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been Sempronius's tools, and had been dangling | applies what Marcia says to Sempronius. But after his heels.

finding at last, with much ado, that he himself “But now let us sum up all these absurdities is the happy man, he quits his eavedropping, and together. Sempronius goes at noonday, in discovers himself just time enough to prevent Juba's clothes and with Juba's guards, to his being cuckolded by a dead man, of whom Cato's palace, in order to pass for Juba, in a the moment before he had appeared so jealous ; place where they were both so very well known; and greedily intercepts the bliss which was fondhe meets Juba there, and resolves to murder him ly designed for one who could not be the better with his own guards. Upon the guards appear- for it. But here I must ask a question : how ing a little bashful, he threatens them:

comes Juba to listen here, who had not listened Hah! Dastards, do you tremble !

before throughout the play? Or how comes he Or act like men; or, by yon azure heaven to be the only person of this tragedy who lis“But the guards still remaining restive, Sem- tens, when love and treason were so often talked pronius himself attacks Juba, while each of the in so public a place as a hall? I am afraid the

Author was driven upon all these absurdities guards is representing Mr. Spectator's sign of the Gaper, awed, it seems, and terrified by Sem- only to introduce this miserable mistake of Marpronius's threats. Juba kills Sempronius, and of tragedy, as any thing is which is the effect or

cia, which, after all, is much below the dignity takes his own army prisoners, and carries them

result of trick. in triumph away to Cato. Now I would fain know if any part of Mr. Bayes’s tragedy is so Act. Cato appears first upon the scene, sitting

“But let us come to the scenery of the fifth t'ull of absurdity as this? “ Upon hearing the clash of swords, Lucia treatise on the Immortality of the Soul; a drawn

in a thoughtful posture : in his hand 'Plato's and Marcia come in. The question is, why no sword on the table by him. Now let us conmen come in upon hearing the noise of swords sider the place in which this sight is presented in the governor's hall ? Where was the

gover- to us. The place, forsooth, is a long hall. Let nor himself? Where were his guards? Where were his servants ? Such an attempt as this, so in this posture, in the midst of one of our halls

us suppose, that any one should place himself near the person of a governor of a place of war; in London ; that he should appear solus in a was enough to alarm the whole garrison; and sullen posture, a drawn sword on the table by yet, for almost half an hour after Sempronius him ; in his hand Plato's treatise

on the

Immorwas killed, we find none of those appear who tality of the Soul, translated lately by Bernard were the likeliest in the world to be alarmed: Lintot: I desire the reader to consider, whether and the noise of swords is made to draw only such a person as this would pass, with them two poor women thither, who were most certain to run away from it. Úpon Lucia and Mar- / who beheld him, for a great patriot, a great

phicia's coming in, Lucia appears in all the gymp- son, who fancied

himself all these? and whether

losopher, or a general, or some whimsical pertoms of an hysterical gentlewoman:

the people, who belonged to the family, would Luc. Sure 'twas the clash of swords! my troubled think that such a person had a design upon their

midriffs or his own? Is so cast down, and sunk amidst its sorrows, It throbs with fear, and aches at every sound!

“In short, that Cato should sit long enough And immediately her old whimsy returns upon large hall, to read over Plato's treatise on the

in the aforesaid posture, in the midst of this

Immortality of the Soul, which is a lecture of O Marcia, should thy brothers, for my sake two long hours; that he should propose to himI die away with horror at the thought.

self to be private there upon that occasion ; that She fancies that there can be no cutting of he should be angry with his son for intruding throats, but it must be for her. If this is tragi- there; then, that he should leave this hall upon cal, I would fain know what is comical. Well! the pretence of sleep, give himself the mortal upon this they spy the body of Sempronius; wound in his bedchamber, and then be brought and Marcia, deluded by the habit, it seems, back into that hall to expire, purely to show his takes him for Juba ; for, says she,

good-breeding, and save his friends the trouble

of coming up to his bedchamber; all this apThe face is muffled up within the garment.

pears to me to be improbable, incredible, impos“Now, how a man could fight, and fall with sible.” his face muffled up in his garment, is, I think, Such is the censure of Dennis. There is, as a little hard to conceive! Besides, Juba, before Dryden expresses it, perhaps “ too much horsehe killed him, knew him to be Sempronius. It play in his raillery;" but if his jests are coarse, was not by his garment that he knew this; it his arguments are strong. Yet, as we love betwas by his face then: his face therefore was ter to be pleased than be taught,“ Cato" is read not muffled. Upon seeing this man with his and the critic is neglected. muffled face, Marcia falls a-raving; and, own Flushed with consciousness of these detecing her passion for the supposed defunct, begins tions of absurdity in the conduct, he afterwards to make his funeral oration. Upon which Juba attacked the sentiments, of Cato; but he then enters listening, I suppose on tip-toe; for I can- amused himself with petty cavils and minute not imagine how any one can enter listening in objections. any other posture. I would fain know how it Of Addison's smaller poems, no particular comes to pass, that during all this time he had mention is necessary; they have little that can sent nobody, no, not so much as a candle-snuff- employ or require a critic. The parallel of the er, to take away the dead body of Sempronius. princes and gods, in his verses to Kneller, is Well! but let us regard him listening. Having often happy, but is too well known to be quoted. left his apprebension behind him, he, at first, His translations, so far as I have compared



them, want the exactness of a scholar. That | whose remarks, being superficial, might be easily he understood his authors cannot be doubted; understood, and being just, might prepare the but his versions will not teach others to under- mind for more attainments. Had he presented stand hem, being too licentiously paraphrasti “ Paradise Lost" to the public with all the pomp cal. They are, however, for the most part, of system and severity of science, the criticism smooth and easy; and, what is the first excel- would perhaps have been admired, and the lence of a translator, such as may be read with poem still have been neglected; but by the pleasure by those who do not know the origi- blandishments of gentleness and facility he has nals.

made Milton a universal favourite, with whom His poetry is polished and pure; the product readers of every class think it necessary to be of a mind too judicious to commit faults, but pleased. not sufficiently vigorous to attain excellence. He descended now and then to lower disquiHe has sometimes a striking line, or a shining sitions; and by a serious display of the beauties paragraph; but in the whole he is warm rather of “Chevy-Chase,” exposed himself to the ridithan fervid, and shows more dexterity than cule of Wagstaffé, who bestowed a like pomstrength. He was, however, one of our earliest pous character on "Tom Thumb ;” and to the examples of correctness.

contempt of Dennis, who, considering the sunThe versification which he had learned from damental position of his criticism, that “ChevyDryden he debased rather than refined. His Chase” pleases, and ought to please, because it rhymes are often dissonant; in his “Georgic" is natural, observes, that "there is a way of he admits broken lines. He uses both triplets deviating from nature, by bombast or tumour, and Alexandrines, but triplets more frequently which soars above nature, and enlarges images in his translations than his other works. The beyond their real bulk; by affectation, which mere structure of verses seems never to have en forsakes nature in quest of something unsuitgaged much of his care. But his lines are very able; and by imbecility, which degrades nature smooth in “Rosamond,” and too smooth in by faintness and diminution, by obscuring its “ Cato."

appearances, and weakening its effects.” In Addison is now to be considered as a critic; “Chevy-Chase” there is not much of either a name which the present generation is scarcely bombast or affectation ; but there is chill and willing to allow him. His criticism is condemned lifeless imbecility. The story cannot possibly as tentative or experimental, rather than scien- be told in a manner that shall make less imprestific; and he is considered as deciding by taste* sion on the mind. rather than by principles.

Before the profound observers of the present It is not uncommon for those who have grown race repose too securely on the consciousness of wise by the labour of others, to add a little of their superiority to Addison, let them consider their own, and overlook their masters. Addison his Remarks on Ovid, in which may be found is now despised by some who perhaps would specimens of criticism sufficiently subtle and renever have seen his defects, but by the lights fined: let them peruse likewise his “ Essays on which he afforded them. That he always wrote Wit” and on the “ Pleasures of Imagination,” as he would think it necessary to write now, in which he founds art on the base of nature, cannot be affirmed: his instructions were such and draws the principles of invention from disas the characters of his readers made proper. positions inherent in the mind of man, with skill That general knowledge which now circulates and elegance,* such as his contemners will not in common talk was in his time rarely to be easily attain. found. Men not professing learning were not As a describer of life and manners, he must ashamed of ignorance ; and, in the female world, be allowed to stand perhaps the first of the first any acquaintance with books was distinguished rank. His humour, which, as Steele observes, only to be censured. His purpose was to infuse is peculiar to himself, is so happily diffused as to literary curiosity, by gentle and unsuspected give the grace of novelty to domestic scenes and conveyance, into the gay, the idle, and the daily occurrences. He never “outsteps the mowealthy; he therefore presented knowledge in desiy of nature,” nor raises merriment or wonthe most alluring form, not lofty and austere, but der by the violation of truth. His figures neither accessible and familiar. When he showed them diverč by distortion nor amaze by aggravation. their defects, he showed them likewise that they He copies life with so much fidelity, that he can might be easily supplied. His attempt succeed-be hardly said to invent; yet his exhibitions ed; inquiry was awakened, and comprehension have an air so much original, that it is difficult expanded. Anemulation of intellectual elegance to suppose them not merely the products of was excited ; and, from this time to our own, imagination. life has been gradually exalted, and conversation As a teacher of wisdom he may be confidently purified and enlarged.

followed. His religion has nothing in it enthuDryden had, not many years before, scattered siastic or superstitious; he appears neither criticism over his prefaces with very little par- weakly credulous nor wantonly skeptical ; his simony; but though he sometimes condescended morality is neither dangerously lax nor imprac, to be somewhat familiar, his manner was in ge- ticably rigid. All the enchantment of fancy and neral too scholastic for those who had yet their all the cogency of argument are employed to rudiments to learn, and found it not easy to un- recommend to the reader his real interest, the derstand their master. His observations were care of pleasing the Author of bis being. Truth framed rather for those that were learning to is shown sometimes as the phantom of a vision; write, than for those that read only to talk. sometimes appears half-veiled in an allegory;

An instructor like Addison was now wanting, sometimes attracts regard in the robes of fancy;

* Taste must decide. Warton.-C.

* Far, in Dr. Warton's opinion, beyond Dryden.-C.

and sometimes steps forth in the confidence of, and connexions, and sometimes descends too reason. She wears a thousand dresses, and in much to the language of conversation ; yet if all is pleasing

his language had been less idiomatical, it might Mille habet ornatus, mille decenter habet. have lost somewhat of its genuine Anglicism. His prose is the model of the middle style; on What he attempted, he performed : he is never grave subjects not formal, on light occasions feeble, and he did not wish to be energetic ;* he not grovelling; pure without scrupulosity, and is never rapid, and he never stagnates. His exact without apparent claboration ; always sentences have neither studied amplitude nor equable and always easy, without glowing words affected brevity : his periods, though not dilior pointed sentences. Addison never deviates gently rounded, are voluble and easy. Whoever from his track to snatch a grace: he seeks no wishes to attain an English style, familiar, but ambitious ornaments, and tries no hazardous in- not coarse, and elegant, but not ostentatious, novations. His page is always luminous, but must give his days and nights to the volumes of never blazes in unexpected splendour,

Addison. It was apparently his principal endeavour to avoid all harshness and severity of diction; he

* But, says Dr. Warton, he sometimes is so ; and in is therefore sometimes verbose in his transitions 1 another Ms. note adds, often so.-C.


john Hughes, the son of a citizen in Lon- | Stationers' Hall; and he wrote afterwards six don, and of Anne Burgess, of an ancient family cantatas, which were set to music by the greatin Wiltshire, was born at Marlborough, July 29, est master of that time, and seemed intended to 1677. He was educated at a private school; oppose or exclude the Italian opera, an exotic and though his advances in literature are, in the and irrational entertainment, which has been “Biographia," very ostentatiously displayed, the always combated, and always bas prevailed. name of his master is somewhat ungratefully His reputation was now so far advanced, that concealed. *

the public began to pay reverence to his name; At nineteen he drew the plan of a tragedy; and he was solicited to prefix a preface to the and paraphrased, rather too profusely, the ode translation of Boccalini, a writer whose satirical of Horace which begins Integer Vitæ. To poetry vein cost him his life in Italy, and who never, I he added the science of music, in which he seems believe, found many readers in this country, even to have attained considerable skill, together though introduced by such powerful recomwith the practice of design, or rudiments of mendation. painting.

He translated Fontenelle's “ Dialogues of the His studies did not withdraw him wholly Dead;" and his version was perhaps read at from business, nor did business hinder him from that time, but is now neglected; for by a book study. He had a place in the office of ordnance; not necessary, and owing its reputation wholly and was secretary to several commissions for to its turn of diction, little notice can be gained purchasing lands necessary to secure the royal but from those who can enjoy the graces of the docks at Chatham and Portsmouth; yet found original. To the “Dialogues” of Fontenelle time to acquaint himself with modern lan- he added two composed by himself; and, though guages.

not only an honest but a pious man, dedicated In 1697, he published a poem on the “Peace his work to the Earl of Wharton. He judged of Ryswick :” and in 1699, another piece, called skilfully enough of his own interest ; for Whar. “The Conrt of Neptune,” on the return of ton, when he went lord-lieutenant to Ireland, King William, which he addressed to Mr. offered to take Hughes with him and establish Montague, the general patron of the followers him: but Hughes, having hopes, or promises, of the Muses. The same year he produced a from another man in power, of some provision song on the Duke of Gloucester's birthday. more suitable to his inclination, declined Whar.

He did not confine himself to poetry, bút cul- ton's offer, and obtained nothing from the other. tivated other kinds of writing with great suc He translated the “Miser" of Moliere, which cess ;

and about this time showed his knowledge he never offered to the stage; and occasionally of human nature by an “Essay on the Plea- amused himself with making versions of favoursure of being Deceived." In 1702, he published, ite scenes in other plays. on the death of King William, a Pindaric ode, Being now received as a wit among the wits, called “The House of Nassau ;” and wrote an- he paid his contributions to literary undertakother paraphrase on the Olium Divos of Horace. ings, and assisted both the “Tatler,” “SpecIn 1703, his Ode on Music was performed at tator,” and “Guardian.” In 1712, he trans

lated Vertot's “ History of the Revolution of * He was educated in a diasenting academy, of which Portugal,” produced an “Ode to the Creator

and was a fellow; of the World, from the Fragments of Orpheus," student there with Dr. Isaac Watts, Mr. Samuel Say, and other persons of eminence. In the "Horæ Lyrica'” of and brought upon the stage an opera called Dr. Wsus, is a poem w the memory of Mr. Rowe.--H. “Calypso and Telemachus,” intended to show

the Rev. Thomas Rowe was tutor

mat the English language might bevery happily on the stage, and of which it is unnecessary to adapted to music. This was impudently op- add a private voice to such continuance of apposed by those who were employed in the Italian probation, is not acted or printed according to opera ; and, what cannot be told without indig- the author's original draught or his settled innation, the intruders had such interest with the tention. He had made Phocyas apostatize from Duke of Shrewsbury, then lord-chamberlain, his religion ; after which the abhorrence of who had married an Italian, as to obtain an ob- Eudocia would have been reasonable, bis misery struction of the profits, though not an inhibition would have been just, and the horrors of his reof the performance.

pentance exemplary. The players, however, There was at this time a project formed by required that the guilt of Phocyas should ter. Tonson for a translation of the “Pharsalia” by minate in desertion to the enemy; and Hughes, several hands : and Hughes Englished the tenth unwilling that his relations should lose the benebook. But this design, as must often happen fit of his work, complied with the alteration. when the concurrence of many is necessary, fell He was now weak with a lingering consumpto the ground: and the whole work was after-tion, and not able to attend the rehearsal, yet wards performed by Rowe.

was so vigorous in his faculties that only ten His acquaintance with the great writers of days before his death he wrote the dedication to his time appears to have been very general ; but his patron, Lord Cowper. On February 17, of his intimacy with Addison there is a remark- 1719-20, the play was represented, and the able proof. It is told, on good authority, that author died. He lived to hear that it was well “Cato” was finished and played by his persua- received; but paid no regard to the intelligence, sion. It had long wanted the last Act, which being then wholly employed in the meditations he was desired by Addison to supply. If the of a departing Christian. request was sincere, it proceeded from an opinion, A man of his character was undoubtedly rewhatever it was, that did not last long; for gretted; and Steele devoted an essay, in the when Hughes came in a week to show him his paper called “The Theatre,” to the memory first attempt, he found half an act written by of his virtues. His life is written in the Addison himself.

“Biographia” with some degree of favourable He afterwards published the works of Spenser, partiality; and an account of him is prefixed to with his life, a glossary, and a Discourse on his works by his relation the late Mr. DunAllegorical Poetry; a work for which he was combe, a man whose blameless elegance deserywell qualified as a judge of the beauties of writed the same respect. ing, but perhaps wanted an antiquary's know The character of his genius I shall transcribe ledge of the obsolete words. He did not much from the correspondence of Swift and Pope. revive the curiosity of the public; for near “A month ago,” says Swift, “were sent me thirty years elapsed before his edition was re-over, by a friend of mine, the works of John printed. The same year produced his “ Apollo Hughes, Esquire. They are in prose and verse, and Daphne,” of which the success was very I never heard of the man in my life, yet I find earnestly promoted by Steele, who, when the your name as a subscriber. He is too grave a rage of party did not misguide him, seems to poet for me ; and I think among the mediucrists have been a man of boundless benevolence.

in prose as well as verse.” Hughes had hitherto suffered the mortifica To this Pope returns: “To answer your questions of a narrow fortune ; but in 1717 the Lord- tion as to Mr. Hughes: what he wanted in Chancellor Cowper set him at ease, by making genius, he made up as an honest man ; but he him secretary to the commissions of the peace; was of the class you think him."* in which he afterwards, by a particular request, In Spence's Collection, Pope is made to speak desired his successor Lord Parker to continue of him with still less respect, as having no claim him. He had now affluence; but such is to poetical reputation but from his tragedy. human life, that he had it when his declining health could neither allow him long possession * This, Dr. Warton asserts, is very unjust censure : nor quick enjoyment.

and, in a note in his late edition of Pope's Works, asks His last work was his tragedy, “The Siege if the Author of such a tragedy as The Siege of of Damascus," after which a Siege became a Pope seem nou to recollect the value and rank of an popular title. This play, which still continues / author who could write such a tragedy.".-C.



JOHN Sheffield, descended from a long se- | that he got rid of him in a short time, and at an ries of illustrious ancestors, was born in 1649, age not exceeding twelve years resolved to eduthe son of Edmund, earl of Mulgrave, who died cate himself. Such a purpose, formed at such in 1658. 'The young lord was put into the hands an age, and successfully prosecuted, delights, as of a tutor, with whom he was so little satisfied, it is strange, and instructs, as it is real.

His literary acquisitions are more wonderful, | he was yet not twenty years old, his recommenas those years in which they are commonly made dation advanced Dryden to the laurel. were spent by him in the tumult of a military The Moors having besieged Tangier, he was life, or the gayety of a court. When war was sent (1680) with two thousand men to its relief declared against the Dutch, he went, at se- A strange story is told of the danger to which venteen, on board the ship in which Prince he was intentionally exposed in a leaky ship, to Rupert and the Duke of Albemarle sailed, gratify some resentful jealousy of the King, with the command of the fleet: but by con- whose health he therefore would never permit trariety of winds they were restrained from at his table till he saw himself in a safer place. action. His zeal for the King's service was His voyage was prosperously performed in three recompensed by the command of one of the weeks; and the Moors without a contest retired independent troops of horse, then raised to pro- before him. tect the coast.

In this voyage he composed “The Vision," a Next year he received a summons to parlia- licentious poem ; such as was fashionable in ment, which, as he was then but eighteen years those times, with little power of invention or old, the Earl of Northumberland censured as at propriety of sentiment. least indecent, and his objection was allowed. At his return he found the king kind, who He had a quarrel with the Earl of Rochester, perhaps had never been angry; and he contiwhich he has perhaps too ostentatiously related, nued a wit and a courtier as before. as Rochester's surviving sister, the Lady Sand At the succession of King James, to whom he wich, is said to have told him with very sharp was intimately known, and by whom he thought reproaches.

himself beloved, he naturally expected still When another Dutch war (1672) broke out, brighter sunshine; but all know how soon that he went again a volunteer in the ship which the reign began to gather clouds. His expectations celebrated Lord Ossory commanded; and there were not disappointed; he was immediately admade, as he relates, two curious remarks : mitted into the privy-council, and made lord

“I have observed two things which I dare chamberlain. He accepted a place in the high affirm, though not generally believed. One was, commission, without knowledge, as he declared that the wind of a cannon bullet, though flying after the Revolution, of its illegality: Having never so near, is incapable of doing the least few religious scruples, he attended the King to harm; and indeed, were it otherwise, no man mass, and kneeled with the rest, but had no disabove deck would escape. The other was, that position to receive the Romish faith, or to force a great shot may be sometimes avoided, even as it upon others; for when the priests, encouraged it flies, by changing one's ground a little ; for, by his appearances of compliance, attempted to when the wind sometimes blew away the smoke, convert him, he told them, as Burnet has reit was so clear a sunshiny day, that we could corded, that he was willing to receive instruceasily perceive the bullets (that were half spent) tion, and that he had taken much pains to befall into the water, and from thence bound up lieve in God who had made the world and all again among us, which gives sufficient time for men in it; but that he should not be easily making a step or two on any side ; though in persuaded that man was quits, and made God so swift a motion, it is hard to judge well in again. what line the bullet comes, which, if mistaken, A pointed sentence is bestowed by successive may by removing cost a man his life, instead of transmission to the last whom it will fit: this saving it."

censure of transubstantiation, whatever be its His behaviour was so favourably represented value, was uttered long ago by Anne Askew, by Lord Ossory, that he was advanced to the one of the first sufferers for the protestant relicommand of the Catherine, the best second-rate gion, who, in the time of Henry VIII. was torship in the navy.

tured in the Tower; concerning which there is He afterwards raised a regiment of foot, and reason to wonder that it was not known to the commanded it as colonel. The land-forces were historian of the Reformation. sent ashore by Prince Rupert; and he lived in In the Revolution he acquiesced, though he the camp very familiarly with Schomberg. He did not promote it. There was once a design of was then appointed colonel of the old Holland associating him in the invitation of the Prince regiment, together with his own, and had the of Orange; but the Earl of Shrewsbury dispromise of a garter, which he obtained in his couraged the attempt, by declaring that Mul. twenty-fifth year. He was likewise made gen- grave would never concur. This King William tleman of the bedchamber. He afterwards afterwards told him; and asked him what he went into the French service to learn the art of would have done if the proposal had been made: war under Turenne, but stayed only a short “Sir,” said he, “I would have discovered it to time. Being by the Duke of Monmouth opposed the King whom I then served.” To which King in his pretensions to the first troop of horse- William replied, “I cannot blame you.” guards, he, in return, made Monmouth suspected Finding King James irremediably excluded, by the Duke of York. He was not long after, he voted for the conjunctive sovereignty, upon when the unlucky Monmouth fell into disgrace, this principle, that he thought the title of the recompensed with the lieutenancy of Yorkshire Prince and his Consort equal, and it would and the government of Hull.

please the prince, their protector, to have a share Thus rapidly did he make his way both to in the sovereignty. This vote gratified King military and civil honours and employments; yet, William ; yet, either by the king's distrust, or busy as he was, he did not neglect his studies, his own discontent, he lived some years without but at least cultivated poetry; in which he must employment. He looked on the king with have been early considered as uncommonly malevolence, and, if his verses or his prose may skilful, if it be true, which is reported, that when I be credited, with contempt. He was, notwith

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