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owned, the chief philoIophers and wJle men of antiquity, how much foever they attributed to fecond caufesand the force of fire, yet they fuppofed a mind or intellect always refident therein, active or provident, reftraining it's force and directing it's operations.

174. Thus Hipocrates in his treatife, Dediaeta, fpeaks of a ftrong but invifible fire (g), that rules all things without noife. Herein, faith he, refides foul, underftanding, prudence, growth, motion, diminution, change, fleep and waking. This is what governs all things and is never in repofe. And the fame author, in his tract De carnibus, after a ferious preface, fetting forth that he is about to declare his own opinion, exprefleth it in thefe terms: •* That which we call heat, bi^uw, appears to me "fomething immortal, which underftands ali "things, which fees and knows both what is pre•' fent, and what is to come,"

175. This fame heat isalfo what Hippocrates calls nature, the author of life and death, good and evil. It is farther to be noted of this heat, that he maketh it the object of no fenfe. It is that occult, univerfal nature, and inward invifible force, which actuates and animates the whole world, and was worfhipped by the ancients under the name of Saturn; which Voflius judges, not improbably, to be derived from the Hebrew word Satar, to lye hidden or concealed. And what hath been delivered by Hippocrates agrees with the notions of other philofophers: Heraclitus, (b) for inftance, who held fire to be the principle and caufe of the generation of all things, did not mean thereby an inanimate element, but, as he termed it, ava oiti^aw, an everliving fire.

(g) 168. (b) 166.

176. Theo

176. Theophraftus, in his Book, De igne, diftinguifheth between heat and fire. The firft he confiders as a principle orcaufe, not that which appeareth to fenfe as a paffion or accident exifting in a fubject, and which is in truth the effect of that unfeen principle. And it is remarkable, that he refers the treating of this invifible fire or heat, to the inveftigation of the firft caufes. Fire, the principle, is neither generated nor deftroyed, is every where and always prefent (a); While its effects in different times and places mew themfelves more or lefs, and are very various* foft, and cherifhing, or violent and deftructive, terrible or agreeable, conveying good and evil, growth and decay, life and death, throughout the mundane fyftem,

177. It is allowed by all, that the Greeks derived much of their philofophy from the Eaftern nations. And Heraclitus is thought by fome to have drawn his principles from Orpheus, as Orpheus did from the ./Egyptians; or, as others write, he had been auditor of Hippafus a Pythagorean, who held the fame notion of fire, and might have derived it from Egypt by his mafter Pythagoras, who had travelled into Egypt, and been inftructed by the fages of that nation. One of whofe tenets it was, that fire was the principle of all action; which is agreeable to the doctrine of the Stoics, that the whole of things is adminiftred by a fiery intellectual fpirit. In the Afclepian Dialogue, we find this notion, that all parts of the world vegetate by a fine fubtil zther, which acts as an engine or inftrument* fubject to the will of the fupreme God.

178. As the Platonifts held intellect to be lodged in foul, and foul in sEther (b) -, fo it p»fleth


for for a doctrine of Trifmegiftus in the Pimandefy that mind is cloathed by foul* and foul by fpirit; Therefore as the animal fpirit of man, being fubtil and luminous, is the immediate tegument of the human foul, or that wherein and whereby ftie acts; even fo the fpirit of the world, that active fiery sethereal fubftance of light, that permeates and animates the whole fyftem, is fuppofed to cloath the foul, which eloaths the mind of the univerfe.

179. The Magi likewife faid of God, that he had light for his body and truth for his foul. And in the Chaldarc oracles, all things are fuppofed to be governed by a irvf Kipok or intellectual fire. And in the fame oracles, the creative mind is faid to be cloathed with fire, 'E<r<r*'/«i>o? wvf/ Ta£, which oriental reduplication of the word fire, feems to imply the extreme purity and force thereof. Thus alfo in the Pfalms, Thou art clothed with light as with a garment. Where, the word rendered light might have been rendered fire, the Hebrew letters being the fame with thofe in the word which fignifies fire, all the difference being in the pointing, •which is juftly counted a late invention. That other fcripture fentence is remarkable: Who maketh his minifters a flaming fire; which might, perhaps, be rendered more agreeably to the context, as well as confidently with the Hebrew, after this manner: Who maketh flaming fire his miniJfters; and the whole might run thus: Who maketh the winds his meflengers, and flaming fire his minifters.

180. A notion of fomething divine in firCj animating the whole world, and ordering its feveral parts, was a tenet of very general extent («),

(a) 156, 157, 163, 166, 16-, 168, 170, 172, 173, 174,

5. '77. Ef

being embraced in the moft diftant times and places, even among the Chinefe themfelves; who make tien, aether, or heaven, the fovereign prin'ciple, or caufe of all things, and teach that the celeftial virtue, by them called li, when joined to corporeal fubftance, doth fafhion, diftinguifh, and fpecificate all natural beings. This li of the Chinefe feems to anfwer the forms of the Peripatetics. And both bear analogy to the foregoing phijofophy ot fire.

181. The heaven is fuppofed pregnant with virtues and forms, which conftitute and difcriminate the various fpecies of things. And we have more than once obferved, that, as the light, fire, or celeftial asther, being parted by refracting or reflecting bodies, produceth variety of colours; even fo, that fame apparently uniform fubftance being parted and fecreted by the attracting and repelling powers of the divers fecretory ducts of plants and animals, that is, by natural chemiftry, produceth or imparteth the various fpecific properties of natural bodies. Whence the taftes and odours and medicinal virtues fo various in vegetables.

182. The tien is confitJered and adored by the learned Chinefe, as living and intelligent sether, the -nvq tstgo» of the Chaldseans and the Stoics. And the worfhip of things celeftial, the fun and ftars, among the eaftern nations lefs remote, was on account of their fiery nature, their heat and light, and the influence thereof. Upon theft accounts, the fun was looked on by the Greek theologers as the Ipirit of the world, and the power of the world. The cleanfing quality, the light and heat of fire are natural fymbols of purity, knowledge, and power, or, if I may fo fay, the things them

L 2 felve? felves fo far as they are perceptible to our fenfcs, or in the fame fenfe as motion is laid to be action. Accordingly, we find a religious regard was paid to fire, both by Greeks and Romans, and indeed by moft, if not all, the nations ot the world.

183. The worfhip of Vefta at Rome was, io truth, the worfhip of fire.

Nec tualiudVeftamauam vivam intellige flammam,

faith Ovid in his Fafti. And as in old Rome the eternal fire was religioufly kept by virgins, fo in Greece, particularly at Delphi and Athens, it was kept by widows. It is well known that Vulcan or fire was worfhippfd with great diItinc~r.ioi7 by the Egyptians. The Zabii or Sabeans are alfo known to have been wcrfhippers •of fire. It appears too from the Chaldsean oracles, that fire was regarded as divine by the fages of that nation. And it is fuppofed that Urof the Chaldasans was fo called from t{ie Hebrew word fignifying fire, becaufe fire was publickly worfhipped in that city. That a religious worfhip was paid to fire by the ancient Perfians and their Mar gi, is a.ttefted by all antiquity. And the fe<5t of Perfees, or old Gentils, of whom there are confiderable remains at this day both in the Mogols country and in Perfia, doth teftify the fume.

184. It doth not feem that their proftrations before the perpetual fires, prd'crved with gre^t care in their Pyreia, or fire temples, were merely a civil refpect, as Dr. Hyde would have it thought. Although he brings good proof that they do not invoke the fire on their altars, or pray to it, or fall it Go.): and that they acknowledge a fupreme jnvifibld deity. Civil refptfts'are paid to things

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