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worthy of notice is shown by the experiments of correspond to the description given by Adanson Cloez This chemist obtained from the seeds of and others to that of Guibourt (confer. GuiAleurites cordata, by means of carbon bisulphide, bourt, vol. iii., p. 644). The shell is hard, 41 per cent of a fixed oil, forming a solid crystalline woody and light, clothed with a dull green, felt-liké mass below 32° C. When on the contrary the seeds down, composed of simple hairs; it is made up of Fere treated with ether an oil was obtained that did regularly arranged wood cells, intersected here and not solidify even at - 18° C. But what is most sur- there by vascular bundles. The fruit is full of a subprising is that when prepared either by pressure or acid pulp, which is divided by fibrous bands into a by one of the solvents mentioned, and heated in the number of compartments. The pulp

es up into air to 200°C., it changes suddenly into a solid trans- a starch-like powder, which adheres together in parent jelly, which is no longer soluble in ether or polyhedral masses, a seed forming the centre of carbon bisulphide.* This change takes place also each. The seeds are enclosed in a horny shell, with after a few days, when excluded from the air, under a rusty red rough exterior; they are kidney shaped, the influence of light alone. The oil dries more and half an inch in length. The structure of the rapidly than linseed oil. The principal acid in its bark is very confused : it consists of a mixture of was obtained in crystals that melted at 44°, but very pitted and wood cells, without any regular arrangerapidly resinified, and therefore did not consist of ment; the epidermis is scabrous, and appears to conlinoleic acid.

sist of the desquamating cells of the bark. When In many respects this Chinese wood oil recalls the fresh the bark is about five-eighths of an inch in singular -axin" or age” of Mexico, examined by thickness; a section shows a mottled vellowish Hoppe-Seyler, in 1860. The Nin fat of Yucatan, green and reddish brown surface; internally it is deseribed by Dondé, I might also be mentioned intimately united with the woody fibre of the here. All these oils appear to correspond in yield-trunk; it does not taste bitter, but is said by ing a peculiar body, which Mulder described as Duchassaing to be a useful substitute for cinchona. linoxyn.

The pulp is very mucilaginous, and has a pleasant

cool subacid taste, which it retains when dry. It NOTES ON INDIAN DRUGS. may probably be a useful demulcent acid refrige

rant. No part of the tree appears to be used BY W. DYMOCK.

medicinally in Bombay. The fruit makes floats for (Continued from Vol. VI., page 1003.)

fishing nets and bottles for holding water. EMBELIA RIBES.—Local name, WAIWARUNG, Common in the neighbourhood of Bombay, has a nearly SALMALIA MALABAKICA.—Local name, SACR. globular red fruit, rather smaller than a peppercorn, The astringent exudation Muchurrus, or Supari che which grows in large bunches. The drug has the phool

. A red fungụs like mass, changing to a dark five partite calyx and stalk often attached; the outer mahogany colour when old; it is brittle and flaky. shell is striated from the base to the apex, where The larger tears are hollow in the centre, and the there is a small beak; its colour is reddish brown, cavity is of a cinnamon colour, and has a cellular marked with dark spots. Inside the outer shell is appearance. Muchurrus is not a simple juice but the the seed, enveloped in a delicate membrane, on re-product of a diseased action, being a proliferation of moving which a cup-like hollow is seen opposite the the cells of the suberous tissue of the bark. Upon insertion of the stalk. The seed is horny, of a red- making a section of the diseased part a number of dish colour, and its external surface appears to be small cavities are seen which contain a semitranscovered with spots of white mildew; this appearance, parent jelly-like substance, consisting of oblong however, with the aid of a lens, is seen to be due to cells with botryoidal nuclei. At the margin of the a delicate crystalline efflorescence. If kept for any cavity the columns of healthy cells are seen breaking time the outer shell of the fruit becomes nearly up and the cells separating to join the jelly-like black, hence the statements that two kinds are met mass; this gradually increases in size, and finds its with in the shops. From the rapidity with which way to the surface to be extruded as muchurrus. this change takes place I should suppose the quality Upon its first appearance it is of an opaque yellowish of the drug to be not affected by it. Waiwarung is white colour, firm externally, but semi-fluid inheld in high repute as an anthelmintic among the ternally, and there is no central cavity, The dry country people, especially in cases of tape-worm, a exudation when soaked in water swells up and disorder not uncommon among the native Christians communicates a red colour and slight astringency to of the western coast. The dose is a teaspoonful of it; a section can then be made to show its cellular the powder twice a day for a child, and a dessert structure. I have not been able to satisfy myself spoonful for an adult; it is not purgative; the taste as to the cause of the disease in the bark which is rather pleasant, slightly astringent, and not un produces this substance, but traces of insects are like that of tea leaves. The worm is expelled dead. always to be seen at the site of exudation. Incisions A purgative should be given to prepare the patient in the healthy bark yield nothing. Muchurrus has for the drag.

a purely astringent taste like tannin, for which it

probably is an efficient substitute. I have only met ADANBOXIA DIGITATA.-Local name, GOWIK CHENTZ, with one kind in the market.

or CHUREE CHENTZ. This remarkable tree is not uncommon upon

ODINA WODIER.–Local name, SHIMPTEE, or Mooi. this part of the western coast. The fruit varies The gum, Shimptee, or Mooi cha goud. This gum much, both in shape and size ; some specimens is partly in tears of a yellowish tinge, and partly

in colourless angular fragments, which are full of Comptes Rendus, Sept. 1875, p. 469, and 1876, p. 101. + Gmelin, vol vii., p. 1471.

fissures like gum arabic; it has a disagreeable taste, I Pharm. Journ. [3), iv., 836.

and is not astringent; about one half of it is como

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pletely soluble in water, the remaining portion obtuse and finely dentate. It has axillary multipartite forms a slimy mucilage, but is not gelatinous. The peduncles ; calyx tetrasepalous ; the corolla with four soluble portion, which is feebly acid, is precipitated petals in the form of a crown ; stile none ; stigma 4-fid; by alcohol, and in a less degree by oxalate of am

fruit a 4-seeded berry. The plant grows very abun. monium-not at all by perchloride of iron or borax. dantly in Paraguay, North Corrientes, Chaco, and South Odina gum is mentioned in the Pharmacopaia of Brazil, where it forms woods called “yerbales." India, But is probably of no medicinal value; it Paraguay in the following way :-The entire trees are cut

According to Dr. Mantegazza, maté is prepared in might be of use in calico printing.

down, and the small branches and shoots are taken with

the leaves and placed in the tatacúa, a plot of earth about ZANTHOXYLON Sp. ?

six feet square surrounded by a fire, where the plant underThe bark, Tejbul. A soft, light, reddish bark goes its first roasting. From thence it is taken to the about five-eighths of an inch thick, in pieces about barbacúa, which is a grating supported by a strong arch, as large as the palm of the hand, trimmed, the epi- underneath which burns a large fire ; here it is submitted dermis being removed and the inner surface scraped; to a particular torrefaction, determined by experience, sometimes it is deeply fissured. The structure is like which develops the aromatic principle. Then it is rethat of cork, only much coarser, which gives it a

duced to a coarse powder in mortars formed of pits dug glistening appearance. The cells are about six times in the earth and well rammed. It is next put into fresh the size of cork cells. This bark is slightly aromatic, The packages (tercois) thus obtained, which weigh 90 to

bullock skins, well pressed and placed in the sun to dry. and is in repute as a stimulant.

100 kilograms, are very compact; and have an average Bombay, May 29, 1876.

value in commerce of one to two dollars the•kilo, accord. (To be continued.)

ing to quality, those of Paraguay and Missiones being the better, or least hurtful, those of Oran and Paranaguá

being much more prejudicial to health. ERGOTINE.

Of all the analyses of mate that have appeared in books, The researches of Professor Salkowski and other Dr. Bialet considers not one, up to the present time, German chemists on the active principle in the prepa- deserves much credit. Senor Arata, however, who has ration of ergotine were recently referred to. Professor devoted much time and skill to the subject has placed Buchheim now writes to the Klinische Wochenschrift the following data at his service :confessing that he also has not succeeded in isolating com. Maté contains in 100 parts : pletely that principle, though he worked on it for several

Organic combustible substances 91.685 months ; and he states his reasons why he thinks that

Ash. such isolation might be impossible, and that for practical

8:315 medical purposes the infusion of ergot, or the freshly

The ash contains-prepared extract, will alone remain available. The organi. Calcium Oxide

12:344 zation of the ergot fungus seems to him so low that its Magnesium Oxide

11.395 mycelium cannot build up organic matter, so as to constitute

Sodium Oxide

7.281 an alkaloid or glucoside substance from water, carbonic Potassium Oxide

2:984 acid and ammonia, but feeds, so to speak, more directly on Manganese Oxide

2.500 the vegetable materialof the mother plant. He believes that Ferric Oxide

3-410 less elementary compouds are taken up by it from the rye Sulphuric Acid

0.926 grain, and thinks the gluten the most likely material Hydrochloric Acid

0.716 from which to form the gelatine-like substance which he Phosphoric Acid.

5.540 isolated partly from ergotine. On this modified albu

Carbonic Acid

8.150 minous constituent of the rye, at a certain stage of its Sand, Silica, Carbon, and Loes 44.754 metamorphosis, he infers, depends the peculiar action of the

It will be understood that the enormous relative fresh infusion or extract. Any further complex chemical processes and reactions for the isolation of the active sub. quantities of sand found in the analysis is a result of

the mode of preparation, in excavations made in the stance must necessarily have changed it so much in its

soil. natural course of decomposition that it has lost its efficacy,

The plant containsin the same manner, for instance, as the decomposing albuminous substances of putrid blood lose their poisonous

Principles soluble in Ether


Alcohol. effects when decomposition has reached to a certain

8.432 Water

26.208 point.

Water Acidulated The freshly prepared ergotine seems therefore to give alone a guarantoo of success. For subcutaneous application

with Hydrochloric Acid

7.260 it ought to be carefully neutralized by carbonate of soda,

In Solution of Caustic Soda

16.880 as it contains much acid, especially lactic acid, as Buchheim



Water found, besides quantities of leucine.

9.000 Sand


100.000 Some interesting paragraphs respecting this substance are quoted in the Rerista Farmacéutica, the organ of the Argentine Pharmaceutical Society, from an unpublished

Among the soluble principles is an average of 1.300 of work by Dr. Binlet, entitled 'Compendio de Anatomia, variable in different plants analysed; the Paraguay and

caffeine. The quantity, however, was found to be very Fiscologia

é Higiene humana. Of these the following is Missiones plants contained the most and the Paranaguá an abstract:The Matéor Paraguay Tea tree (Ilex mate paraguayensis), careful

search for caffeic acid and the caffeates that some

and Argentine the least. Senor Arata has made a is a small tree belonging to the family of the Celastrineæ, * which reaches at the most a height of seven metres ; say they have found in maté, but hitherto always with ordinarily it does not exceed four or five. Its trunk is negative results ; the same remark applies to the examabout twenty centimetres in circumference, and is covered, ination for a volatile acid. by a whitish bark. The leaves are oblong, cuneiform, and requires a special method for its estimation ; the

The tannin of maté is peculiar; it does not tan hides, * Not to the Ilicieæ, as stated by some authors, average amount obtained by the ordinary method is not

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more than 12 per cent. ; but the whole quantity present The plants, after being collected, were most thoroughly anounts to about 16 per cent.

freed from all animal life, mud, and foreign organic and Maté contains also a large quantity of a peculiar fatty inorganic substances, and dried in an airy place (granary) matter, not entirely saponifiable by potash, besides pectic on grain-sifters of split tubing. In cleansing the plants, matters.

innumerable water and swamp-animals were found, among Comparing mate with the other caffeic substances it which I will mention the following ; Large numbers of ranks between coffee and tea for the proportion of caffeine four species of fresh-water Polyps (Hydra), chiefly II. it contains, and has the largest proportion of mineral rulyaris and II. fusca, H. grisea and 11. riridis being less

abundant. Also an innumerable quantity of water-snails The action of maté, like that of all other caffeic sub- (Limophila), often replaced by several species of Limnaa, stances, is upon the nervous system ; but though it con such as L. vulyaris, palustris, ovata, stagnalis, peregra, tains a large quantity of caffeine it does not exalt the truncatula, auricularia, and numbers of Planorbis (Ger. peripheric nerves like tea, nor the cerebric like coffee ; " Tellerschnecken"); e. g., P. hispidis, vortex, spirorbis, but rather contributes in a high degree to the indolence marginatus, charteus, leucostoma, contortus, complanatus, and drowsiness of the ordinary drinkers of maté, whose and nitidus. mental faculties become at length disarranged and im Among the most prominent insects present, both in the poverished to a lamentable degree. It accelerates the larva and perfect state, were the large water beetlecardiac contractions, producing many more affections of Dytiscus latissimus; also, Gyrinus natutor, Nepa cinerea, the heart than tea or coffee. Upon the digestive organs and Motonecta glauca ; two specimens of Nepa and Noto it acts variously ; no other beverage disturbs them so necta making themselves felt by their penetrating stings. much, though there are persons who can tolerate its use. The larvæ of the Sialidie were rarely to be found ; those It accelerates the peristaltic movements

and produces an of the Ephemerinæ more frequently. irritation of the organs generally. These effects are When we consider that the above named animals were produced in whatever way the maté may be taken, but present, not singly but in masses, and some of them in the most injurious effects are produced upon the mucous different varieties, we can get an idea of the population of membrane when the maté is taken hot and is sucked these water plants, and understand why the water-fowl through a “bombilla," as it then passes into the stomach are so fond of them. uncooled by previous contact with the mouth.

I will only add that, to cleanse a quantity of C. When the use of maté is prolonged it becomes an glomerata, which only weighed 15ğ pounds, I was obliged to imperious necessity, such a gloominess following absten- work five days, with but slight intermission, and my hands tion from it, that habitual drinkers would rather go were covered with blisters, and remained swollen for a withoat food than without maté. The moderate use of two fortnight, from the attacks of the inhabitants. or three doses a day during the summer heats or great In spite of all my pains, the tiny skeletons of Limncea fatigue is convenient, but it should be taken from a cup and Pianorbis, which before had been invisible, could be It kids to the disadvantage of the “bonubilla" that by discerned in the ashes. indiscriminate use of the same bombilla by different per In a botanical point of view, I will briefly remark that sons it may become the vehicle of contagion for the Cladophora glomerata was called in the older classifications most repulsive complaints.

of the fresh-water Algæ Conferva glomerati, L., also Chautrausia glomerata, Dec. In the newer classifica

tions, “ Conferva” (English), “ Crow Silk”-French, “ la A HITHERTO NEGLECTED SOURCE OF IODINE. conferve") forms a species of the family of the Confervaceæ.

IODINE AND BROMINE IN FRESH-WATER It consists of long, fine, dark-green threads, and, with its

kindred, assists in the formation of peat. The green Br H. ZENGER, OF MUNICH.

colour is due to chlorophyll, which is contained in the

cells. As early as 1862, Mr. Pettert examined the ashes of Cladophora glonerata for iodine, and on heating in a

Examination of Cladophora glomerata. closed tube the palladic iodide, which he had obtained by To determine the amount of water contained in it precipitating the solution of the ashes of the plant with 2000* of the air-dried plants were heated in an air-bath palladious nitrate, he detected the violet vapour of the at 110° C., and lost thereby 8.950 per cent. For analy. liberated iodine. Although only a very small quantity of sis, and for the various iodine and bromine reactions, the plant could be obtained, from a reservoir in the garden | 100'0 of the plant were carefully reduced to ashes in a of Professor Dr. G. C. Wittstein, he was, nevertheless, porcelain dish, over a charcoal fire, with frequent stirring quite able to complete a qualitative analysis of the ashes with an iron spatula. This required considerable time, and to prove the presence of iodine.

owing to the large amount of lime that was present. My own efforts were chiefly directed, first, towards the These 100.0 gave 52.850 ash ; i.e., over half the weight quantitative determination of the bromine, whose presence, of the dried plants. 2:0 of these ashes were treated with though not yet detected in fresh-water plants, was sus distilled water for an half an hour in a porcelain dish, at pected by me as a companion of the iodine ; secondly, to ordinary temperature, filtered; the residue washed, and try some methods of precipitation for the iodine other dried in an air-bath at 110° C., and weighed ; the weight than the palla lium solution ; and thirdly, to examine being 1.899. The loss in weight is the amount of soluble various fresh-water plants, not yet investigated, and to salts found in the ashes :obtain the iodine and bromine from them in a pure state,

2.003 even if in very small quantities.

1.899 The extensive peat-bogs, as well as the canals for irrigation and drainage of the estate“ Zengermoos,” placed

0.101—or in 100 parts =5.050. me in a position to collect great quantities of fresh-water plants with which to begin my investigations.

The further investigations were conducted exactly in As in the quantitative analysis of Mr. Jesslert to accordance with the directions of the approved method which I shall hereafter all attention, I had a sure basis of Dr. G. C. Wittstein, for the analysis of the ashes of for my operations, an my work with Cladophora plants or of organic substances in general, and gave the

following result, calculated for 100 parts. I place the

analysis of Jessler alongside of my own for the purpose of * Translated n the American Chemist.

comparison :Vierteljahressclarift für pract. Pharm. von Wittstein, si, 545,

* Ill these weights are expressed in grainmes and fractions Vierteljahrerschrift für pract. Pharm., xii, 279, 1863. of the same.



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Jessler. litre, caused immediately a large precipitate. ThirtyPotash


0.256 two drops from the pipette used made 1 c. c., therefore Soda 3.837 4.028

0.01 Lime

48.937 43.655 each drop contained =0.0002 iodine, which reckoned Magnesia.


32 Alumina


3 Ferric Oxide


0:388 for 200 c. c. = Mangano-manganic Oxide

iodine, which were detected by

2,000,000 0:342 Chlorine.


0.770 this reagent. Therefore, for a complete precipitation of Iodine.


iodine from its soluble salts, we do not need either Bromine.


palladium or thallium The palladious oxide test is less Carbonic Acid

31.450 25.229 delicate than with cuprous chloride. Sulphuric Acid.

2-555 10.832 A very dilute solution of potassium iodide was still Silicic Acid .

5.555 7.822 further diluted with water, and poured into two glasses, Phosphoric Acid

7.711 3:054 side by side. To one of them was added cuprous chloSodium

0:50+ ride which had been clarified by ammonic chloride ; to

the other palladium solution. After some time the

100.00 99.124 former showed a milky cloudiness, but the palladium The 0.504 sodium was combined, according to Jessler, i solution none at all. These are the facts presented by with 0.770 chlorine to form 1.274 NaCl. Iodine having Mohr. I might with certainty consider that Mohr had already been discovered, I began my investigation with not regarded the difficult solubility of cuprous chloride the qualitative determination of bromine, whose presence I per se in water, and that owing to a too small addition suspected along with the chlorine and iodine. For this of NH,Cl the Cu,Cl, came down and caused the cloudipurpose I chose the following way, which is, without ness which he concluded was cuprous iodide. doubt, the easiest : 10:0 ash were treated with cold water Let us consider these points more closely. The basis and filtered. As the filtrate gave a very slight alkaline and starting point of Mohr's method of proceeding is, reaction, in order to avoid the escape of iodine and bro. strictly speaking, identical with that by means of cuprous mine, I added a little sodic carbonate and concentrated oxide ; for in both cases we have to do with the lower the solution. In this way most of the salts separated out state of oxidation of the copper, whether suboxide or in crystals and could be removed by filtration, excepting subchloride is immaterial, as the secondary reactions the salts of the alkalies. The filtrate was then saturated taking place at the same time are only important so far with hydrochloric acid and chlorine water added, where as they may act to dissolve or decompose the Cu I, after upon the iodine present was set free; though, neverthe- it is formed. That this is really the case, my own obserless, converted into iodic acid by the excess of chlorine. vations have shown. The resulting salts of the ferrousAt the same time the bromine was liberated, and on oxide dissolve the cuprous iodine in no small quantity, a being caught by agitation with chloroform showed not fact which Dr. Fleischer* has also noticed. The latter only its characteristic colour, but also its reaction with proposes stannous chloride as a reducing agent. The organic substances, imparting an intense orange-yellow precipitation, he says, is complete and the stannous colour to starcb. The presence of bromine was thus clearly chloride does not act in the least on the cuprous iodide to proved. Before I speak of my method of determining dissolve it. Both facts I have found to be entirely the bromine quantitatively, or of my method of separating true. the chloride, iodide, and bromide of silver, I will mention From all these experiments, it follows, that the preone or two of the means I have used to precipitate the cipitation of iodine as Cu,I2, in the presence of chlorine iodine. The basis of these is the precipitation of the and bromine, could be conducted on a large scale with iodine in a slightly acid solution, in the presence of success, where a comparatively small loss of iodine is of chlorine and bromine, as cuprous iodide. It would, I no great moment, and that this method more than anadmit, be possible to employ this method of precipitation swers the requirements of exactness, which chemical quantitatively by using cupric sulphate alone; the result industry on a large scale demands. But for a quantitaobtained would have to be doubled, however, as only half tive determination of iodine in very dilute solutions, such of the iodine would be precipitated as cuprous iodide, and

as we meet with in the analysis of ashes and many the other half set free. By a simultaneous or previous mineral waters, none of these methods give perfectly addition of some reducing agent, such as SO, or Feso,, satisfactory results, and we are always forced back to the whole of the iodine may be thrown down as CuI, the palladious oxide method. Dr. Mohr declares that The precipitated Cu,1, contains when dried at 40°C., 4 with cuprous chloride a milky cloudiness will occur even per cent. water, and is, therefore, Cu,1,Aq or Cu,0,HI. after the palladium solution shows no more reaction. On this account I dissolved in a porcelain dish,

with the As already remarked, in a very dilute solution I obnecessary amount of water, five parts by weight of cupric tained no precipitate of cuprous iodide, even after long sulphate, and eight parts of ferrous sulphate, and, as a standing, while the addition of palladium solution caused little ferric oxide had been deposited, I added hydrochloric an immediate precipitate, That this precipitate was acid until it disappeared. With this solution the precipi- really palladic iodide was shown by drying and heating it tation of all the iodine was effected exactly as if I had in a tube closed at one end, whereby the violet iodine treated a very dilute solution of potassium iodide with an vapours were distinctly to be seen. Hence: In delicacy equal volume of the above-mentioned solution of cupric none of the hitherto discovered methods of precipitation can and ferrous sulphate. Nevertheless with this reagent, I replace the palladious nitrate. was, in one experiment, unable to obtain a precipitate in In the investigation of other water-plants, in which I a solution from the ash, although through the use of

am at present engaged, I shall have opportunity to note another reagent, I had been convinced that iodine was more exactly the degree of dilution in which the palladium present in minute quantity. I shall return to this fact solution will still show a reaction. again after I have mentioned another method of determin The quantitative determination of the iodine and ing iodine suggested by Dr. F. Mohr.* Dr. Mohr pro- bromine I accomplished in the following way: The difposes the following way : In 200 C. c. of a clear solution ference of the behaviour of the chloride, iodide, and bro. consisting of cuprous chloride, sal ammoniac, and water, mide of silver to different degrees of concentration of the first drop of a potassium iodide solution, which con ammonia, served as a basis for my work. For precipita. tained 1 per cent. iodine (1.308 potassium iodide) to the

* Titrirmethode als selbstständige quan, analyse, $ 33, Mohr, Zeitschrift von Fresenius. X11. Jahrgang, 4 heft. | Kupfer Iodbestimmung, p. 73.

tion, a concentrated solution of argentic nitrate (1:4) in sodic chloride. I have found it in small quantities in was employed. The washed precipitate was treated with the subsoil of the marshes on the coast of the North Sea, 5 per cent. ammonia water; it dissolved the argentic Whether or not the iodine belongs to the nourishing mate. chloride ; on the filter remained the argentic iodide and rials absorbed by the plant, which is probable, it is at any bromide. The argentic chloride was precipitated with rate present, and we will therefore, etc." nitric acid, and the iodide and bromide having been That the manganese was present as manganous oxide washed were treated with strong (15 per cent.) ammonia. in the ashes is proved by the evolution of chlorine on Only the argentic bromide was dissolved, which having treating the ash with hydrochloric acid. been filtered off was likewise re-precipitated by nitric Alumina, almost completely ignor by Liebig, I acid.

found in every analysis of the ash. The same result has In all the operations, such as digesting, precipitating, been very often obtained in Wittstein's laboratory, and filtering, and washing, the light was excluded as much as by scientists such as Sprengel, Boussingault, and others, possible. The endeavour to prepare a little iodine from who have done so much for agriculture. All these have the ashes of C. glomerata did not succeed, owing to the found alumina constantly present and often in comparacircumstance that I employed a too thin and soft glass tively large quantities in the ashes of plants, and hence tube, which melted on being heated, before the palladic we are obliged to set it down among the prominent coniodide contained in it was decomposed. However, I restituents of plants. moved the palladic iodide from the tube and heated it in On account of the great number of fresh-water plants a platinum crucible, whereupon the iodine escaped in a existing everywhere, it is quite possible that the manuthick cloud. In this manner it could not be caught. I facture of ioline from them may grow to be a branch of have therefore commenced work upon a still larger quan chemical industry. I shall direct my attention to the tity of ash to obtain the iodine.

examination for bromine and iodine, of as many land and Palladic iodide certainly requires quite a high tempera- water plants as possible. At present I am engaged upon ture to decompose it into its constituents.

another water plant, Lemna minor. This plant surpasser Mr. Carl Petter remarks that in his experiments the Cladophora glomerata in the large amount of salts soluble loss in weight of C, glomerata dried at 110° C. was 8 per in water it contains. Iodine, in considerable quantity, cent. Mr. Jessler calculated that 181 lb. of the dried and bromine are present. The exact quantitative results algæ gave 0-23431 grm. iodine : i.e., 23.131 grms. per cwt. will be given later. Nevertheless we can already say According to my analysis, the amount of ash in the with certainty that iodine and bromine occur much more plant was 52.850 per cent., and in 1 cwt. of ash there extensively in the vegetable kingdom than has hitherto were 21-50 grms. iodine, and 8.50 grms. bromine. This been supposed. large amount of ash consisted chiefly of lime, and had its origin in the extremely “hard” waters of A METHOD OF ESTIMATING BISMUTH Zengermoos,

VOLUMETRICALLY.+ Without reference to an analysis by Prof. Kaiser, this

BY M. M. PATTINSON MUIR, F.R.S.E., fact would be proved alone by the tufa and the broad belt of that peculiar, white, calcareous earth, known as

Assistant Lecturer on Chemistry, The Owens College, "alm,” which stretches eastward towards Erding. With.

Manchester. out doubt both the tufa and alm owe their origin to the Löwe (J. prakt. Chemie, lxvii., 288 and 463), has de. Isar, which contained the calcic carbonate in solution scribed two salts produced by the action of potassium and deposited it in Erdingermoos. A piece of sound chromate and potassium dichromate respectively upon wood which has lain for a short time in the Golbach, a warm, nearly neutral solutions of bismuth nitrate. To stream which flows around Zengermoos, loses the power the first of these salts he assigns the formula SBi,O3. to float, owing to the impregnation with lime. The bed 2 CrOz, and to the second the formula Bi,Og. 2 CrOg. The of this brook is formed, for the most part, of alm and tufa; same author has described a process for estimating bisfrom this fact comes the large percentage of lime in the muth gravimetrically, based upon the formation of these soil and in the plants, as well as the semi-alpine flora salts (ibid., 46 4). Pearson has described a process for the of the district. The yellow, sweet smelling Primula estimation of bismuth, nearly identical with that of Löwe, curicula, with its flesh-coloured leaves and powdered and in addition a process based upon the same reaction, for stalk, flourishes here, as well as many varieties of Gentian, the volumetric examination of the same metal (Phil. Mag. 9., Gentiana lutea, purpurea, pannonica, acaulis, punctata. (4), xi, 204). In Pearson's volumetric process potassium It is readily to be seen that the lime in Cladophora glo- dichromate solution is run into the solution of bismuth merata existed previously as carbonate from the fact that until the whole of that metal is precipitated, the terminathe plants effervesce strongly with acid, which was long tion of the reaction being determined by noting the point ago noticed.

at which the supernatant liquid acquires a permanent How varying the composition of one and the same yellow tint. plant may be, according to its location, can be seen

The process described by the author of the present from the analysis of Mr. Jesaler and my own. He ob paper depends upon the facts concerning the formation of tained the plants out of pure spring water ; I, out of chromate of bismuth made known by Löwe and referred very hard water. It would be impossible to detect to above. Potassium chromate or potassium dichromate iodine in this water, no matter how concentrated, but solution is run into a nearly neutral solution of bismuth the plants have the property of absorbing the iodine nitrate until the whole of the metal is precipitated in the and bromine, and thus concentrating and storing them up.

form of chromate. The final point of the reaction is deI think that after my experience with Cladophora and termined by bringing a drop of the supernatant yellow other water plants, I am justified in believing that iodine liquid into contact with a drop of the silver nitrate and bromine occur in water plants to an extent as yet solution upon a white slab, when red silver chromate is hardly dreamed of, and that also in land plants these produced. bodies can be recognized with certainty.

On account of the uncertainty which still exists in Karl Sprengel, whose worth has been wrongly under- reference to the exact composition of the chromates of valued, to whom with better right than to Liebig we bismuth, and also on occount of the fact that a slight should ascribe the foundation of the new scientific agri- excess of either of the potassium chromates appears culture (for Liebig only built upon the foundation laid by Sprengel, and more than ignored him whose too great und Cameralisten. 1 Theil, p. 334. Gottingen, bei Vander.

* Karl Sprengel. Chemie, für Landwirthe, Forstmänner modesty and lack of self-conceit-faults no one ever hæck und Ruprecht, 1831. accused Liebig of-were his only mistakes), says : "Very + From a paper read before the Chemical Society (Journ. probably iodine is contained in all earths which are rich | Chem. Soc., April, 1876.)

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