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VALUE OY THE ART OF PRINTING. these difficulties, many are bin-wish I could fly to you, that i dered from entertaining any posi- might have the happiness of an tive resolution, and for this back- 1 hour or two of your conversation; wardness, they offer some, and for I could wish not only to conthose specious reasons ; though verse with you upon this, but it is very apparent, that they lay upon some other subjects, which themselves out to find specious would, I am persuaded, redound pretences for this purpose: but greatly to my benefit; but what as they acknowledge that they I am not allowed to enjoy in have many doubts, they wish to this world, I hope will soon haphave your opinion upon this pen in heaven. Farewell, most point; and as they deservedly excellent man, most eminent serentertain the greatest reverence vant of our blessed Lord, and my for you, your opinion will have most honoured father! May God very great weight with them. continue to direct you to the end They have, therefore, entreated by his blessed Spirit, for the com. the favour of me to send a parti- mon benefit of his church! cular messenger to you, who may “Your own John CALVIN." bring to us your answer on this point; and I, knowing how highly Value of the Art of Printing.' it concerns them to be assisted From the History of the Re. by your opinion, in order to re- formation in the Low Countries, move those doubts under which by Gerrard Brandt, we copy the they at present labour, and be following, (page 68, Abridg.), to cause I should have done this show the obligations we are under upon my own particular account, I to Divine Providence for the invahad they not desired it, I could luable art of Printing :-“ About by no means refuse to comply with the year 1400, or somewhat later, their request.
Laurence Johnson Koster found “ Now, therefore, my most ho
out the art of composing letters, noured father, I beseech you, by or Printing, which soon filled Jesus Christ, that you will not the world with numbers of books refuse to take this trouble upon and sciences, and, at the same you, as well for theirs as my time, turned greatly to the presake: and first, that you read judice of the Papacy, by publishover the letter which goes to you ing and dispersing such books in their name; and then, that you | as were writ against it. And will read over my books; or, if whereas before, people used none that will take up too much time, but manuscripts, or written books, then you will employ some other and for one copy of the Bible, toperson to read them, who may lic lerably written upon vellom, were the substance of them before you, I wont to pay 4 or 500 crowns, it and when that is done, that you might now be bought for 60 ; and will be so good to send us your soon after, as the art grew more opinion by the bearer. I own common, for 4 or 5 crowns, that it grieves me, in the many | Thus the vulgar, who could not and great affairs in which I know I reach the price of manuscript you are engaged, to give you this | Bibles, found it easy to read the trouble; but from your acknow- Holy Scriptures in print." ledged goodness and humanity, Since the establishment of the when you consider the necessity | British and Foreign Bible Society, I am under, I flatter myself with the price of the Scriptures has the hopes of your pardon. I been reduced to three shillings!
HISTORICAL ESSAYS. bishop, however, who, in common
with others, had sworn fealty to
Matilda, was inflexible, till the base No. VII.
expedient of procuring the Steward On the Corruption of Christianity in of the Household to swear, that · Britain, during the reign of
Henry, on his death-bed, had altered Stephen.
his intentions in favour of Stephen,
was resorted to. The Archbishop It is not surprising, that the death
on this slight pretence, crowned of so able a prince as Henry, in Stephen king; who, by seizing the times of such mental degradation, great treasure Henry had amassed should have proved eventful; espe at Winchester, managed the ecclecially as his daughter, the Empress siastics during its continuance. Matilda, was heiress to the crown. The gross and awful corruption Henry had taken great care. to in of the system that now passcd under sure her the throne; for the recol the sacred name of Christianity, was lection of his own usurpation could additionally exposed by the conduct scarcely fail to remind him, that here
of its head, who very readily pub, ditary right was an insufficient secu- lished a bull, ratifying Stephen's rity. He had, therefore, endeavoured title. The clergy in England, act: to secure her success by the admo- ing with policy, took care in their nitions of conscience, administering oaths of allegiance to annex a conoaths of fealty to his vassals, both in dition, that they were bound as long Normandy and England. But what I as the king protected their liberties, avail the most solemn oaths, which
and supported the church: nor was it is believed the sacerdotal power Stephen in a situation to object to can absolve? and what is there to terms so artful. fear from a power, which reward can In this age of arbitrary power, the mould to its will ?
nobles, or barons as they were callAmong the most professedly de
ed, were petty sovereigns on their voted to the interests of Matilda,
several estates, and often furiously before the death of Henry, was his
waged war with each other, in nephew Stephen, who actually con which they employed the poor tended with the Earl of Gloucester around them at command. Hence who should be first in swearing alle
they erected castles for the aggran, giance to her; yet, no sooner was dizement of their power, or the de the King's departure known, than fence of their property. The clergy, be hastened to England, and boldly contrary to every sacred injunction assumed the regal power, A. D. 1135.
and scriptural example, instead of Attention to the clergy, who were
reproving the arrogance, vanity, and now so formidable a body, was his tyranny of the barons, seeing how first concern ; indeed, he could not much their procedure augmented succeed without their concurrence, their importance, followed their confor very much depended, in this age duct. Instead of inculcating the of superstition, on the ceremony of peaceful lessons of Christ, they emcoronation, which it belonged to ployed military power against their them to perform. Stephen's brother, enemies; and the Bishop of Salis. being Bishop of Winchester, greatly bury, taking a bolder step in the assisted the enterprise, and obtain
career of power, had erected two ing the good-will of the Bishop of strong castles at Sherborne and Salisbury, these prelates waited on Devizes, and commenced a third the primate, to require his perform- | at Malmesbury; and the Bishop of ance of the ceremony, The Arch- Lincoln. his nephew, built one at
Newark. Stephen observed these acquainted with the nature of encroachments with alarm, and re- | Popery and its priests, to suppose solved to check their progress. He her success was great till their faavailed himself of a quarrel between vour was secured; and the more so, the dependants of the former pre- as she had reason to suppose the late, and those of the Earl of Bri- legate had rather intended to humtanny, as a pretence for preventing ble than ruin his brother. On the the further erection of fortifications 2d of March she held a conference by the clergy, as well as for possess with him, in a plain near Winchesing himself of those already erected. ter, and on her promising that ho He accordingly imprisoned these should conduct the administration, bishops, and seized their fortresses. and fill all vacant bishoprics and
But such was the interested at- abbies, the allowance of which terms tachment of the clerical fraternity- was guaranteed on her part by sesuch their unity of design and simi- veral nobles, he cautiously consentlarity of spirit, that to make one or ed to acknowledge her right, as two the object of attack was to long as she should observe these alarm and enrage the whole. This conditions. They then proceeded bold, but impolitic, measure of Ste in procession to Winchester, where, phen, roused the indignation of his in the presence of many witnesses, brother, the Bishop of Winchester, he cursed her enemies, and blessed who holding the legantine commis- her friends. sion, was more influenced by pride The Empress, anxious at any rate and thirst for dominion, than piety to possess the crown, consented to or fraternal affection. Resenting | receive it from the clergy; for which the indignity and pretended im- crafty purpose, the legate called a piety of the King, he called a synod synod, at which he delivered a most at Westminster, on the 30th of Au hypocritical address, pretending still gust, A. D. 1139, and contended, that affection for his captive brother, but the punishment inflicted on the two more for his heavenly Father, who bishops, was such as none but a had resigned the King to the hands spiritual court could inflict. The of his enemies. He boldly declared, synod, anxious to improve the pre- that it chiefly belonged to the clergy sent, dared to cite the King before to elect kings, and that he had conthem to account for his conduct; vened them for that purpose, and who, unlike a monarch, degraded that having sought the direction of himself by sending a deputy to God, he now proposed Matilda, the accuse the two prelates of treason only descendant of Henry, as their and sedition, and defend his recent queen; to which the assembly conmeasures. The synod refusing to sented, except the deputies from attend to the case till the castles London, the only lay-men present, were restored, and the Bishop of who objected: but the legate evaded Salisbury avowing his intention of their scruples. Yet, not long after, appealing to the Pope, the King ter- we find this very man instigating the minated the affair, by showing an Londoners to revolt, and besieging inclination of ending the dispute in Matilda at Winchester; and, so prea more prompt and decided manner. carious was her situation, that she
Soon after, the Empress Matilda, thought it safe to retrcat. doubtless hearing of Stephen's per-| | How transitory is human greatplexities, as well as encouraged by ness! Eugenius III, on succeedmany, and secretly even by the le- ing to the Papacy, deprived the gate himself, arrived in England, Bishop of Winchester of the leganand after many useless negociations tine commission, and gave it to his for peace, the adherents of the Em rival, the Archbishop of Canterbury: press, and Stephen, with his troops, and thus humbled his increasing met in the vicinity of Lincoln castle ; / arrogance, and arrested his treachand, on the 2d of February, 1140, en- ery. The new Pope calliug a coungaged each other, when the royalists cil, and intent, like his emissaries, were beaten, and the King made a upon the augmentation of the ecclecaptive, Matilda was too well / siastical influence, refused to the
English church the accustomed | now part of the Canon Law, the folright of choosing its own represen lowing decree:-“ We declare and tatives. Stephen, who had for some pronounce it, as necessary to salvatime obtained his liberty, and re- tion, that all mankind be subject to sumed his imperfect government, the Roman Pontiff.” tho'depressed, had not lost all spirit, Pope. Clement V. deposed Henry disallowed the attendance of the V. Emperor. deputies of the pontiff's appoint
Pope John XXII. deprived the ment; which roused his anger, and induced him to place the King's
Emperor Lodovick. party under an interdict, from the Pope Gregory IX. deposed the terrors and alarms of which, the Emperor Wenceflans. King could only extricate himself Pope Paul III. deprived Henry by humiliating submission.
VIII. of England.” The youth who wisely reads his Bible, scarcely needs to be remind- Vide Dr. Chandler's sermon. Nov. ed, that Christianity teaches and | 5, 1714, page 20. enforces the very reverse of all this. It uniformly recommends the exer
Popish Imposture in England. cise and practice of that genuine
In Burnet's History of the Recharity, which “ suffereth long and
formation it is said, that in the year is kind; which doth not bebave
1536, in the reign of Henry VIII, itself unseemly, which seeketh not
“ They discovered many impostures her own, but beareth all things."
about relicks, and wonderful images, H.S.A.
to which pilgrimages had been wont to be made. At Reading they had
an angel's wing, which brought over REFORMATION ANECDOTES. the spear's point that pierced our
Saviour's side: as many picces of the cross were found, as joined to
gether, would have made a big Sovereign Princes excommunicated,
cross. The Rood of Grace at Box“ Pope Zachary I. deposed Chil ley, in Kent, had been much esteemderick, King of France.
ed, and drawn many pilgrims to it: Pope Gregory VII. deposed
it was observed to bow, and roul its
eyes; and look at times well pleased, Henry IV. Emperor.
or angry; which the credulous mulPope Urban II. deposed Philip, titude imputed to a Divine Power; King of France.
bnt all this was discovered to be a Pope Adrian IV. deposed Wil cheat, and it was brought up to St. liam, King of Sicily.
Paul's Cross; and all the springs Pope Innocent III, deposed Phi
were openly shewed, that governed
its several motions. At Hales, in lip, Emperor.
Glocestershire, the blood of Christ Pope Gregory deposed Freder was shewed in a vial; and it was ick II.
believed that none could see it who Pope Innocent IV. deposed King | were in mortal sin: and so after John of England.
good presents were made, the de Pope Urban IV. deposed Mam
luded pilgrims went way well sam
tisfied if they had seen it. This was phred, King of Sicily.
the blood of a duck renewed every Pope Nicholas III. deposed week, put in a vial very thick of one Charles, King of Sicily.
side, as thin on the other; and Pope Martin IV. deposed Peter
either side turned towards the pil
grim, as the priests were satisfied of Arragon.
with their oblations: several other Pope Boniface VIII. deprived | such like impostures were disco. Philip the Fair, upon which occa-vered, which contributed much to sion, to justify what he had done, the undeceiving the people.” be published in his bull, which is
Abridg. p. 200.
racle indeed to have distinguished Pilgrimages to Canterbury.
them afterwards." “ The richest shrine in England
Burnet's Abridg. p. 201. was Thomas Beckets at Canterbury, whose story is well known. After | Revenues of the Church of Rome in he had long imbroiled England,
the 16th Century. and shewed that he had a spirit so “ The Church had found means turned to faction, that he could not to ingross the greatest part of the be at quiet; some of Henry the treasure of the western world into Second's officious servants killed their own hands; and had not á stop him in the church of Canterbury: been put to their encroachments, in he was presently canonized, and a little while more, they would bave held in greater esteem than any inslaved and impoverished all man. other saint whatsoever; so much kind that owned their usurpation. more was a martyr for the Papacy “ Nor need we wonder at this, valued, than any that suffered for considering how many hands were the Christiani religion: and his altar employed : the grand fisherman at drew far greater oblations, than Rome, had a multitude in every those that were dedicated to Christ, country to angle partly for him, or the blessed Virgin; as appears and partly for themselves. Alsted by the accounts of two of their reckons above 100 years ago, that years. In one, 31. 2s. 6d.; and in there were then at least 225,044 another, not a penny was offered at monasteries in Christendom; and if Christ's altar. There was in the you allow 40 persons to an house; one, 631. 58. 3d.; and in the other, the number will be more than nine 41. 18. 8d. offered at the blessed millions. Now all these, and the Virgin's altar. But in these very rest of the ecclesiasticks, which years there was, 8321. 128. 3d, and like locusts had overspread the face 9641. 6s. 3d. offered at St. Thomas's of the earth, lived upon the plunder altar. The shrine grew to be of of the people: and besides, they had inestimable value. Lewis the Se- a thousand little tricks, and devices venth of France came over in pil- to get money; they could sell a grimage to visit it, and offered a deaŭ man's bones at a vast sum ; stone, valued to be the richest in Austin's particularly (that were Europe. He had not only one holy- translated from Hippo to Sardinia,) day, the 29th of December, called were purchased at 100 talents of his Martyrdom; but also the day of silver, and a talent of gold: and his Translation, the 7th of July, was having almost an infinite variety of also a holy-day; and every 50th ware, which they put off at no small year there was a Jubily, and an rate, taking advantage of the superIndulgence granted to all that came stition and credulity of their silly and visited his tomb: and some-chapmen, it strangely enriched times there were believed to be them: their own poet Mantuan 100,000 pilgrims there on that occa acknowledges, that all things were sion. It is hard to tell, whether the set to sale at Rome; not only temhatred to his seditious practices, or ples, priests, and altars, but heaven the love of his shrine, set on King and God. Henry VIII.] more to unsaint him. “In the time of our Henry III. it His shrine was broken, and the gold was reckoned, that the pope's reveof it was so heavy, that it filled two nue out of England exceeded the chests, which took eight men a piece king's; and some who have endea. to carry them out of the church; and voured to make the estimate, tell his skull, which had been so much us, that there went 60,000 marks worshipped, was proved to be an yearly out of this land to Rome. imposture ; for the true skull was | Some have computed, that the with the rest of his bones in his cof- tenths and first-fruits only in Engfin; his bones were either burnt, as land paid to the clergy, amounted it was given out at Rome; or so to more than 20,0001. per annum." mixed with other bones, as our
Bennet's Memorial of the writers say, that it had been a mi
Reformation, p. 31.'