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ROUSSEAU ON THE DEATH OF SOCRATES AND CHRIST. 419
" Hold up
LETWEEN THE DEATH OF
I never be offended. Though I death of Socrates and the death should die with thee, yet will I of Jesus, drawn by the masterly not deny thee." But how weak pen of Rousseau. It affords à are human resolutions ! How frail striking resemblance to this conand feeble is man! In the hour fession of the centurion, and afof trial, even the zealous and fords a forcible and unprejudiced warm-hearted Peter" began to testimony to the divinity of curse and to swear, saying, I Christ. kpow not the man. my goings in thy paths, that my where is the philosopher, who
“ Where (says he) is the man, .footsteps slip not,” will be the carnest-the constant prayer
can act, suffer, and die, without
weakness, and without ostentathose who are truly humble.
tion ? When Plato describes his Dereham.
imaginary just man, covered with G.
all the opprobrium of guilt, yet at the same time meeting the
sublimest rewards of virtue, lie „ROUSSEAU'S COMPARISON
paints precisely every feature in
the character of Jesus Christ. SOCRATES AND JESUS.
The resemblance is so striking, that all the fathers have observed
it, and it is impossible to be de66 Now when the centurion, and ceived in it. What prejudice,
they that were with him, watch what blindness must possess the ing Jesus, saw the earthquake, mind of that man who dares to and those things that were done, they feared greatly, saying, Trudy compare the son of Sophronisthis was the Son of God." "Matt. eus with the son of Mary! Wha xxvii. 54.
a distance is there between the one and the other! The deatla
of Socrates, philosophizing calmIt is not a little remarkable, ly with his friends, is the 'most that the contemplation of the gentle that can be wished; that very same scene which so forci- of Jesus, expiring in torments, bly struck the Roman centurion, insulted, derided, and reviled by has extorted a similar confession all the people, the most horrible from one of the most eloquent of that can be imagined. Socrates, modern sceptics, who has never taking the poisonous cup, blesses been accused of too much credu.
the man who presents it to him, lity; and who, though he could and who, in the very act of prebring himself to resist the evi- senting it, melts into tears. Jesus, dence both of prophecy and of in the midst of the most agonizing miracles, and was, therefore, cer- tortures, prays for his enraged tainly no bigot to Christianity, persecutors. Yes, if the life and yet was overwhelmed with the death of Socrates are those of a evidence arising from the charac
the life and death of Jesus ter, the sufferings, and the death
are those of a GOD." of Jesus. I allude to the cele. brated comparison between the DR, PORTEUS'S LECTURES.
HISTORICAL ESSAYS. could not, with a good grace, ner
without danger, resist the invasions
of a power, which as they were made No. VI.
under the specious character of pubOn the Corruption of Christianity in lic benefits, resulting from apostoli
Britair, during the reign of Henry cal solicitude, were generally poputhe First.
lar; especially as the exertion of
this power was absolutely necessary DesiROUS of presenting our to the success of the enterprize. youthful readers a more connected But for this wily policy, the utmost view of the operations of popish stretch of papal authority would superstition in the ages of its glory doubtless have been exerted in prethan our history at large affords, we servation of the rights of Robert, for propose to remark its progress in this
even gratitude demanded it; who, country through successive reigns, after exemplary sacrifices, had been till the glorious era of the Reforma exerting himself to the utmost in tion: that they may feel increasing-what was deemed common cause, ly grateful for emancipation from the crusades, and in which he had its ruthless tyranny, and use every obtained a most distinguished repulawful and honourable exertion for tation. Henry, aware of this, lost the prevention of its returning in
no time in sending messengers to fluence. It has been urged by some, court Anselm's return; knowing, whose philanthropy exceeds their that on Robert's arrival from the observation, and by others, to whom holy land, should he not bave seall systems of religion are alike in-cured the good-will of the clergy, different, that Popery is not now what it once was; and, that if it best. Anselm returned, and Henry
his reign would be precarious at were, such is the general diffusion
proposed that he should repeat the of knowledge, that it would be im- homage done to the late king, but possible for any species of supersti- the prelate, anxious to avait himself tion again to gain so complete an
of this critical opportunity, objected ascendancy over the human mind. to do what no English bishop bad In reply to which, it need only be ever before ventured to refuse; and remarked, banish the Bible, that that he might gain the full benefit of source of truth, from society, and the prince's delicate situation, he the return to the grossest supersti- even resolved to have no communition, till the heart of man is less de- cation with any ecclesiastic who praved, would be unavoidable; should so prostitute his spiritual which is precisely the desire of the dignity. He further objected to the reigning pontiff.
decisions of the Council of Bari, The haughty Anselm, who gave mentioned in our last, although he so much inquietude to William had contributed to form them. All Rufus, we left ou the continent, that Henry could do, was to propose whither he had retired, lest he should feel the resentment ofhis sove while he sent messengers to Rome
a suspension of the controversy, roign, whom he had repeatedly pro- to effect an accommodation. voked. The usurpation of the throne
Robert soon returned, and having by Henry, A. D. 1100, in the absence taken possession of Normandy, of his brother Robert, could not fail hastened, and not uninvited; with to prove lavourable to the banished his troops to Portsmouth, where he prelate, and the Catholic cause; for landed. Henry redoubled his attenhe who had been guilty of so bold an tions to the clergy, and to Anselm in encroachment as to seize a crown, particular, and by the most courteous
behaviour, and unbounded pro- tion of making a journey to Rome. mises, insured his support. The Considering the notoricty of thesu prelate assured the barons, " who' quarrels, the dominion this corrupt were a formidable class of men, of system gave to the clergy over the the king's determination to avoid minds of their converts, such as no the excesses of former reigns, and honest man would wish to possess, predicted happiness from so prudent is exemplified by the conduct of an administration; and, as a battle the people at this prelate's deparwas contemplated between the as- ture, thousands of whom, not merely sembled forces, he rode through ecclesiastics, accompanied him to Henry's ranks, reminding them of the shore, to witness and regret bis their vaths of allegiance, and ex- departure, who, says a celebrated horting them to valour. An agrec- historian," scrupled not in this manment between the two brothers ner to declare for their primate happily prevented hostilitics. against their sovereign."
In the mean time, the messenger Henry sent another messenger to returned from Rome, with an abso Pascal, who assumed a more decilute refusal of the king's require- sive tone, declaring that his master ments, accompanied with the follow- would rather lose his crown than ing reasons of the pope, Pascal II. give up the right of granting inveswhich could hardly fail to convince titures: he was answered in a stylo the public mind : That Christ was as firm and as false" and 1,” said the door of the church, the pope thc pope, 'would rather lose my was allowed to be the representative head than allow him to retain it." of Christ, and, consequently, admit- We say as false, for the king loved tance to the sacred office, and pres his crown too well, and the pope ferment in it, could only be through had formally resigned that very right him; that priests were called gods to the emperor Henry V. who in the scriptures, and it was mon- exasperated at his tyranny, had strous that a man should pretend to seized his person. To render the create his God.
agreement more valid, the emperor The king, a prudent man, hoped and Pascal had communicated togestill to gain by delay what he feared ther on the same hoste; but the to attempt by force: he accordingly latter had no sooner regained his sent three bishops to Rome, and An- liberty, than he revoked all he had
and acted as sovereignly. had the temerity to send two mesa sengers. The pope returned replies such resolution and prudence, found both to the prelate and the sove it to each others interest to termireign of the most decided kind. nate their differences by severally Henry evaded their force, by sup- acceding a little, the pope was pressing the letter addressed to bim, therefore to grant the investiture,* and inducing the three bishops to and the king to receive the homage. declare on their episcopal faith, that About A. D. 1107, the persevering the pontiff had privately assured clergy held a sýnod at Westminster, them of his favourable designs to and succeeded in extending their the king, although he refrained from influence. The celibacy of the formally resigning his prerogative. priests, and the prohibition of loug In vain did Anselm's messengers hair were confirmed; and Jaymen testify against this representation, were forbidden to marry within the for their report was not calculated of equal worth with that of three bishops. The high spirited Anselm
Bishops were elected by the chapresented this stratagem, by refusing office, they received a ring and
ter, but before they entered upon the any intercourse with the perjured from the king,
did homage as subdispleasure, that they were obliged jects, which ceremony was before exto resign their mitres. Affairs be plained. While the king could refuse to coming increasingly serious, the of- give the former and receive the lattet, fending prelate repeated the precau- heretained the power of filling the steai
seventh degree of affinity, and thus Cardinal de Crema afforded him, dispensations and divorces being whose immorality was detected at multiplied, the revenues of the pon- a time when he publicly forbade the tiff were basely angmented, for the marriage of the clergy, and which art of writing being far from com- occasioned the breaking np of a mon, registers were very indifferent- synod that was met for the extenly kept, and it was not always easy sion of their privileges, the pope to ascertain that which this law conferred that dignity on the archrequired.
bishop of Canterbury, renewing the Though the influence of the holy commission from time to time, not see was evidently increasing, yet it forgetting to publish, that the prialways depended, in some degree, mate derived his authority from on the disposition and character of Rome, nor could Henry escape the the reigning prince; and had not force of such ingenuity. the circumstances of Henry obliged Such is the picture of human nahim to be very obsequious to the ture under such circumstances, left clergy, it is probable they would to the operations of its own pashave made less progress in their en- sions, and led captive by the devil croachments during his reign; but at his will. We thank thee, O thou such was the craft of Rome, that it great Disposer of events, that we took care to seem to exercise its were not among the blindest devoassumed prerogative in the midst of tees of such an age, but that we are the most determined opposition : permitted to live in this period of thus, when Henry, who greatly dis- light and liberty. Vouchsafe to us approved the mission of a legate the influences of thy Holy Spirit, that into his dominions, seized the op- we may be found among those, portunity of regaining somewhat of who, through the merits of Jesus the liberty of the English church, Christ, enjoy its greatest privileges. by ridding himself of such a visitor,
H. S. Ą. which the licentious conduct of the
her excellencies were consecrated to God. On a profession of her
faith she was baptized, and joined Miss SARAH MARY HARVEY was the Baptist church at Eythorne ; the third daughter of Mr. Thomas but soon afterwards was attacked Harvey, of Woodnesborough Par-by a severe lingering affliction, sonage, near Sandwich, Kent, a which so much reduced her strength, deacon of the Baptist church at that she was laid aside from all acEythorne, of which church the de- tive usefulness; her disorder baffled ceased was a member. She was the skill of several physicians, was born December 21, 1789, received a protracted to a period of more than moderately good education, was eight years, and from which she amiable and engaging in her man- never recovered. During this long ners, strictly moral in her conduct, season of debility and suffering, she regularly attended the means of happily experienced divine consolagrace, and always had a pious ex- tion and support, and remarkably ample in her parents and family: exemplified the power and influence but, alas ! her heart was unrenewed. of divine grace in her continued paw It pleased the Lord to call her by tience and holy resignation ; never his grace in early life, and then all uttering a murmuring sentence, but
often expressing acquiescence in the ' in the fountain opened for sin and will of her heavenly Father. A let- uncleanness. Many times I was ter which she wrote to her pastor very much persecuted, because I during her illness, and from which could not do as those around me the following extracts are made, did. I never could pray while the will best describe the state of her young ladies were in the room with mind on a review of her conversion, ine, they would laugh at me, and profession, experience, and feelings call me a Methodist; yet I could under her long continued weakness not live without prayer. I was and pain. In this letter she says, obliged to take the opportunity in.
“ When I come to take a re- secret, and pour forth my soul in trospective view of my past life, prayer to the Lord, while they were well may I say " preserved in Christ employed in their amusements. But Jesus and called. I trust the Lord') alas! this frame of mind did not began to bless me in very early life. continue long: for what with my, At not more than nine years of age own corruptions, and the prevalence I had many cutting convictions on of Satan's temptations, my heart account of sin ; and, likewise, many began to grow cold, and prayer besevere temptations. About that came a task instead of a privilege; time I read Janeway's Token for and I shunned the friends I loved, Children, and in secret did weep because they should not speak to bitterly before the Lord, entreating me. Thus i went on till I
was that he would forgive my sin, that I quite cold to my own best interest, might die happily like those good Galio like, caring for none of these children. My temptations were things; yet I could not give over very severe; Satan and my own praying, though it was attended in wicked heart told me, it was too a lifeless unprofitable manner. This soon for me to think about religion. state of mind continued till the year My impressions in some measure 1808, when the Lord was pleased, wore off, till the year 1800, when at I trust, to work effectually on my Eythorne school the Lord was poor rebellious heart. It is a great pleased, in his infinite goodness, to mercy I was not cut down as a send a second admonition to me. cumberer of the ground. The' One Lord's-day afternoon, when the blessed Lord manifested infinite members of the Baptist church at love in bringing me out of that horEythorne were about to partake of rible pit, and directing me to the Lord the ordinance of the Lord's-supper, Jesus Christ. I may well exclaim, I saw my sister Mary and brother Thomas uniting in that inestimable Why was I made to hear his voice,
And enter while there's room?' &c. privilege;
; my heart sunk within me, and I burst into a flood of tears, and “ One morning, I well rememthought, What, if I should be shut ber, when at the throne of grace, out of heaven! My heart was so my heart was so overwhelmed full of grief that when my dear sister with a sense of my own unworthiMary wished to know the cause of ness, and manifold transgressions, my excessive weeping, I could only that I could scarcely lift my eyes to say, I want to go to heaven. She heaven, when rising almost in deswept also, and pointed out to me pair, the Lord was pleased, in his inthe
way of salvation, I went weep- finite goodness, to bring to my mind ing to school, for such was the per- Matt. v. 12, Rejoice, and be exturbation of my mind that I could ceeding glad: for great is your renot refrain. My governess thought ward in heaven. This made my it was at my leaving my parents, heart glow with love to the Saviour; which had previously been the I thought I could do or suffer any cause; but my concern at that time thing for him, and the enjoyment of was of a very different kind: my more of his love shed abroad in my soul was overwhelmed under a sense heart. At this time I considered it of my manifold transgressions. I my duty to declare what the Lord was then indeed thirsting for the had done for my soul, and to make pardon of my sins, and to be washed a public profession of his name.