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lence, which every day increased, and which awhile when the storm has ceased. He therefore Bolingbroke appeared to retain in his last years. filled his hours with some historical attempts,

Swift contrived an interview, from which they relating to the "Change of the Ministers," and both departed discontented; he procured a se “the Conduct of the Ministry.” He likewise cond, which only convinced him that the feud is said to have written a “History of the Four was irreconcileable: he told them his opinion, last Years of Queen Anne,” which he began in that all was lost. This denunciation was con- her lifetime, and afterwards laboured with great tradicted by Oxford; but Bolingbroke whispered attention, but never published. It was after his that he was right.

death in the hands of Lord Orrery and Dr. King. Before this violent dissension had shattered A book under that title was published, with the ministry, Swift had published, the beginning Swift's name, by Dr. Lucas; of which I can of the year, (1714,) “ The public Spirit of the only say, that it seemed by no means to correWhigs,” in answer to “The Crisis,” a pamphlet spond with the notions that I had formed of it, for which Steele was expelled from the House from a conversation which I once heard between of Commons. Swift was now so far alienated the Earl of Orrery and old Mr. Lewis. from Steele, as to think him no longer entitled Swift now, much against his will, commenced to decency, and therefore treats him sometimes Irishman for life, and was to contrive how he with contempt, and sometimes with abhorrence. might be best accommodated in a country where

In this pamphlrt, the Scotch were mentioned he considered himself as in a state of exile. It in terms so provoking to that irritable nation, seems that his first recourse was to piety. The that, resolving “not to be offended with impu- thoughts of death rushed upon him at this time, nity," the Scotch Lords, in a body, demanded with such incessant importunity, that they took an audience of the Queen, and solicited repa- possession of his mind, when he first waked, for ration. A proclamation was issued, in which many years together. three hundred pounds were offered for the dis He opened his house by a public table two covery of the author. From this storm he was, days a week, and found his entertainments graas he relates, “secured by a sleight;" of what dually frequented by more and more visitants kind, or by whose prudence, is not known ; and of learning, among the men, and of elegance such' was the increase of his reputation, that the among the women. Mrs. Johnson had left the Scottish “nation applied again that he would be country, and lived in lodgings not far from the their friend."

deanery. On his public days she regulated the He was become so formidable to the whigs, table, but appeared at it as a mere guest, like that his familiarity with the ministers was cla- other ladies. moured at in parliament, particularly by two On other days he often dined, at a stated price, men; afterwards of great note, Aislabie and with Mr. Worral, a clergyman of his cathedral, Walpole.

whose house was recommended by the peculiar But, by the disunion of his great friends, his neatness and pleasantry of his wife. To this importance and designs were now at an end; frugal mode of living, he was first disposed by and seeing his services at last useless, he retired care to pay some debts which he had contracted, about June (1714) into Berkshire, where, in and he continued it for the pleasure of accumuthe house of a friend, he wrote, what was then lating money. His avarice, however, was not suppressed, but has since appeared under the suffered to obstruct the claims of his dignity; title of “Free Thoughts on the present State of he was served in plate, and used to say that Affairs."

he was the poorest gentleman in Ireland that While he was waiting in this retirement for ate upon plate, and the richest that lived without events.which time or chance might bring to pass, a coach. the death of the Queen broke down at once the How he spent the rest of his time, and how whole system of tory politics; and nothing re he employed his hours of study, has been inmained but to withdraw from the implacability quired with hopeless curiosity. For who can of triumphant whiggism, and shelter himself in give an account of another's studies? Swift unenvied obscurity.

was not likely to admit any to his privacies, or The accounts of his reception in Ireland given to impart a minute account of his business or by Lord Orrery and Dr. Delany are so different, his leisure. that the credit of the writers, both undoubtedly Soon after, (1716,) in his forty-ninth year, he veracious, cannot be saved, but by supposing, was privately married to Mrs. Johnson, by Dr. what I think is true, that they speak of different Ashe, bishop of Clogher, as Dr. Madden told times. When Delany says that he was received me, in the garden. The marriage made no with respect, he means for the first fortnight, change in their mode of life; they lived in difwhen he came to take legal possession; and ferent houses, as before; nor did she ever lodge when Lord Orrery tells that he was pelted by in the deanery but when Swift was seized with the populace, he is to be understood of the time a fit of giddiness. “It would be difficult,” says when, after the Queen's death, he became a set- Lord Orrery, “ to prove that they were ever tled resident.

afterwards together without a third person." The Archbishop of Dublin gave him at first The Dean of St. Patrick's lived in a private some disturbance in the exercise of his jurisdic- manner, known and regarded only by his friends; tion; but it was soon discovered, that between till, about the year 1720, he, by a pamphlet, reprudence and integrity he was seldom in the commended to the Irish the use, and consewrong: and that, when he was right, his spirit quently the improvement, of their manufacture. did not easily yield to opposition.

For a man to use the productions of his own Having so lately quitted the tumults of a labour is surely a natural right, and to like best party, and the intrigues of a court, they still kept what he makes himself is a natural passion.his thoughts in agitation, as the sea fluctuates But to excite this passion, and enforce this right,

appeared so criminal to those who had an in- | pence and farthings for the kingdom of Ireland, terest in the English trade, that the printer was in which there was a very inconvenient and em imprisoned; and, as Hawkesworth justly ob- barrassing scarcity of copper coin; so that it was serves, the attention of the public being by this possible to run in debt upon the credit of a piece outrageous resentment turned upon the pro- of money; for the cook or keeper of an alehouse posal, the author was by consequence made could not refuse to supply a man that had silver popular.

in his hand, and the buyer would not leave his In 1723 died Mrs. Van Homrigh, a woman money without change. inade unhappy by her admiration of wit, and The project was therefore plausible. The ignominiously distinguished by the name of scarcity, which was already great, Wood took Vanessa, whose conduct has been already suffi- care to make greater, by agents who gathered ciently discussed, and whose bistory is too well up the old halfpence; and was about to turn known to be minutely repeated. She was a his brass into gold, by pouring the treasures of young woman fond of literature, whom Decanus his new mint upon Ireland; when Swift, findthe dean, called Cadenus by transposition of the ing that the metal was debased to an enormous letters, took pleasure in directing and instruct- degree, wrote letters, under the name of M. B. ing; till

, from being proud of his praise, she Drapier, to show the folly of receiving, and the grew fond of his person. Swift was then about mischief that must ensue by giving, gold and silforty-seven, at an age when vanity is strongly ver for coin worth perhaps not a third part of its excited by the amorous attention of a young nominal value. woman. If it be said that Swift should have The nation was alarmed; the new coin was checked a passion which he never meant to universally, refused ; but the governors of Iregratify, recourse must be had to that extenuation land considered resistance to the King's patent which he so much despised, “men are but men:” as highly criminal; and one Whitshed, then perhaps, however, he did not at first know his Chief Justice, who had tried the printer of the own mind, and, as he represents himself, was former pamphlet, and sent out the jury nine undetermined. For his admission of her court times, till by clamour and menaces they were ship, and his indulgence of her hopes after his frightened into a special verdict, now presented marriage to Stella, no other honest plea can be the Drapier, but could not prevail on the grand found than that he delayed a disagreeable dis- jury to find the bill. covery from time to time, dreading the immediate Lord Carteret and the privy-council published bursts of distress, and watching for a favourable a proclamation, offering three hundred pounds moment. She thought herself neglected, and for discovering the author of the Fourth Letter. died of disappointment; having ordered by her Swift had concealed himself from bis printers, will the poem to be published, in which Cadenus and trusted only his butler, who transcribed the had proclaimed her excellence, and confessed paper. The man, immediately after the aphis love. The effect of the publication upon the pearance of the proclamation, strolled from the Dean and Stella is thus related by Delany : house, and stayed out all night, and part of the

“I have good reason to believe that they both next day. There was reason enough to fear were greatly shocked and distressed (though it that he had betrayed his master for the reward; may be differently) upon this occasion. The but he came home, and the Dean ordered him to Dean made a tour to the south of Ireland, for put off his livery, and leave the house; “for," about two months, at this time, to dissipate his said he, I know that my life is in your power, thoughts, and give place to obloquy. And and I will not bear, out of fear, either your insoStella retired (upon the earnest invitation of the lence or negligence.” The man excused his owner) to the house of a cheerful, generous, fault with great submission, and begged that he good-natured friend of the Dean's, whom she might be confined in the house while it was in always much loved and honoured. There my his power to endanger his master: but the Dean informer often saw her; and I have reason to resolutely turned him out, without taking farther believe, used his utmost endeavours to relieve, notice of him, till the term of the information had support, and amuse her, in this sad situation. expired, and then received him again. Soon

"One little incident he told me on that occa- afterwards he ordered him and the rest of his sion, I think, I shall never forget. As her friend servants into his presence, without telling his was an hospitable, open-hearted man, well intention, and bade them take notice that their beloved and largely acquainted, it happened one fellow-servant was no longer Robert the butler; day that some gentlemen dropped in to dinner, but that his integrity had made him Mr. Blake who were strangers to Stella's situation ; and ney, verger of St. Patrick's; an officer whose as the poem of Cadenus and Vanessa ”' was income was between thirty and forty pounds a then the general topic of conversation, one of year: yet he still continued for some years to them said, Surely that Vanessa must be an ex- serve his old master as his butler.* traordinary woman, that could inspire the Dean Swift was known from this time by the appel. to write so finely upon her.' Mrs. Johnson lation of “The Dean." He was honoured by smiled, and answered, “that she thought that the populace as the champion, patron, and inpoint not quite so clear; for it was well known structor of Ireland; and gained such power as, the Dean could write finely upon a broomstick.'” considered both in its extent and duration,

The great acquisition of esteem and influence scarcely any man has ever enjoyed without was made by the “ Drapier's Letters” in 1724. greater wealth or higher station. One Wood, of Wolverhampton, in Stafford He was from this important year the oracle shire, a man enterprising and rapacious,

had, as of the traders, and the idol of the rabble, and by is said, by a present to the Dutchess of Munster, obtained a patent, empowering him to coin one

* An account somewhat different from this is given by bundred and eighty ihousand pounds of balf- | Mr. Sheridan in his Life of Swift, p. 111.--R.

consequence was feared and courted by all to name of Swift, and it has all the appearances of whom the kindness of the traders or the popu- his diction and sentiments : but it was not lace was necessary. The Drapier was a sign; written in his hand, and had some little improthe Drapier was a health; and which way soever prieties. When he was charged with this letter, the eye or the ear was turned, some tokens were he laid hold of the inaccuracies, and urged the found of the nation's gratitude to the Drapier. improbability of the accusation, but never denied

The benefit was indeed great; he had rescued it: he shuffles between cowardice and veracity, Ireland from a very oppressive and predatory and talks big when he says nothing.* invasion; and the popularity which he had gain He seems desirous enough of recommencing, ed he was diligent to keep, by appearing forward courtier, and endeavoured to gain the kindness and zealous on every occasion where the public of Mrs. Howard, remembering what Mrs. Mainterest was supposed to be involved. Nor did sham had performed in former times: but his he much scruple to boast his influence; for when, Aatteries were, like those of other wits, unsucupon some attempts to regulate the coin, Arch- cessful; the lady either wanted power, or had bishop Boulter, then one of the justices, accused no ambition of poetical immortality. him of exasperating the people, he exculpated He was seized, not long afterwards, by a fit himself by saying, "If I had lifted up my finger, of giddiness, and again heard of the sickness they would have torn you to pieces."

and danger of Mrs. Johnson. He then left the But the pleasure of popularity was soon in-house of Pope, as it seems, with very little terrupted by domestic misery. Mrs. Johnson, ceremony, finding "that two sick friends canwhose conversation was to him the great softener not live together;" and did not write to him till of the ills of life, began in the year of the Dra- he found himself at Chester. pier's triumph to decline ; and two years after He returned to a home of sorrow: poor Stella wards was so wasted with sickness, that her re was sinking into the grave, and, after a lancovery was considered as hopeless.

guishing decay of about two months, died in Swift was then in England, and had been in- her forty-fourth year, on January 28, 1729. vited by Lord Bolingbroke to pass the winter How much he wished her life, his papers show; with him in France, but this call of calamity nor can it be doubted that he dreaded the death hastened him to Ireland, where perhaps his of her whom he loved most, aggravated by the presence contributed to restore her to imperfect consciousness that himself had hastened it. and tottering health.

Beauty and the power of pleasing, the greatest He was now so much at ease, that (1727) he external advantages that woman can desire or returned to England; where he collected three possess, were fatal to the unfortunate Stella. volumes of Miscellanies in conjunction with The man whom she had the misfortune to love Pope, who prefixed a querulous and apologetical was, as Delany observes, fond of singularity, Preface.

and desirous to make a mode of happiness for This important year sent likewise into the himself, different from the general course of world "Gulliver's Travels ;” a production so things and order of Providence. From the new and strange, that it filled the reader with time of her arrival in Ireland he seems resolved a mingled emotion of merriment and amaze- to keep her in his power, and therefore hinment. It was received with such avidity, that dered a match sufficiently advantageous, by acthe price of the first edition was raised before cumulating unreasonable demands, and prescribthe second could be made; it was read by the ing conditions that could not be performed. high and the low, the learned and illiterate. While she was at her own disposal he did not Criticism was for a while lost in wonder: no consider his possession as secure; resentment, rules of judgment were applied to a book writ- ambition, or caprice, might separate them ; he ten in open defiance of truth and regularity. was therefore resolved to make But when distinctions came to be made, the part double sure," and to appropriate her by a priwhich gave the least pleasure was that which vate marriage, to which he had annexed the exdescribes the Flying Island, and that which pectation of all the pleasures of perfect friendgave most disgust must be the history of the ship without the uneasiness of conjugal restraint. Houyhnhnms.

But with this state poor Stella was not satisfied; While Swift was enjoying the reputation of she never was treated as a wife, and to the his new work, the news of the King's death ar- world she had the appearance of a mistress. rived ; and he kissed the hands of the new King She lived sullenly on, in hope that in time he and Queen three days after their accession. would own and receive her; but the time did

By the Queen, when she was princess, he had not come till the change of his manners and been treated with some distinction, and was well deprivation of his mind made her tell him, when received by her in her exaltation, but whether he offered to acknowledge her, that "it was too she gave hopes which she never took care to late." She then gave up herself to sorrowful satisfy, or he formed expectations which she resentment, and died under the tyranny of him, never meant to raise, the event was, that he by whom she was in the highest degree loved always afterwards thought on her with malevo- and honoured. lence, and particularly charged her with break What were her claims to this eccentric tening her promise of some medals which she en- derness, by which the laws of nature were viogaged to send him.

lated to retain her, curiosity will inquire ; but I know not whether she had not, in her turn, how shall it be gratified ? Swift was a lover ; some reason for complaint. A letter was sent his testimony may be suspected. Delany and her, not so much entreating, as requiring, her the Irish saw with Swift's eyes, and therefore patronage of Mrs. Barber, an ingenious Irishwoman, who was then begging subscriptions for Sheridan's defence of him from this charge. See the

* It is but justice to the Dean's memory to refer to Mr. her poems. To this letter was subscribed the “Life of Swift," p. 468.-R.

assurance

add little confirmation. That she was virtuous, | terest, and only required that, at repayment, a beautiful, and elegant, in a very high degree, small fee should be given to the accomptant : such admiration from such a lover makes it but he required that the day of promised pay. very probable; but she had not much literature, ment should be exactly kept. A severe and for she could not spell her own language ; and punctilious temper is ill qualified for transacof her wit so loudly vaunted, the smart sayings tions with the poor ; the day was often broken, which Swift himself has collected, afford no and the loan was not repaid. This might have splendid specimen.

been easily foreseen; but for this Swift had The reader of Swift's “ Letter to a Lady on made no provision of patience or pity. He orher Marriage,” may be allowed to doubt whe- dered his debtors to be sued. A severe creditor ther his opinion of female excellence ought im- has no popular character; what then was likely plicitly to be admitted ; for, if his general to be said of him who employs the catchpoli Thoughts on women were such as he exhibits, under the appearance of charity? The clamour a very little sense in a lady would enrapture, against him was loud, and the resentment of and a very little virtue would astonish him. the populace outrageous; he was therefore Stella's supremacy, therefore, was perhaps only forced to drop his scheme, and own the folly of local; she was great, because her associates were expecting punctuality from the poor. * little.

His asperity continually increasing, conIn some Remarks lately published on the Life demned him to solitude ; and his resentment of of Swift, his marriage is mentioned as fabulous, solitude sharpened his asperity. He was not, or doubtful; but, alas! poor Stella, as Dr. however, totally deserted; some men of learnMadden told me, related her melancholy story ing, and some women of elegance, often visited to Dr. Sheridan, when he attended her as a him; and he wrote from time to time either clergyman to prepare her for death ; and De- verse or prose: of his verses he willingly gave lany mentions it not with doubt, but only with copies, and is supposed to have felt no discontent regret. _Swift never mentioned her without a when he saw them printed. His favourite sigh. The rest of his life was spent in Ireland, maxim was, “ Vive la Bagatelle:" he thought in a country to which not even power almost trifles a necessary part of life, and perhaps despotic, nor flattery almost idolatrous, could found them necessary to himself. It seems imreconcilé him. He sometimes wished to visit possible to him to be idle, and his disorders England, but always found some reason of made it difficult or dangerous to be long sedelay. He tells Pope, in the decline of life, that riously studious or laboriously diligent. The he hopes once more to see him ; " but if not,” love of ease is always gaining upon age, and he says he, “we must part, as all human beings had one templation to petty amusements pecuhave parted."

liar to himsell'; whatever he did he was sure to After the death of Stella, his benevolence was hear applauded; and such was his predomicontracted, and his severity exasperated; he nance over all that approached that all their drove his acquaintance from his table, and won applauses were probably sincere. He that is dered why he was deserted. But he continued much Raltered soon learns to flatter himself ; his attention to the public, and wrote, from we are commonly taught our duty by fear or time to time, such directions, admonitions, or shame, and how can they act upon the man who censures, as the exigency of affairs, in his hears nothing but his own praises ? opinion, made proper; and nothing fell from his As his years increased, his fits of giddiness pen in vain.

and deafness grew more frequent, and his deafIn a short poem on the Presbyterians, whom ness made conversation difficult : they grew likehe always regarded with detestation, he be- wise more severe, till, in 1736, as he was writing stowed one stricture upon Bettesworth, a lawyer a poem called “ The Legion Club,” he was eminent for his insolence to the clergy, whích, seized with a fit so painful and so long continued, from very considerable reputation brought him that he never after thought it proper to attempt into immediate and universal contempt. Bettes- any work of thought or labour. worth, enraged at his disgrace and loss, went to He was always careful of his money, and was Swift and demanded whether he was the author therefore no liberal entertainer ; but was less of that poem? “Mr. Bettesworth,” answered frugal of his wine than of his meat. When his he, " I was in my youth acquainted with great friends of either sex came to him in expectation lawyers, who, knowing my disposition to satire, of a dinner, his custom was to give every one a advised me, that if any scoundrel or blockhead shilling, that they might please themselves with whom I had lampooned should ask, 'Are you their provision. At last his avarice grew too the author of this paper ?' I should tell him that powerful for his kindness; he would refuse a I was not the author; and therefore I tell you, bottle of wine, and in Ireland no man visits Mr. Bettesworth, that I am not the author of where he cannot drink. these lines."

Having thus excluded conversation and deBeltesworth was so little satisfied with this sisted from study, he had neither business nor account, that he publicly professed his resolu- amusement; for having by some ridiculous retion of a violent and corporal revenge; but the solution or mad vow determined never to wear inhabitants of St. Patrick's district 'imbodied spectacles, he could make little use of books in themselves in the Dean's defence. Bettesworth his later years ; his ideas, therefore, being neideclared in parliament, that Swift had deprived him of twelve hundred pounds a year.

Swift was popular awhile by another mode of * This account is contradicted by Mr. Sheridan, who beneficence. 'He set aside some hundreds to be with great warmth asserts, from his own knowledge, that lent in small sums to the poor, from five shil- there was not one syllable of truth in this whole account

from the beginning to the end. Seo “ Life of Swift," lings, I think, to five pounds. He took no in- | edit. 1784, p. 532.—R.

ther renovated by discourse nor increased by nefactor ; for they reverenced him as a guardian reading, wore gradually away, and left his mind and obeyed him as a dictator. vacant to the vexations of the hour, till at last In his works he has given very different specihis anger was heightened into madness. mens both of sentiments and expression. His.

He however permitted one book to be pub-"Tale of a Tub" has little resemblance to his lished, which had been the production of for other pieces. It exhibits a vehemence and rapid-, mer years; “Polite Conversation,” which apo ity of mind, a copiousness of images and viva. peared in 1738. The "Directions for Servants” city of diction, such as he afterwards never poswas printed soon after his death. These two sessed or never exerted. It is of a mode so dis. performances show a mind incessantly attentive, tinct and peculiar that it must be considered by and, when it was not employed upon great itself; what is true of that, is not true of any things, busy with minute occurrences. It is thing else which he has written. apparent that he must have had the habit of In his other works is found an equable tenor noting whatever he observed; for such a num- of easy language, which rather triekles than ber of particulars could never have been assem- flows. His delight was in simplicity. That he bled by the power of recollection.

has in his works no metaphor, as has been said, He grew more violent, and his mental powers is not true; but his few metaphors seem to be declined, till (1741) it was found necessary that received rather by necessity than choice. He legal guardians should be appointed of his per- studied purity; and though perhaps all his stricson and fortune. He now lost distinction. His tures are not exact, yet it is not often that solemadness was compounded of rage and fatuity. cisms can be found; and whoever depends on The last face that he knew was that of Mrs. his authority may generally conclude himself Whiteway; and her he ceased to know in a safe. His sentences are never too much dilated little time. His meat was brought him cut into or contracted; and it will not be easy to find, mouthfuls ; but he would never touch it while any embarrassment in the complication of his the servant stayed, and at last, after it had stood clauses, any inconsequence in his connexions, or perhaps an hour, would eat it walking; for he abruptness in his transitions. continued his old habit, and was on his feet ten His style was well suited to his thoughts, hours a day,

which are never subtilized by nice disquisitions, Next year (1742) he had an inflammation in decorated by sparkling conceits, elevated by amhis left eye, which swelled it to the size of an bitious sentences, or variegated by far-sought egg, with biles in other parts: he was kept learning. He pays no court to the passions; he long waking with the pain, and was not easily excites neither surprise nor admiration; he alrestrained by five attendants from tearing out ways understands himself, and his reader always

understands him ; the peruser of Swift, wants The tumour at last subsided, and a short in- little previous knowledge; it will be sufficient terval of reason ensuing, in which he knew his that he is acquainted with common words and physician and his family, gave hopes of his reco common things; he is neither required to mount very; but in a few days he sunk into a lethargic elevations, nor to explore profundities; his passtupidity, motionless, heedless, and speechless. sage is always on a level, along solid ground, But it is said, that, after a year of total silence, without asperities, without obstruction. when his housekeeper, on the 30th of November, This easy and safe conveyance of meaning it told him that the usual bonfires and illumina- was Swift's desire to attain, and for having attions were preparing to celebrate his birth day, tained he deserves praise. For purposes merely, he answered “It is all folly; they had better let didactic, when something is to be told that was it alone.”

not known before, it is the best mode; but It is remembered, that he afterwards spoke against that inattention by which known truths now and then, or gave some intimation of a are suffered to lie neglected it makes no provimeaning ; but at last sunk into perfect silence, sion; it instructs, but does not persuade. which continued till about the end of October, By his political education he was associated 1744, when, in his seventy-eighth year, he ex- with the whigs; but he deserted them when they pired without a struggle.

deserted their principles, yet without running When Swift is considered as an author, it is into the contrary extreme; he continued throughjust to estimate his powers by their effects. In out his life to retain the disposition which he the reign of Queen Anne he turned the stream of assigns to the “Church-of-England Man," of popularity against the whigs, and must be con- thinking commonly with the whigs of the state, fessed to have dictated for a time the political and with the tories of the church, opinions of the English nation. In the succeed He was a churchman rationally zealous; he ing reign he delivered Ireland from plunder and desired the prosperity, and maintained the hooppression; and showed that wit, confederated nour, of the clergy; of the dissenters he did not with truth, had such force as authority was un- wish to infringe the toleration, but he opposed able to resist. He said truly of himself, that their encroachments. Ireland was his debtor.” It was from the time To his duty as dean he was very attentive when he first began to patronize the Irish that He managed the revenues of his church with they may date their riches and prosperity. He exact economy; and it is said by Delany, that taught them first to know their own interest, more money was, under his direction, laid out their weight, and their strength, and gave them in repairs, than had ever been in the same time spirit to assert that equality with their fellow- since its first erection. Of his choir he was emi. subjects, to which they have ever since been nently careful; and, though he neither loved nor making vigorous advances, and to claim those understood music, took care that all the singers rights which they have at last established. Nor were well qualified, admitting none without the can they be charged with ingratitude to their be- I testimony of skilful judges.

his eye.

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