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3. That a negotiation shall be immediately opened, to decide, in a permanent manner, on all the points in dispute, and that for Prussia its preliminary basis shall be, the separation of Wesel from the French empire, and the re-occupation of the three Abbies by the Prussian troops.

The instant that his majesty is assured that this basis is accepted, he will resume that attitude which he has quitted with regret, and will become to France that frank and peaceable neighbour, who for so many years has seen without jea lousy, the glory of a brave people, for whose prosperity he has been anxious. But the instant intelligence of the march of the French troops compels his majesty to ascer tain immediately what he is to do. The undersigned is charged to insist on an immediate answer, which at all events must reach his majesty's head-quarters by the 8th of October; his majesty still hoping that it will arrive there time enough, that the unexpected and rapid progress of events, and the presence of the troops, should not put either party under the necessity of providing for his safety.

The undersigned is particularly instructed to declare, in the most solemn manner, that peace is the sincere wish of his majesty, and that he only requires that which can contribute to make it permanent. The causes of his apprehensions, the claims which he had for another connection, from France, are unfolded in the letter of his majesty to the emperor, and are calculated to obtain from that monarch the last permanent pledge of a new order of things.

The undersigned embraces this opportunity to renew to the prince


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Whereas his majesty the emperor of the French, and their majesties the kings of Bavaria and Wirtemberg; their electoral highnesses the arch-chancellor and the elector of Baden; his imperial highness the duke of Berg; and their royal highnesses the Landgrave of HesseDarmstadt, the princes of NassauWeilburg, and Nassau-Usingen, of Hohenzollern-Hechingen, and Hohenzollern-Siegmaringen, SalmSalm, and Salm Kyrburg, Isenburg, Birstein, and Lichtenstein; the duke of Ahremberg, and the count of Leyen; being desirous to secure, through proper stipulations, the in. ternal and external peace of southern Germany, which, as experience for a long period and recently has shewn, can derive no kind of guarantee from the existing German constitution; have appointed to be their plenipotentiaries to this effect, namely, his majesty the emperor of the French, Charles Maurice Talleyrand, duke of Benevento, minister of his foreign affairs; his majes ty the king of Bavaria, his minister plenipotentiary, A. Von Cetto; his majesty the king of Wirtemberg, his state-minister the count of Wintz ingerode; the elector arch-chancellor, his ambassader extraordinary, the count of Boust; the elector of


the new states formed by France, were states in the proper sense of the term, and not French provinces. But it cost the cabinet of St. Cloud only a word to deprive them of their independence. The appellation, The Great Empire, was invented, and that empire was immediately surrounded with vassals.

Thus there was no trace of the treaty left, yet Prussia proceeded to shut her ports against England, and still considered herself as having obligations to fulfil.

The emperor, at length, informed his majesty that it was his pleasure to dissolve the German empire, and form a confederation of the Rhine, and he recommended to the king to establish a similar confederation in the north of Germany.-This was according to his customary policy; a policy which had long been crowned with success; at the mo ment of the birth of any new project, to throw out a lure to those courts which might occasion difficulties in the execution of such project. The king adopted the idea of such a confederation, not that the advice he received made the least impression on him, but because, in fact, it was rendered necessary by circumstances; and, because, after the succession of the princes who had acceded to the confedera. tion of the Rhine, a close union between those of the north, became more than ever the condition of their safety. The king took measures to establish this league, but on other principles from those of the model presented to him. He made it his pride to collect the last of the Germans under his banners; but the rights of each he left unimpaired, and honour alone was the bond of the league.

But could France advise the king to any measure which should be productive of advantage to Prussia? We shall soon see what is to be expected when France makes professions of favour.

In the first place, care had been taken to introduce into the fundamental statute of the confederation of the Rhine, an article which contained the germ of all future inno-~ vations. It provided, that other princes should be received into this confederation, should they desire it. In this manner, all relations in Germany were left indeterminate ; and as the means were still reserved to detach and annex to this league the weaker states, either by promise or threats, it was but too probable that, in time, this confederation would he extended into the heart of the Prussian monarchy.

And, that this might no longer remain doubtful, but be manifest to every one, the first attempt was immediately made. Fortunately, it was made on a prince who knows not fear, and who considers independence as the highest object of his ambition. The French minister at Cassel invited the elector to throw himself into the arms of his master. Prussia, it was alledged, did nothing for her allies!-It is true, Napoleon knows how to manage his better; and every one sees that Spain and Holland, and the kings of Wirtemberg and Bavaria, have to thank their alliance with him for peace, independence, and honour ! Prussia did nothing for her allies. Napoleon, on the contrary, would reward the accession' of the elector by an enlargement of his territory.

And this treachery was exercised towards an ally, and at the very moment when the king was advised

to form his alliance, of which Hesse was to be the first bulwark, endeayours were made to detach from him a power, whom family connections, alliances, and relations of every kind, united in the closest manner to his majesty's person.

But even these hostile steps were not sufficient. Does any one wish to know what was the lure by which it was hoped to gain the elector of Hesse, and what was the augmentation of territory with the expectation of which he was flattered? It was the prince of Orange, the brother-in-law of the king-that prince who had been twice deceived in the most shameful manner-who was now to be robbed the third time! He still possessed the territory of Fulda; this was promised to the elector, and it would have been given, had the elector consented to accept it, and had not Prussia taken up arms.

His majesty saw the system of usurpation advance every day; he saw a circle, continually becoming narrower, drawn round him, and even the right of moving within it begining to be disputed with him, for a sweeping resolution forbade a passage to any foreign troops, armed or not armed, through the states of the confederation. This was to cut off, contrary to the rights of nations, the connection between the detached Hessian provinces; this was to prepare pretexts on which to act; this was the first threat of punishment aimed at a magnani mous prince, who had preferred a defender to a master.

But even after this, his majesty cannot reflect on it without admiration; the king considered whether a combination might not be found, which should render this state of

things compatible with the mainte nance of peace.

The emperor Napoleon appeared to be solicitous to remove this doubt. Two negotiations were then carrying on at Paris, one with Russia, the other with the English ministry. In both these negotiations the intentions of France against Prussia were evi dently manifested.

By the treaty which the emperor of Russia has refused to ratify, France offered, in conjunction with Russia, to prevent Prussia from depriving the king of Sweden of his German territories. Yet, for many months, the cabinet of St. Cloud had continually pressed the king to seize those states, with the threefold view,-first to revenge himself on the king of Sweden; secondly, to embroil Prussia with all other powers; and, thirdly, to purchase her silence with respect to the subversion of Southern Germany. But the king had long been aware, that such were the views of France; and his unfortunate dispute with Sweden was painful to him. He had, therefore, been careful to provide against every suspicion of self-interested motives, and he confided his explanations to the emperor Alexander. The scene now again changed, and Napoleon, who had so long been the enemy of the king of Sweden, was suddenly transformed into his protector.

It is not superfluous to remark, that, in this insidious treaty of the French emperor, in order to satisfy the honourable interest which the court of St. Petersburgh took in the maintenance of the rights of the king of Naples, he promised the latter an indemnification; engaging to prevail on the king of Spain to cede to him the Belearic islands. He

Art. XXIV. The members of the confederation shall exercise all the rights of sovereignty henceforward as follow:-His majesty the king of Bavaria, over the principality of Schwartzenberg, the county of Castell, the lordships of Spein. feld and Wiesenheid, the dependen. cies of the principality of Hohenlohe, which are included in the margraviate of Anspach, and the territory of Rothanburg, namely, the great manors of Schillingsfurst and Kirchberg, the county of Sternstein, the principality of Oettingen, the possessions of the prince of La Tour to the north of the principality of Neuburg, the county of Edelstetten, the possessions of the prince and of the count of Fugger, the burgraviat of Winterreiden; lastly, the lordships of Buxheim and Tannhausen, and over the entire of the highway from Memmingen to Lindau.-His majesty the king of Wirtemberg, over the possessions of the prince and count of Truchess Waldeburg, the counties of Baindt, Egloff Guttenzell, Hechbach, Ysuy, Koenigseek, Aulendorff, Ochsenhausen, Roth, Schussenried and Wiessenau, the lordships of Mietingen and Sunningen, New Ravensburg Thannheim, Warthausen and Weingarten, with exception of the lordship of Hagenau; the possessions of the prince of Thurn, with the exception of those not mentioned above; the lordship of Strassberg and manor of Oztraitz, the lordship of Gundel. singen which his majesty does not possess, all the unalienated possessions of the princess of Hohenlohe, and over a part of the manor formerly belonging to Mentz, Krautheim on the left bank of the Jaxt. The grand duke of Baden over the principality of Feurstenberg, (with

the exception of the lordships of Gundelsingen and Neussen); also over Trochtelfingen, Jungenau, and the part of the manor of Moeskirch, which lies on the left bank of the Danube, over the lordship of Hagenau, county of Thuingen, Landgraviat Klettgau, manors Neidenau and Billigheim, principality of Liningen, the possessions of Lowenstein Wertheim, upon the left bank of the Maine (with the exception of the county of Lowenstein,) and the lordships of Aaibach, Brennherg, and Habitzheim; and lastly over the possessions of the princes of Salm-Reiferscheid-Krau. theim, to the north of the Jaxt. The grand duke of Berg, over the lordships of Limburg Styrum, Brugg, Hardenberg, Gimborn, and Neustadt, Wildenberg; the counties of Homburg, Bentheim, Steinfort, and Horstman, the possessions of the duke of Looz, the counties of Siegen, Dillenburg (the manors of Werheim and Burgoch excepted,) over Stadamar, the lordships Westerburg, Schadeek, and Beilstein, and the property so called, part of Runkelt on the right bank of the Lahn. In order to establish a communication between Cleves and the abovenamed possessions, the grand duke shall have a free passage through the states of the prince of Salm.-His highness the grand duke of Darmstadt, over the lordships of Brenberg, Haibach, the manor of Habizheim, county of Erbach, lordship of Illenstadt, a part of the county of Konigsheim, which is possessed by the prince of Stolberb Gederu; over the possessions of the baron of Redesel, that are included in, or lie contiguous to, his states, namely, the jurisdictions of Lauserhach, Stockhausen, Mort, and 3 G 3 Truenstern,

Truenstern, the possessions of the princes and counts of Solms, in Wetterau, exclusive of the manors of Hohen-Solms, Braunsels, and Greifenstein; lastly, the counties Wittgenstein and Berleburg, and the manor of Hessen-Homburg, which is in possession of the line of that name. His most serene eminence (Durchlauchtige eminez) the prince primate, over the possessions of the princes and counts of Lowenstein-Wertheim, on the right bank of the Maine, and over the county of Rheineck.-Nassau Usingen and Nassau Weilburg, over the manors of Diersdorf, Altenweid, Neursburg, and the part of the county of Bassenburg, which belongs to the prince of Wied Runkel, over the Counties of Nouwied and Holzapsel, the lordship of Schomburg, the county of Diez and its dependen. cies, over that part of the village of Metzfelden, which appertains to the prince of Nassau Fulda, the manors of Werhem and Balbach, that part of the lordship of Runkel, situate on the left bank of the Dalur, over the equestrian possessions of Kransberg, and, lastly, over the manors of Solms Braunfels, Hohen Solms, and Greifenstein.-The prince of Hohenzollern-Siegmaringen over Trochtelfingen, Jungenau, Strasberg, manor Ostrach, and the part of the lordship of Moeskirch which lays on the left bank of the Danube. Salm Kyrburg over the lordship of Genmen.-IsenburgBurstein, over the possessions of the count of Isenburgh Budingen, Wechtersbatch, and Mohrholz, without any pretensions on the part of the branch in present possession being urged against him.-Ahremberg over the county of Dulmen.

Art. XXV. The member sof the confederation shall take the sove reignty of the imperial equestrian lands included within their boundaries. Such of these lands as lie between the states of two of the confederates, shall be with respect to the sovereignty partitioned as exactly as possible between them, that no misunderstanding with respect to the sovereignty may arise.

Art. XXVI. The rights of sovereignty consist in exercising the legislation, superior jurisdiction, administration of justice, military conscription, or recruiting, and levying taxes.

Art. XXVII. The present reigning princes or counts shall enjoy, as patrimonial or private property, all the domains they at present occupy, as well as all the rights of manor and entail that do not essentially appertain to the sovereignty, viz. right of superior and inferior administration of justice in common and criminal cases, tenths, patronage, and other rights, with the revenues, therefrom accruing. Their domains and chattels, as far as re. lates to the taxes, shall be annexed to the prince of that house nuder whose sovereignty they come, or if no prince of the house be in possession of immoveable property, in that case they shall be put upon an equality with the domains of princes of the most privileged class. These domains cannot be sold or given to any prince out of the confederation, without being first offered to the prince under whose sovereignty they are placed,

Art. XXVIII. In penal cases, the now reigning princes and counts, and their heirs, shall preserve their present privileges of trial. They


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