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fire, whose particles they attract and adhere to (k), there is produced a new Auid, more volatile than water or earth, and more fixed than fire. Therefore the virtues and operations imputed to air must be ultimately attributed to fire, as that which imparts activity to air itself.

164. The element of æthereal fire or light seems to comprehend, in a mixed state, the seeds, the natural causes and forms (8) of all sublunary things. The grosser bodies separate, attract, and repel the several constituent particles of that heterogeneouselement ; which, being parted from the conimon mass, make distinct essences, producing and combining together such qualities and properties, as are peculiar to the several subjects, and thence often extracted in essential oils or odoriferous waters, from whence they exhale into the open air, and return into their original element.

165. Blue, red, yellow, and other colours, have been discovered by Sir Isaac Newton to depend on the parted rays or particles of light. And in like manner, a particular odour or flavour, seemeth to depend on peculiar particles of light or fire (b); as appears from heat's being necessary to all vegetation whatsoever, and from the extreme minuteness and volatility of those vegetable souls or forms, Alying off from the subjects without any sensible diminution of cheir weight. These particles, blended in one common ocean, should seem to conceal the diftinct forms, but, parted and attracted by proper subjects, disclofe or produce them. As the particles of light, which, when separated, form distinct colours, being blended are lost in one uniform appearance.

(d) 147.

(8) 43.

(b) 40.
. 166. A.

: *166. Agreeably thereto, an aethereal fubftance or fire was supposed by Heraclitus to be the seed of the generation of all things, or that from which all things drew their original. The Stoics also taught, that all substance was originally fire, and should return to fire : that an active subtile fire was diffused or expanded throughout the whole universe; the several parts whereof were produced, sustained, and held together by it's force. And it was the opinion of the Pythagoræans, as Laertius informs us, that heat or fire was the principle of life animating the whole system, and penetrating all the elements (). The Platonists too, as well as the Pythagoræans, held fire to be the immedi. ate natural agent, or animal spirit; to cherish, to warm, to heat, to enlighten, to vegetate, to produce the digestions, circulations, secretions, and organical motions in all living bodies, vegetable or animal, being cifects of that element, which, as it actuates the macrocofni, so it animates the microcosm. In the Timæus of Plato, there is suppos sed something like a 'net of fire, and rays of fire in a human body. Doth not this seem to mean the animal spirit, flowing, or rather darting thro? the nerves ?

167. According to the Peripatetics, the form of heaven, or the fiery æthereal subítance, contains the forms of all inferior beings (b). It may be said to teemn with forms, and impart them to subjects fitted to receive them. The vital force thereof in the Peripatetic sense is vital to all, but diversy received according to the diversity of the fubjects. So all colours are virtually contained in the light ; but their actual diftinctions of blue, red, yellow, and the rest, depend on the difference of the objects which it illustrates. Aristotle in the book De (a) 152, 153. - 25) 43.


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mundo; fupporeth a certain fifth essence, an æthe real nature unchangeable and impassive ; and next in order a subtile, Aaming substance, lighted up, or set on fire by that athereal and divine nature, He supposeth, indeed, that God is in heaven, but that his power, or a force derived from him, doch actuate and pervade the universe.

168. If we may credit Plutarch, Empedocles thought æther or heat to be Jupiter. Æther by the ancient philosophers was used to signify pro. miscuously sometimes fire and sometimes air. For they distinguished two sorts of air. Plato in the Timæus speaking of air, faith there are two kinds, the one more fine and subtile, called æther; the other more gross and replete with va pours. This æther or purer medium, seems to have been the air or principle, from which all things according to Anaximenes derived their birth, and into which they were back again resolved at their death. Hippocrates, in his creatise De diæta, speaketh of a fire pure and invisible; and this fire, according to him, is that which, stirring and giving movement to all things, causes them to appear, or, as he styles it, come into evidence, that is to exist, every one in it's time, and according to its destiny."

169. This pure fire, æther, or substance of light, was accounted in itself invisible and imperceptible to all our senses, being perceived only by it's effects, such as heat, Aame, and rarefaction. To which we may add, that the moderns pretend farther to have perceived ic by weight, inasmuch as che aromatic oils which most abound with fire, as being the most readily and vehemently enflamed,. are above all others the heaviest. And by an experiment of Mr. Homberg's, four ounces of regulus of antimony, being calcined by a burning glass


for an hour together, were found to have imbibed and fixed seven drams of the substance of light. • 170. Such is the rarefying and expansive force of this element, as to produce in an instant of time the greatest and most Itupendous effects: a sufficient proof, not only of the power of fire, but also of the wisdom with which it is managed, and withheld from bursting forth every moment to the utter ravage and destruction of all things. And it is very remarkable, that this fame element, so fierce and destructive, should yet be so variously temper. ed and applied, as to be withal the falutary warmth, the genial, cherishing, and vital Game of all living creatures. It is not therefore to be wondered that Aristotle thought, the heat of a living body to be fomewhat divine and celestial, derived from that pure æther to which he supposed the incorporeal deity (zweisór eidos) to be immediately united, or on which he supposed it immediately to act.

171. The Platonifts held their intellect resided in foul, and soul in an æthereal vehicle. And that as the foul was a middle nature reconciling intellect with æther; fo æther was another middle nature, which reconciled and connected the soul with groffer bodies (d). Galen likewise taught, that, admitting the soul to be incorporeal, it hach for it's immedi. ate tegument or vehicle a body of æther or fire, by the intervention whereof it moveth other bodies and is mutually affected by them. This interior clothing was supposed to remain upon the soul, not only after death, but after the most perfect purgation, which in length of time according to the followers of Plato and Pythagoras cleanfed the soul,

purumque reliquit · Æthereum sensum atque auraï fimplicis ignem. (d) 152, 154.


This tunicle of the soul's whether it be called pure æther, or luciform vehicle, or animal spirit seemech to be that which moves and acts upon the gross organs, as it is determined by the soul, from which it immediately receives impression, and in which the moving force truly and properly resides. Some moderns have thought fit to deride all that is said of æthereal vehicles, as mere jargon or words without a meaning. But they should have considered, that all speech concerning the soul is altogether, or for the most part, metaphorical; and that, agreeably thereunto, Plato speaketh of the mind or soul, as a driver that guides and governs a chariot, which is, not unfitly, styled aúyosidès, a luciform æthereal vehicle, or ögcmuese terms expressive of the purity, lightness, subcilty and mobility of that fine celestial nature, in which the soul immediately resides and operates.

172. It was a tenet of the Stoics that the world was an animal, and that providence answered to the reasonable soul in man. But then the providence or mind was supposed by them to be immediately resident or present in fire, to dwell therein, and to act thereby. Briefly, they conceived God to be an intellectual and fiery spirit, myšius voegov xad wygwdes. Therefore though they looked on fire (F) as the có vigeuovizór or governing principle of the world ; yet it was not simply fire, but animated with a mind. · 173. Such are the bright and lively signatures of a divine mind, operating and displaying itself in fire and light throughout the world, that, as Aristorle observes in his book De mundo, all things seem full of divinities, whose apparitions on all sides strike and dazzle our eyes. And it must be

(0) 166.


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