess, anno 1712.
This pedigree shews that col. Hutchinson left four sons, of which the youngest only, John, left issue two sons; and there is a tradition in the family, that these two last descendants of col. Hutchinson emigrated, the one to the West Indies or America, the other to Russia; the latter is said to have gone out with the command of a ship of war given by queen Anne to the czar Peter, and to have been lost at sea. One of the female descendants of the former the editor once met with by accident at Portsmouth, and she spoke with great warmth of the veneration in which his descendants in the new world held the memory of their ancestor col. Hutchinson. Of the daughters little more is known than that Mrs. Hutchinson, addressing one of her books of devotion to her daughter Mrs. Orgill, ascertains that one of them was mar. 3
ried to a gentleman of that name.
The family of Mr. George Hutchinson likewise became extinct in the second generation.
Charles Hutchinson, only son of sir Thomas Hutchinson by lady Catharine Stanhope, married one of the daughters and coheiresses of s Francis Boteler, of Hatfield Wood. hall, Herts; which family being zealous royalists, and he solicitons to gain their favour, (which he did so effectually, as in the end to obtain nearly their whole inheri tance.) it is probable that he give small encouragement or assistance to the elder branch of the family whe they suffered for their republican sentiments; on the contrary, it s certain that he purchased of Mrs. Hutchinson and her son, after the death of col. Hutchinson, their estate at Owthorpe, which, joined to what his father had given him, and what he obtained by his marri age, raised him to more opulence than his father had ever possessed: and he seems not to have fallen short of him in popularity, for he represented the town of Nottingham in parliament from the year 1690, (being the first general election after the accession of king Wil liam,) till his death.
His son Julius returned into that line of conduct and connections which was most natural for one of his descent, for he married Betty Norton, descended by the father's side from the patriotic family of that name in Hampshire, and by the mother's from the Fiennes's. He seems to have bestowed a very rational and well-deserved attention upon the writings of Mrs. Hutchin son, and there is a tradition in the family, that although he had many children of his own, he treated with kindness and liberality the last descendants
cendants of his uncle, and assisted them with money to fit them out for their emigration. The editor has seen a written memorandum of his, expressing his regret at hearing no more of them after their departure.
"From the circumstance of these, the only grandchildren of colonel Hutchinson, standing in need of this pecuniary assistance, from the mention Mrs. Hutchinson makes of her husband's debts, and from an expression contained in that book which she addresses to her daughter Mrs. Orgill, desiring her not to despise her advice though she sees her in adversity, it is highly probable that, even after selling her husband's estates, the sum to be devided left each member of the family in strait circumstances.
The affection and well-merited esteem with which Mrs. Hutchin. son speaks of her brother sir Allen Apsley, will excite an interest in the reader to know what became of him and his posterity; the short pedigree subjoined will shew, that by two marriages, and by the death of his grandson in his minority, the family of Apsley entirely merged in the noble family of Bathurst, who have adopted the name Apsley as their second title; there are five or six of the family of Apsley entombed in Wesminster Abbey, near to the entrance of Henry the seventh's chapel."
The editor then enters into an apology for the republican, as well as puritanical sentiments of the writer, and adds :
"So much having been said for the purpose of obviating misapprehension as to the effect of this work, it may be fur. ther expected that some merit or utility should be shewn, to justify the editor in presenting it to the
public notice. Being not the child of his brain and fancy, but of his adoption and judgment, he may be supposed to view it with so much the less partiality, and allowed to speak of it with so much the more freedom.
"The only ends for which any book can reasonably be published are to inform, to amuse, improve but unless many persons of highly reputed judgment are mistaken as well as ourselves, this work will be found to attain all three of them. In point of amusement, perhaps novelty or curiosity holds the foremost rank; and surely we risque little in saying that a history of a period the most remarkable in the British annals, written one hundred and fifty years ago by a lady, of elevated birth, of a most comprehensive and highly cultivated mind, herself a witness of many of the scenes she describes, and active in several of them, is a literary curiosity of no sort.
"As to information, although there are many histories of the same period, there is not one that is generally considered satisfactory; most of them carry evident marks of prejudice or partiality; nor were any of those which are now read, written at, or near the time, or by persons who had an opportunity of being well acquainted with what was passing, except that of Clarendon. But any one who should take the pains, which the editor has done, to examine Clarendon's state papers, would find therein documents much better calculated to support Mrs. Hutchinson's representation of affairs than that which he himself has given. Mrs. Hutchinson writing from a motive which will very sel
dom be found to induce any one to take so much trouble, that of giving her children, and especially her eldest son, then about to enter on the stage of life, a true notion of those eventful scenes which had just been passing before her eyes, and which she well judged must be followed by others not less interesting to the same cause and persons, will surely be thought to have possessed both the means and the inelination to paint with truth and correctness: in effect she will be seen to exhibit such a faithful, natural, and lively picture of the public mind and manners, taken sometimes in larger, sometimes smaller groupes, as will give a more satisfactory idea to an observant reader than he will any where else disco. ver. He will be further pleased to see avoided the most common error of historians, that of displaying the paradoxical and the marvellous, both in persons and things. But surely the use of history, being to instruct the present and future ages by the experience of the past, nothing can be more absurd than a wish to excite and leave the reader in astonishment, which instead of assisting, can only confound his judgment. Mrs. Hutchinson, on the contrary, has made it her busi. ness, and that very successfully, to account by common and easy causes for many of these actions and ef fects which others have left anaccounted for, and only to be gazed at in unmeaning wonder; or, in attempting to account for, them, have employed vain subtility or groundless conjecture. She has likewise not merely described the parties in the state by their general character, but delineated them in their minute ramifications, and thus enabled us to trace the springs, and
discover the reasonableness, many of those proceedings whic had hitherto seemed incongruou and inconsistent."
As a specimen of the style and manner of this extraordinary work which adds much to the stock d historical knowledge, which we de rive from Clarendon and Rushworth, and the other original writers @ the time, we shall extract the life of Mrs. Lucy Hutchinson, (the author) written by herself.
"The almighty author of all be. ings, in his various providences, whereby he conducts the lives a men from the cradle to the tomb. exercises no lesse wisdome and goodnesse then he manifests powe and greatnesse in their creation, but such is the stupidity of blind mer. talls that insteed of employing ther studies in these admirable books of providence, wherein God day'y exhibitts to us glorious characters of his love, kindnesse, wisdome, and iustice, they ungratefully re gard them not, and call the most wonderfull operations of the greate God the common accidents of humane life, specially if they be such as are usuall, and exercised towards them in ages wherein they are not very capable of observation, and whercon they seldome employ any reflexion; for in things greate and extraordinary some perhaps w take notice of God's working, who either forgett or believe not that he takes as well a care and account of their smallest concernments, even the haires of their heads.
Finding myselfe in some kind guilty of this generall neglect, 1 thought it might be a meannes to stirre up my thankefulnesse for things past, and to encourage my faith for the future, if I recollected, as much as I have heard or can remember