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ing from the combination of various / any consequence observable, if three metallic substances in certain situa- conductors were employed belongtions: thus the flavour of porter was ing to the same class. To ensure declared to be greatly, improved successful experiment, it was needwhen taken from a pewter vessel. ful to make use of two conductors Although pure mercury will long re- of the first or second class, with one tain its splendour, yet its amalgam of the remaining class. Mr. Volta, with any other metal is speedily who entered into the study with tarnished. In the copper sheathing great zeal, found that the slight efof ships, the parts about the iron fects produced by such a combinanails with which it is fastened, and tion might be greatly increased, by the nails themselves, soon become repeating the combination, and, incorroded about the place of contact. deed, that the strength of the effect Zinc immersed in water may be was proportioned to the multiplikept for a long period without oxyda- cation of the arranged conductors.
but a change is soon observa- | These facts established, led to the ble, although it continue in water, if invention of piles and batteries, in it is brought in contact with a piece which the conducting substances of tin. Works of metal, soldered to- are arranged with convenience and gether by means of other metals, elegance. These batteries are despeedily tarnish about the places of nomipated of the first or second orcontact. The Etruscan inscriptions der, according as the combinations, are in good preservation, because of which they consist, are of the first engraven on pure lead ; wbile many or second class. More recently medals of lead less pure, of much troughs have been invented, which more recent date, are corroded. are divided into numerous grooves. These, and many other effects, are
Into each of these grooves are intronow easily accounted for.
duced a plate of copper and one of Considering the electric fluid as zinc, wbich order must be observed in generally diffused through nature, every groove. The trough is filled and galvanism as merely another with water, which forms the conmethod of exciting it, it is not sur-ductor of the second class; and a litprising that the bodies which con- tle acid, salt, or muriate of ammoniac duct it should be numerous. These is added to the water to promote the conductors have been divided into chemical action. A communication two classes. The bodies of the first being then made by the hands, beclass are called dry and perfect con- tween the first and last cell of the ductors, comprehending metallic trough, a shock will be felt, and if substances and charcoal. Those of the hand should have been lately the second class, denominated im scratched or wounded, the sensaperfect conductors, include water, tion, at such part, will be painful. acids, and all substances which con- The shock, however, is far less vio, tain those fluids; and among them- lent than that received from a Leyselves, the substances of the second den phial, charged by the electrical class differ much more in conduct apparatus; for although the latter ing power than those of the first contains but a small quantity of class.
the electric fluid, yet it is so much In the application of various bo- condensed, that in passing to an dies in the investigations of this equilibrium, its action is powerful, science, it was soon found that order often forcing its way through an and system were observable, and inch of air: in the former case, a fresh indications were afforded of great quantity of the faid is excited, the infinite wisdom, power, and good but it is in so rare a state, that it ness of the great Creator, in kindly cannot force its passage through the controlling the influence of this air, and the conductors must be powerful and widely-diffused fluid, brought into actual contact, or not by the nice arrangements necessary more than the fortieth part of an to its operation. Thus two con- inch apart, to produce the desired ductors were found to produce no effect. The electric fluid from a sensible effect, and seldom was powerful apparatus, that is, where
several troughs are connected with he estimate that reason which, aleach other, will inflame gunpowder, though when rightly employed, it is ether, spirits of wine, cotton, phos- so ennobling, has too frequently been phorus, and similar substances. It | the slave of the grossest superstition will also redden, fuse, and consume and the most wanton infidelity. slender metallic wires, tinfoil, gold, Let the youth ever hear in mind, silver, and copper leaves. It, more that he never manifests more ignoover, may be made to decompose rance than when he boasts of wiswater, where ordinary electricity has dom ; and that he is never in a failed. Indeed electrical and galva- more dangerous state, than when nic experiments are countless, and pride gains the ascendency in his afford exhaustless sources of enter- mind. tainment;--entertainment, at once
N. N. innocent, rational, and improving, which may be practised amid all the delights of home, and all the endearments of the social circle. It is, RIVER NIGER. however, not merely amusing, it is already employed medically with some success, and it is highly pro
MANY of our young readers must bable, that it may yet please the Al have heard of the endeavours which mighty to reward future inquirers, have been made to explore the course by the discovery of its greater and termination of this African
river. We have collected, for their This excitation of the electric information, the following particu fluid readily accounts for that ani
lars: mal electricity long noticed in the
Peter Heylin, who lived about torpedo, the gymnastus electricus, 160 years ago, says, that the Niger &c. These animals are provided
has its rise from a great lake, with an electric organ, consisting of within two degrees of the equinoclaminæ, or pellicles, arranged in co- tial, whence, running northwards lumns, and separated from each for a time, he hideth himself ander other by moisture; and, therefore, ground, for the space of 60 miles coinciding with the galvanic bat- together: when, rising up again, tery. A person applying one hand and making a great lake, called the to the upper and the other to the lake of Borneo, he bendeth his under surface of these fishes will re
course directly westward ; and tak ceive a shock. When small fish are ing in many less channels, he tearput into the water, wherein the gym- eth the earth into many islauds, and nastús is kept, they are generally at last falleth into the sea,” (meanstunned, and often killed by the ing the Atlantic Ocean.)- Brookes's shock, and afterwards devoured by Gazetteer, 10th edit. 1797, says, that this peculiar eel.
“ Its rise and termination are unThe recent discovery of this species known; but its course is from e. to of electrical excitation is another
w. running s, of the empire of Cashproof of the ignorance of man, even na, toward Tombuctoo, on the
s. of concerning those objects of nature which country it is supposed to be with which he is perpetually sur- lost in the sands."* rounded, and should teach him ha- pædia Britannica, 3d edit, says, that mility in those loftier investigations
after having run from e. to w to which his attention is occasion during a prodigious long course, it ally directed. What lively grati- turns at last short to the south, at a tude should fill his mind, that, in league and a half distance from the the important concerns of eternity, western ocean, into which it opens God has pitied his ignorance, and sent him a revelation of his will, ac- As the Niger is now found to -run companied by the promised aid of from w. to E. these places, where it is an unerring teacher, to all that ear-supposed to fall into the ground and nestly desire and sincerely seek his to be lost, are probably the place of its influcnce; and bow cautiously should origin.
its way in lat. 15° 55' N."'* But it who composed the interior part of appears, from later researches, that his map of Africa in 1749, derived this river runs from w, to E.
almost all his positions from Edrisi, the opinion of the celebrated Mungo who wrote in the twelfth century. Park, that, after passing in this di- South of Barbary is the desert of rection the city of Tombuctoo,t it Zaara, reaching from Nubia to the turns to the s. (perhaps 500 miles E. Atlantic Ocean. It is upwards of of Tombuctoo,) crosses the line, and 600 miles in breadth, and 2500 in runsinto the Atlantic Ocean, in about length. South of this desert are 6 degrees s. lat. by the name of the Bornou, Cashna, and Nigritia, Congo, or Zaire," I which is a mag- through the last of which the Niger nificent river, several miles broad, is now supposed to run 1700 miles, aboye 50 fathoms deep, and running (the greater part of which course is six miles an hour.
from w. to E. and the remainder An expedition lately sailed a con- from n. to s.) and after that 700 siderable way up this river, in order miles through Guinea, and 400 miles to ascertain the fact; but the diffi- more between the kingdoms of Loculties were so great, that the un- ango and Congo, till it reaches the dertaking was relinquished. Ano- Atlantic under the name of the Conther .enterprize is now going for- go, or Zaire. These countries are ward with a view to the accom- inhabited by half-civilized blacks. plishment of the same object. Cap- Many of them are Mahometans; tain Gray, of the Royal African and there are some Roman CathoCorps, when the last intelligence lics; but they are principally Pagans. arrived, had commenced a voyage The whole of Africa was peopled by up the Gambia river, which is about the descendants of Ham, who dis400 miles s. of the Senegal. As soon honoured his parent, and who is, to as a transport which had been dis- this day, dishonoured and disgraced patched to the Cape de Verd islands, in this as well as in every other part should return with horses and mules, of his posterity. Thousands of them he was to begin his journey into the have, however, by the power of sointerior, concerning which but little vereign grace, been made monuis at present known. D'Anville, ments of mercy; and we look for
ward with pleasure and confident * This is an error. What is here said expectation to the time when that of the Niger, is true only of the Senegal, prayer shall be fully answered, which rises about 700 miles E. of the Atlantic Ocean, near the place where “ Let the Indian, let the NEGRO, the Niger is now supposed to rise.
Let the rude barbarian see, + The latitude of Tombuctoo is about That divine and glorious conquest, 15 degrees n. It is about 1300 miles Once obtain'd on Calvary ; from the Atlantic.
Let the gospel Its mouth is about 2000 miles from Loud resound from pole to pole," the country of the Hottentots.
JAMES STEVENS. dark part of the earth, which was
filled from day to day with the
workers of iniquity. Here James James Stevens was born at Ship- spent the first twenty years of his ham, in the County of Somerset, wretched existence; and being haMarch 29, 1795. His father and bituated to swearing, drinking, and mother kept a public inn in this idleness ; he scarcely ever attended
at any place of divine worship; and could not stay away. Many of the such were his habits, that he knew discourses which he heard at Rowbut little difference between the brough were greatly blessed to his holy sabbath and other days. His soul; one from Rev. v. 9, 10, and father died while he was young, and another from Isaiah xl. 9, led him his mother was left with four chil- to such a discovery of the love of dren. James went on in a course of God to poor sinners, that the docsin, until, by being out in the night, trine of free and full redemption by and lying on the damp gro), a the blood of the cross engaged his disease was brought on which gra- attention, won his affection,' and dually destroyed his poor body: me- greatly endeared the Saviour to him. dical assistance was sought, but to After obtaining such a discovery of no purpose. The disease, which was the free and unmerited love of Jesus the king's evil, could not be check- Christ, in shedding his precious ed in its progress. The mind of this blood for the chief of sinners, he poor young slave to sin and Satan wished always to feel his heart warm began to be uneasy, as he reflected with love to his precious Redeemer, upon death and eternity. Whither and his soul alive both in private and to go for peace he knew not; to the public worship. But he often lathrone of grace he was an utter mented his coldness and deadness in stranger; the way of salvation by the service of God, and was someJesus Christ he had never seriously times much afraid that he was thought of; he was an alien from not the subject of a real work of God, and a stranger to the common- grace. “ I often wonder,” said he, wealth of Israel. But God, who is “ whether any one ever felt so cold rich in mercy, inclined a neighbour and dark as I sometimes do in
to invite James to go with him to an prayer.” Being asked if he had al· adjacent village, to hear the Baptist ways been distressed because he
minister of Wedmore, who had for could not love the Saviour more, some time preached there once a and feel his soul alive in divine worweek. At first he objected, saying, ship? he replied, No, I did not that if it was not for the thing he think either about Jesus Christ or wore round his head, to conceal the my soul; but I have so many wanwound, he would. His friend, how- dering thoughts in prayer, and so ever, persuaded him to go. The first many unholy thoughts, that I fear I time James attended was on Janu- do not hate sin as I should.” Being ary 2, 1816: the text was from Josh. asked again, whether he took any xxiv. 15. The sermon made a strong delight in those wandering and sinimpression on his mind, and from ful thoughts? he replied, “ No, I that time he began to attend with hate them, and want to get rid of seriousness to the state of his soul. them, but cannot." These exercises He scarcely ever after, until his con- of mind kept him humble, and finement, lost an opportunity of preserved him from thosc exalting hearing Mr. Chandler, when he views of himself, by which many are preached' at Rowbrough; though he vainly puffed up. said, that when he entered the In his confinement, which took place of worship he thought the eyes place November 20, 1816, he found of all the people were upon him. great encouragement to look to, and His charaeter was sometimes SO trust alone in, the blood of Jesus clearly drawn, and his past conduct Christ, for the pardon of all his sins, so much exposed, that he was by reading Mr. Bunyan's “ Grace tempted not to go any more; sup- abounding to the Chief of Sinners;" posing that some one had informed But still his views of the doctrinc the minister who he was, and how of free justification, by the imputed he had lived, and that he had pre- righteousness of Jesus Christ, were pared his sermons on purpose for very imperfect. He thought he him. But the good work was begun, must act better, and must feel himand the incorruptible seed had taken self to be more holy, before he could root in his heart; for when the op- be accepted in the sight of God. portunity to hear returned, James Being informed that, as a guilty,
polluted, and unworthy sinner, he MRS. SARAH FYSON, must rely on the blood and rightepusness of Jesus Christ alone, for the pardon of all his sins, he was enabled Fyson was baptized, and received
In the year 1797, Mrs. Sarak from that time to depend more stead into the church of Christ at Great fastly on the work of Christ for ac
Gransdon, in Huntingdonshire, ceptance and eternal life.
where she then resided. Her proBeing visited again, a few days fassion of faith was very affecting after, by the same friend, who asked him on what his hope of salvation this she fell into a state of declen
ana vitisfactory. Some years after was founded ? he replied, “ I have sion, from which she was delivered nothing to rely upon but the pre- in the beginning of 1815. Whilst cious blood of Jesus Christ.” About she was in this state, her horror of this time he enjoyed a pleasing degree of that peace which accompa- ber deliverance from it, she expe
mind was inexpressible; but after nies true faith in a precious Re- rienced very great consolation. Her deemer. He was enabled to anticipate the period of nature's dissolu- bappiņess appeared in her countetion with sweet serenity of mind, and ceeded by peace and tranquillity;
nance. Her former misery was sucto rejoice in hope of being for ever by a firm and persevering determiwith the Lord. But this blessed nation to be fully and decidedly on state of mind was short. Many car- the side of God and religion ; and nal persons calling to see him, and in particular on the sabbath-day, he by a cheerful resignation of all her lost that sweet peace by which’his worldly concerns to the divine disimmortal soul had been borne up in took a deliberate farewell of her hus
posal. Previously to her death she the prospect of death, and had to
band, and her ten children. She then lament for many days the polluting nature of carnal conversation. This said, “ The great work will soon be led him to determine, that no such oyer;" and exclaiming, “It is finish
ed !” expired. visitors should again be admitted
Should this short account meet into his room. While he was thus
the any who have declined lamenting the darkness and unhappy state of his mind, it pleased flatter themselves that they shall be
from the ways of God, let them not his gracious Redeemer again to shine upon him with the light of his that their declension is that of apos
restored; but rather let them fear countenance. After the family were retired to rest, he expected he should tasy, from which they shall never
return. Yet let them not despair. have a distressing night, through the Let them seek the Lord while he pain of his body, and the uncomfortableness of his mind. “But such may be found : let them call upon
him while he is near. Let the light, and joy," said he, broke in
wicked, (which term includes back. upon my mind, accompanied with a
sliders who have made a profession delightful view of the glories of hea- of religion, as well as those who ven, that I could say, My Redeemer have not, —-let the wicked forsake is mine, and I am his." On the day of his departure, he his thoughts: and let him return
bis way, and the unrighteous man addressed his mother, his sisters, unto the Lord, and he will have and his brother, in a solemn and affectionate manner, requesting them mercy upon him; and to our God to attend on the preaching of the for, he will abundantly pardon.
Isai. lv. 7. gospel, and in particular at Rowbrough. He then breathed out his soul into the arms of his Redeemer, and departed without a sigh or GEORGE PALMER. groan, July 17, 1817, in the twentythird year of his age. His funeral sermon was preached by Mr. Chand- The influence of evangelical prinler, from Isaiah xii. 5.
ciples bas been remarkably manifested in the conversion of George