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owned, the chief philofophers and wise men of antiquity, how much foever they attributed to fecond caufes and the force of fire, yet they fupposed a mind or intellect always resident therein, active or provident, reftraining it's force and directing it's operations...

174. Thus Hipocrates in his treatife, De diæta, fpeaks of a strong but invisible fire (8), that rules all things without noise. Herein, faith he, resides foul, understanding, prudence, growth, motion, diminution, change, neep and waking. This is what governs all things and is never in repose. And the fame author, in his tract. De carnibus, after a serious preface, setting forth that he is about to declare his own opinion, expresseth it in these terms : « That which we call heat, frequór, appears to me

something immortal, which understands all « things, which fees and knows both what is preac fent, and what is to come.' .

175. This fame heat is also what Hippocrates calls nature, the author of life and death, good and evil. It is farther to be noted of this heat, that he maketh it the object of no fense. It is that occult, univerfal nature, and inward invisible force, which actu. átes and animates the whole world, and was worshipped by the ancients under the name of Saturn; which Vossius judges, not improbably, to be derived from the Hebrew word Satar, to lye hidden or concealed. And what hath been delivered by Hip: pocrates agrees with the notions of other philofo. phers : Heraclitus, (b) for instance, who held fire to be the principle and cause of the generation of all things, did not mean thereby an inanimate ele, ment, but, as he termed it, wūo dei wov, an everliving fire.

(8) 168. (b) 166.

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176. Theophraftus, in his Book, De igne, distinguishech between heat and fire. The first he considers as a principle or cause, not that which ap. peareth to sense as a passion or accident existing in à subject, and which is in truth the effect of that unseen principle. And it is remarkable, that he refers the treating of this invisible fire or heat, to the investigation of the first causes. Fire, the principle, is neither generated nor destroyed, is every where and always present (a); while its effects in different times and places shew themselves more or less, and are very various, soft, and cherishing, or violent and destructive, terrible or agreeable, conveying good and evil, growth and decay, life and death, throughout the mundane system · 177. It is allowed by all, that the Greeks deri. ved much of their philosophy from the Eastern na. tions. And Heraclitus is thought by fome to have drawn his principles from Orpheus, as Ora pheus did from the Ægyptians; or, as others write, he had been audicor of Hippasus a Pythagorean, who held the same notion of fire, and might havé derived it from Egype by his master Pythagoras, who had travelled into Egypt, and been instructed by the sages of that nation. One of whose te nets it was, that fire was the principle of all action ; which is agreeable to the doctrine of the Stoics, that the whole of things is administred by a fiery inTellectual spirit. In the Asclepian Dialogue, we find this notion, that all parts of the world vegeface by a fine subtil æther, which acts as an engine or instrument, subject to the will of the supreme God.

178. As the Platonists held intellect to be lodged in soul, and soul in æther (b); so it passeth (a) 43. (6), 157.

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for a doctrine of Trismegiftus in the Pimandet, that mind is cloathed by soul, and soul by spirit: Therefore as the animal fpirit of man, being subtil and luminous, is the immediate tegument of the human soul, or that wherein and whereby she acts; even so the spirit of the world, that active fiery æthereal substance of light, that permeates and animates the whole system, is supposed to cloath the soul, which cloaths the mind of the universe.

179. The Magi likewise said of God, that he had light for his body and truth for his soul. And in the Chaldaic oracles, all things are supposed to be governed by a qüe voegov or intellectual fire. And in the same oracles, the creative mind is said to be cloathed with fire, 'Eoodusvos augi tõe, which oriental reduplication of the word fire, seems to imply the extreme purity and force thereof. Thus also in the Psalms, Thou art clothed with light as with a garment. Where, the word rendered light might have been rendered fire, the Hebrew letters being the same with those in che word which signifies fire, all the difference being in the pointing, which is justly counted à late invention. That other scripture fentence is remarkable : Who maketh his ministers a Aaming fire; which might, perhaps, be rendered more agreeably to the context, as well as consistently with the Hebrew, after this manner: Who makech Alaming fire his minifters; and the whole might run thus: Who maketh the winds his messengers, and flaming fire his mi.nisters.

180. A notion of something divine in fire; animating the whole world, and ordering its several parts, was a tenet of very general extent (a),

(a) 156, 157, 163, 166, 167, 168, 170, 172, 173, 174, -175, 177, &c.

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being embraced in the most distant times and places, even among the Chinese themselves; who make tien, æther, or heaven, the sovereign print ciple, or cause of all things, and teach that the celestial virtue, by them called li, when joined to corporeal substance, doth fashion, distinguish, and fpecificate all natural beings. This li of the Chic nese seems to answer the forms of the Peripatetics. And both bear analogy to the foregoing philofo- . phy of fire.

181. The heaven is supposed pregnant with virtues and forms, which constitute and discriminate the various species of things. And we have more than once observed, that, as the light, fire, or celestial æther, being parted by refracting or reflecting bodies, producèth variety of colours ; even so, that same apparently uniform fubftance being parted and secreted by the attracting and repelling powers of the divers secretory ducts of plants and animals, that is, by natural chemistry, producech or imparteth the various specific properties of natural bodies. Whence the tastes and odours and medicinal virtues so various in vegetables.

182. The tien is considered and adored by the learned Chinese, as living and intelligent acher, the 7 we voe por of the Chaldæans and the Stoics. And the worship of things celestial, the sun and stars, among the eastern nations less remote, was on account of their fiery nature, their heat and light, and the influence thereof. Upon these accounts, the sun was looked on by the Greek theologers as the spiric of the world, and the power of the world. The cleansing quality, the light and heat of fire are natural symbols of purity, knowledge, and power, or, if I may so say, the things them

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- selves so far as they are perceptible to our fenfes, or in the fame sense as motion is said to be action. Accordingly, we find a religious regard was paid to fire, both by Greeks and Romans, and indeed by most, if not all, the nations of the world,

183. The worship of Velta at Rome was, in truth, the worship of fire. Nec tu aliud Veltam quam vivam intellige Aam

mam, faith Ovid in his Fasti. And as in old Rome the eternal fire was religiously kept by virgins, lo in Greece, particularly at Delphi and Athens, it was kept by widows. It is well known thaç Vulcan or Fire was worshipped with great diftinction by the Ægyprians. The Zabii or Sabeans are also known to have been worshippers of fire. It appears too from the Chaldæan oracles, that fire was regarded as divine by the sages of that nation. And it is supposed that Ur of the Chaldæans was so called from the Hebrew word · signifying fire, because fire was publickly worshipped in that city. That a religious worship was paid to fire by the ancient Persians and their Maç gi, is attested by all antiquity. And the sect of Persees, or old Gentils, of whom there are confiderable remains at this day both in the Mogols country and in Persia, doth testify the fame.

184: It doth not seem that their proftrations before the perpetual fires, preferved with great care in their Pyreia, or fire temples, were merely a civil respect, as Dr. Hycle would have it thought. Although he brings good proof that they do not invoke the fire on their altars, or pray to it, or call it Go:l: and that they acknowledge a supreme invisiblé deity. Civil respects are paid to things

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