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· 94. But thus much is certain, . the cure of the {curvy is no more to be attempted by strongly active medicines than (to use the similitude of an ingenious writer) a thorn in the flesh, or pitch on silk to be removed by force. The viscid humour must be gently resolved and diluted, the cone of the vessels recovered by a moderate stimulation, and the tender fibres and capillary vessels gradually cleared from the concreted stuff, chat adheres and obstructs them. All which is in the aptest manner performed by a watery diluent, containing a fine vegetable soap. And although a complete cure by alteratives, operating on the small capillaries, and by insensible discharges, must require length of time, yet the good effect of this medicine on cachectic and scorbutic persons, is soon perceived, by the change it produceth in their pale discolour. ed looks, giving a Aorid healthy countenance in less time than perhaps any other medicine.

95. It is supposed by physicians, that the immediace cause of the scurvy lies in the blood, the fibrous part of which is too thick and the serum too thin and sharp: and that hence ariseth the great difficulty in the cure, because in the correcting of one part, regard must be had to the other, It is well known how extremely difficult it is to cure an inveterate scurvy: how many scorbutic patients have grown worse by an injudicious course of evacuations : how many are even rendered incurable by the treatment of inconsiderate physicians : and how difficult, tedious and uncertain the cure is in the hands even of the best, who are obliged to use such variety and change of medi. cines, in the different stages of that malady: which nevertheless may be cured (if I may judge by what I have experienced) by the sole, regular, constant, copious use of tar-water.

96. Tar

96. Tar-water moderately infpiffates with it's balsamic virtue, and renders mild the thin and sharp part of the blood. The same, 'as à foapy medicine, diffolves the grumous concretions of the fibrous part. As a balsam it destroys the ulcerous acrimony of the humours, and as a deobftruent it opens and cleans the vessels, restores their tone, and strengthens the digestion, whose defects are the prin cipal cause of scurvy and cachexy.

97. In the cure of the scurvy, the principal aim is to subdue the acrimony of the blood and juices. But as this acrimony proceeds from different causes, or even opposite, as acid and alkaline, what is good in one sort of scurvy proves dangerous, or even mortal, in another. It is well known, that hot antiscorbutics, where the juices of the body are alcalescent, increase the disease. And four fruits and vegetables produce a like effect in the scurvy, caused by an acid acrimony. Hence fatal blunders are committed by unwary practitioners, who, not distinguishing the nature of the disease, do frequently aggravate, instead of curing it. If I may trust what trials I have been able to make, this water is good in the several kinds of scurvy, acid, alcaline, and muriatic, and I believe it the only medicine that cures them all without doing hurt in any. As it contains a volatile acid (@) with a fine volatile oil, why may not a medicine cool in one part and warm in another be a remedy to either extreme (b)? I have observed it to produce a kindly genial warmth without heat, a thing to be aimed at in all sorts of fcurvy. Besides the balsam in tar-water sheaths all scorbutic falts alike: and it's great virtues as a digefter and deob.

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ftruent are of general use in all scorbutic, and, I may add, in all chronical cases whatsoever. . . 7, 98. I cannot be sure that I have tried it in a scro. phulous case, though I have tried it successfully in one, that I suspected to be fo. And I apprehend it would be very serviceable in such disorders, For although Doctor Gibbs in his treatise of the King's Evil derives that disease from a coagulacing acid, which is also agreeable to the opinion of some other physicians, and although tar-water contain an acid, yet as it is a soap (a), it resolves instead of coagulating the juices of the body. . - 99. For hysterical and hypochondriacal disorders so frequent among us, it is commonly supposed that all acids are bad. But I will venture to except the acid soap of car-water, having found, by my own experience and that of many others, that it raiseth the spirits, and is an excellent antihysteric, nor less innocent than potent, which cannot be said of those others in common use; that often leave people worse than they found them.

100. In a high degree of scurvy a mercurial-falivation is looked on by many as the only cure. Which, by the vehement shock it gives the whole frame, and the sensible secretion it produceth, may be thought to be more adequate to such an effect. But the disorder occasioned by that violent process, it is to be feared, may never be got over. The immediate danger, the frequent bad effects, the extreme trouble and nice care attending such a course do very deservedly make people afraid of it. And though the sensible secretion therein be so great, yet in a longer tract of time the use of car-water inay produce as great

(a) 58.

a discharge of scorbutic salts by urine and by pero fpiration, the effect of which last, though not so fensible, may yet be greater than that of saliya. tion ; especially if it be true, that in common life insensible perspiration is to nutrition, and all sensible excretions, as five to three. - 101. Many hysteric and scorbutic ailments, many taints contracted by themselves, or inherited from their ancestors, afflict the people of condition in these islands, often rendering them, upon the whole, much more unhappy than those whom poverty and labour have ranked in the lowest lot of life ; which ailments might be safely removed or relieved by the sole use of tar-water; and those lives, which seem hardly worth living for bad appetite, low spirits, restless nights, wasting pains and anxieties, be rendered easy and comfortable.

102. As the nerves are instruments of sensation, it follows that spasms in the nerves may produce all symptoms, and therefore a disorder in the nervous system shall imitate all distempers, and occafion, in appearance, an asthma for instance, a pleuFisy, or a fit of the stone. Now whatever is good for the nerves in general, is good against all such symptoms. But tar-water, as it includes in an eminent degree the virtues of warm gums and refins, is of great use for comforting and strengthening the nerves (a), curing (witches in the nervous fibres, cramps allo, and numbness in the limbs, removing anxieties and promoting Neep, in all which cases I have known it very successful.

103. This safe and cheap medicine fuits all cir- cumitances and all constitutions, operating easily, curing without disturbing, raising the spirits without depressing them, a circumstance that deserves

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repeated attention, especially in these climates, where strong liquors so fatally and so frequently produce those very distresses they are designed to remedy; and, if I am not misinformed, even among the ladies chemselves, who are truly much to be pitied. Their condition of life makes them a prey to imaginary woes, which never fail to grow up in minds unexercised and unemployed. To get rid of these, it is said, there are who betake themfelves to distilled spirits. And it is not improbable they are led gradually to the use of those poisons by a certain complaisant pharmacy, too much used in the modern practice, palsy drops, poppy cordial, plague water, and such like, which being in truth nothing but drams disguised, yet coming from the apothecaries, are considered only as medicines.

104. The soul of man was supposed by many ancient sages, to be thrust into the human body as into a prison, for punishment of past offences. But the worst prison is the body of an indolent Epi. cure, whose blood is infamed by fermented lia quors (a) and high sauces, or render'd putrid, sharp, and corrosive, by a stagnation of the animal, juices through noth and indolence; whose membranes are irritated by pungent falts, whose mind is agitated by painful oscillations of the nervous (6) system, and whose nerves are mutually affected by the irregular passions of his mind. This ferment in the animal economy darkens and confounds the intellect. It produceth vain terrours and vain conceits, and stimulates the foul with mad desires, which, noe being natural, nothing in nature can satisfy. No wonder, therefore, there are so many fine persons of both sexes, shining themfelves, and Thone on by fortune, who are inwardly miserable and sick of life. (a) 66. (b) 86,

105 The

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