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and expeditious, and therefore pleasing. Heceived further proofs of his abilities at his own learned them all in the same manner, and almost court. at the same time, by conversing in them indif Mr. Barretier, being promoted to the cure of ferently with his father.
the church of Stetin, was obliged to travel with. The other languages, of which he was master, his son thither from Schwabach, through Leiphe learned by a method yet more uncommon. sic and Berlin, a journey very agreeable to his: The only book which he made use of was the son, as it would furnish him with new opportuBible, which his father laid before him in the lan. nities of improving his knowledge, and extending guage that he then proposed to learn, accompanied his acquaintance among men of letters. For with a translation, being taught by degrees the this purpose they stayed some time at Leipsic, inflections of nouns and verbs. This method, and then travelled to Hall, where young Barretier says his father, made the Latin more familiar to so distinguished himself in his conversation with him in his fourth year than any other language. the professors of the university, that they offered
When he was near the end of his sixth year, him his degree of doctor in philosophy, a dignity he entered upon the study of the Old Testament correspondent to that of master of arts among in its original language, beginning with the book us. Barretier drew up that night some positions of Genesis, to which his father confined him for in philosophy, and the mathematics, which he six months ; after which he read cursorily over sent immediately to the press, and defended the the rest of the historical books, in which he found next day in a crowded auditory, with so much very little difficulty, and then applied himself to wit, spirit, presence of thought and strength of the study of the poetical writers, and the pro- reason, that the whole university was delighted phets, which he read over so often, with so close and amazed; he was then admitted to his degree, an attention and so happy a memory, that he and attended by the whole concourse to his could not only translate them without a moments lodgings, with coinpliments and acclamations. hesitation into Latin or French, but turn with the His Thesis or philosophical positions, which he same facility the translations into the original lan- printed in compliance with the practice of that guage in his tenth year.
university, ran through several editions in a few Growing at length weary of being confined to weeks, and no testimony of regard was wanting a book which he could almost entirely repeat, he that could contribute to animate him in his prodeviated by stealth into other studies, and as his gress. translation of Benjamin is a sufficient evidence, When they arrived at Berlin, the king ordered he road a multitude of writers of various kinds him to be brought into his presence, and was so In his twelfth year he applied more particularly to much pleased with his conversation, that he sent the study of the fathers, and councils of the six for him almost every day during his stay at Berfirst centuries, and began to make a regular col- lin ; and diverted himself with engaging him in lection of their canons. Hc read every author conversations upon a multitude of subjects, and in the original, having discovered so much negli- in disputes with learned men; on all which occagence or ignorance in most translations, that he sions he acquitted himself so happily, that the paid no regard to their authority.
king formed ihe highest ideas of bis capacity, and Thus he continued his studies, neither drawn future eminence. And thinking, perhaps with aside by pleasures nor discouraged by difficulties. reason, that active life was the noblest sphere The greatest obstacle to his improvement was of a great genius, he recommended to hin the want of books, with which his narrow fortune study of modern history, the customs of nations, could not liberally supply him; so that he was and those parts of learning that are of use ins obliged to borrow the greatest part of those public transactions and civil employments, declam which his studies required, and to return them ring that such abilities properly cultivated might when he had read them, without being able to exalt him, in ten years, to be the greatest minister consult them occasionally, or to recur to them of state in Europe. Barretier, whether we atwhen his memory should fail him.
tribute it to his moderation or inexperience, was It is observable that neither his diligence, un- not dazzled by the prospect of such high promotion, intermitted as it was, nor his want of books, a but answered, that he was too much pleased with want of which he was in the highest degree sen- science and quiet, to leave them for such inextricasible, ever produced in him that asperity, which a ble studies, or such harassing fatigues. A resolong and recluse life, without any circumstance of lution so unpleasing to the king, that his father disquiet frequently creates. He was always gay, attributes to it the delay of those favours which lively and facetious, a temper which contributed they had hopes of receiving, the king having, as much to recommend his learning, and which some he observed, determined to employ him in the students much superior in age would consult ministry. their ease, their reputation, and their interest, by It is not impossible that paternal affection might copying from him.
suggest to Mr. Barretier some false conceptions In the year 1735, he published Anti-Artemo- of the king's design ; for he infers from the innius, sive Initium Evangelii S. Joannis, adversus troduction of his son to the young princes, and Artemonium vindicatum, and attained such a de the caresses which he received from them, that gree of reputation, that not only the public, but the king intended him for their preceptor, a princes, who are commonly the lasi by whom merit scheme, says he, which some other resolution is distinguished, began to interest themselves in happily destroyed. his success, for the same year the king of Prus Whatever was originally intended, and by sia, who had heard of his early advances in whatever means these intentions were frustrated, literature, on account of a scheme for discover- Barretier, after having been treated with the highing the longitude, which had been sent to the est regard by the whole royal family, was disRoyal Society of Berlin, and which was transmissed with a present of two hundred crowns; mitted afterwards by him to Paris and London, and his father instead of being fixed at Stetin, engaged to take care of his fortune, having re- was made pastor of the French church at Hall;
a place more commodious for study, to which P. 340. He is no stranger to biblical criticism. they retired ; Barretier_being first admitted into Having now gained such a degree of skill in the Royal Society at Berlin, and recommended the Hebrew language as to be able to compose in by the king to the university at Hall.
it both in prose and verse, he was extremely deAt Hall he continued his studies with his usual sirous of reading the Rabbins; and having borapplication and success, and, either by his own re- rowed of the neighbouring clergy, and the Jews flections or the persuasions of his father, was of Schwabach, all the books which they could prevailed upon to give up his own inclinations to supply him, he prevailed on his father to buy him those of the king, and direct his inquiries to the great Rabbinical Bible, published at Ansterthose subjects that had been recommended by dam in four tomes, folio, 1723, and read it with him.
that accuracy and attention which appears by the He continued to add new acquisitions to his account of it written by him to his favourité, M. learning, and to increase his reputation by new Le Maitre, inserted in the beginning of the 26th performances, till, in the beginning of his nine- volume of the Bibliotheque Germanique. teenth
year, his health began to decline, and his These writers were read by him, as other young indisposition, which, being not alarming or vio- persons peruse romances or novels, only fiom a lent, was perhaps not at first sufficiently re- puerile desire of amusement; for he had so little garded, increased by slow degrees for eighteen veneration for them, even while he studied them months, during which he spent days among his with most eagerness, that he often diverted his books, and neither neglected his studies, nor left parents with recounting their fables and chimeras. his gayety, till his distemper, ten days before his P. 341. In his twelfth year he applied more par. death, deprived him of the use of his limbs : he ticularly to the study of the Fathers. then prepared himself for his end, without fear or His father being somewhat uneasy to observe emotion, and on the fifth of October, 1740, re- so much time spent by him on Rabbinical trifles, signed his soul into the hands of his Saviour, with thought it necessary now to recall him to the confidence and tranquillity.
study of the Greek language, which he had of
late neglected, but to which he returned with so In the Magazine for 1742, appeared the folloring much ardour, that in a short time he was able to
ADDITIONAL ACCOUNT of the Life of JOHN read Greek with the same facility as French or Philip BARRETIER. *
He then engaged in the perusal of the Greek “As the nature of our Collections requires fathers, and councils of the first three or four centhat our accounts of remarkable persons and turies : and undertook, at his father's desire, to transactions should be early, our readers must confute a treatise of Samuel Crellius, in which, necessarily pardon us, if they are often not com- under the name of Artemonius, he has endeaplete, and allow us to be sufficiently studious of voured to substitute, in the beginning of St. their satisfaction, if we correct our errors, John's gospel, a reading different from that which and supply our defects from subsequent intel- is at present received, and less favourable to the ligence, where the importance of the subject orthodox doctrine of the divinity of our Saviour. merits an extraordinary attention, or when we This task was undertaken by Barretier with have any peculiar opportunities of procuring in- great ardour, and prosecuted by him with suitaformation The particulars here inserted we ble application, for he not only drew up a formal thought proper to annex by way of note to the confutation of Artemonius, but made large collecfollowing passages, quoted from the Magazine tions from the earliest writers, relating
to the hisfor December 1740, and for February 1741." tory of heresies which he proposed at first to have
P. 340. At the age of nine years he not only was published as preliminaries to his book, but, findmaster of five languages.
ing the introduction grew at last to a greater bulk French, which was the native language of his than the book itself, he determined to publish it mother, was that which he learned first, mixed by apart. living in Germany, with some words of the lan While he was engrossed by these inquiries, acguage of the country. After some time his cident threw a pair of globes into his hands in father took care to introduce in his conversation October, 1734, by which his curiosity was so with him some words of Latin, in such a manner much exalted, that he laid aside his Artemonius, that he might discover the meaning of them by and applied himself to geography and astronomy. the connexion of the sentence, or the occasion In ten days he was able to solve all the problems on which they were used, without discovering in the doctrine of the globes, and had attained that he had any intention of instructing bim, or ideas so clear and strong of all the systems, as that any new attainment was proposed.
well ancient as modern, that he began to think of By this method of conversation, in which making new discoveries; and for that purpose, new words were every day introduced, his ear laying aside for a time all searches into antiquity, had been somewhat accustomed to the inflections he employed his utmost interest to procure books and variations of the Latin tongue, he began to of astronomy and of mathematics, and made such attempt to speak like his father, and was in a a progress in three or four months, that he seemshort time drawn on by imperceptible degrees to ed to have spent his whole life upon that study; speak Latin, intermixed with other languages. for he not only made an astrolabe, and drew up
Thus, when he was but four years old, he spoke astronomical tables, but invented new methods of every day French to his mother, Latin to his fa- calculation, or such at least as appeared new to ther, and High Dutch to the maid, without any him, because they were not mentioned in the perplexity to himself, or any confusion of one books which he had then an opportunity of readlanguage with another.
ing, and it is a sufficient proof both of the rapidity
of his progress, and the extent of his views, that The passages referred to in the preceding pages are in three months after his first sight of a pair of printed in Italics
| globes, he formed schemes for finding the longi
tude, which he sent, in Jan. 1735, to the Royal nours or preferments, too soon conferred, infatuSociety at London
ate the greatest capacities. He published an inHis scheme being recommended to the Society vitation to three lectures, one critical on the book by the Queen, was considered by them with a de- of Job, another on astronomy, and a third upon gree of attention which, perhaps, would not have ancient ecclesiastical history. But of this embeen bestowed upon the attempt of a mathema- ployment he was soon made weary by the petutician so young, bad he not been dignified with so lance of his auditors, the fatigue which it occaillustrious a patronage. But it was soon found, sioned, and the interruption of his studies which that for want of books he had imagined himself it produced, and therefore, in a fortnight, he dethe inventor of methods already in common use, sisted wholly from his lectures, and never afterand that he proposed no means of discovering the wards resumed them. longitude, but such as had been already tried and He then applied himself to the study of the law, found insufficient. Such will be very frequently almost against his own inclination, which, howthe fate of those whose fortune either condemns ever, he conquered so far as to become a regular them to study without the necessary assistance attendant on the lectures on that science, but from libraries, or who in too much haste publish spent all his other time upon different studies. their discoveries.
The first year of his residence at Hall was This attempt exhibited, however, such a speci- spent upon natural philosophy and mathematics; men of his capacity for mathematical learning, and scarcely any author, ancient or modern, that and such a proof of an early proficiency, that the has treated on those parts of learning was neglectRoyal Society of Berlin admitted him as one of ed by him, nor was he sa ished with the knowtheir members, in 1735.
ledge of what had been discovered by others, but P. 341. Princes, who are commonly the last. made new observations, and drew up immense
Barretier had been distinguished much more calculations for his own use. early by the Margravine of Anspach, who, in He then returned to ecclesiastical history, and 1726, sent for his father and mother to the court
, began to retouch his “Accountof Heresies," which where their son, whom they carried with them, he had begun at Schwabach: on this occasion he presented her with a letter in French, and ad- read the primitive writers with great accuracy, dressed another in Latin to the young prince; and formed a project of regulating the chronology who afterwards, in 1734, granted l.im the privi- of those ages; which produced a “Chronological lege of borrowing books from the libranes of An- Dissertation on the succession of the Bishops of spach, together with an annual pension of fifty Rome, from St. Peter to Vicur,” printed in Latin florins, which he enjoyed for four years.
at Utrecht, 1740. In this place it may not be improper to recount He afterwards was wholly absorbed in applisome honours conferred upon him, which, if dis- cation to polite literature, and read not only a tinctions are to be rated by the knowledge of multitude of writers in the Greek and Latin, but those who bestow them, may be considered as in the German, Dutch, French, Italian, English, more valuable than those whích he received from and Arabic languages, and in the last year of his princes.
| life he was engrossed by the study of inscriptions, In June 1731, he was initiated in the university medals, and antiquities of all nations. of Altdorft, and at the end of the year 1732, the In 1737, he resumed his design of finding a cersynod of the reformed churches, held at Christian tain method of discovering the longitude, which Erlang, admitted him to be present at their con- he imagined himself to have attained by cxact obsultations, and to preserve the memory of so ex-servations of the declination and inclination of the traordinary a transaction, as the reception of a needle, and sent to the Academy of Sciences, and boy of eleven years into an ecclesiastical council, to the Royal Society of London, at the same recorded it in a particular article of the acts of time, an account of his schemes; to which it was the synod.
first answered by the Royal Society, that it apP. 341. He was too much pleased with science peared the same with one which Mr. Whiston and quiet.
had laid before them; and afterwards by the Astronomy was always Barretier's favourite Academy of Sciences, that his method was but study, and so much engrossed his thoughts, that very little different from one that had been prohe did not willingly converse on any other sub- posed by M. de la Croix, and which was ingeject; nor was he so well pleased with the civilities nious but ineffectual. of the greatest persons, as with the conversation Mr. Barretier, finding his invention already in of the mathematicians. An astronomical obser- the possession of two men eminent for mathemativation was sufficient to withhold him from court, cal knowledge, desisted from all inquiries after or to call him away abruptly from the most illus- the longitude, and engaged in an examination of trious assemblies; nor was there any hope of en- | the Egyptian antiquities, which he proposed to joying his company without inviting some profes- free from their present obscurity, by deciphering sor to keep him in temper, and engage him in the hieroglyphics, and explaining their astronomy, discourse; nor was it possible, without this expe- but this design was interrupted by his death. dient, to prevail upon him to sit for his picture. P. 342. Confidence and tranquillita P. 342. At Hall he continued his studies.
Thus died Barretier, in the 20th year of his age, Mr. Barretier returned, on the 29th of April, having given a proof how much may be performed 1735, to Hall, where he continued the remaining in so short a time by indefatigable diligence. He part of his life, of which it may not be improper to was not only master of many languages, but skillgive a more particular account.
ed almost in every science, and capable of distinAt his settlement in the university he deter- guishing himself in every profession except that mined 10 exert his privileges as master of arts, and of physic, from which he had been discouraged by to read public lectures to the students; a design remarking the diversity of opinions among those from which his father could not dissuade him, who had been consulted concerning his own disthough he did not approve it; so certainly do ho- | orders.
His learning, however vast, had not depressed the writing close, and the titles abridged. Ho or overburdened his natural faculties, for his ge- was a constant reader of literary journals. nius always appeared predominant; and when he With regard to common life he had some peinquired into the various opinions of the writers culiarities. He could not bear music, and if he of all ages, he reasoned and determined for him was ever engaged at play could not attend to it. self, having a mind at once comprehensive and He neither loved wine nor entertainments, nor delicate, active and attentive. He was able to dancing, nor the sports of the field, nor relieved reason with the metaphysicians on the most ab- bis studies with any other diversion than that of struse questions, or to enliven the most unpleas- walking and conversation. He eat little flesh, ing subjects by the gayety of his fancy. He wrote and lived almost wholly upon milk, tea, bread, with great elegance and dignity of style, and had fruits, and sweetmeats. the peculiar felicity of readiness and facility in He had great vivacity in his imagination, and every thing that he undertook, being able without ardour in his desires, which the easy method of premeditation to translate one language into ano- his education had never repressed; he therefore ther. He was no imitator, but struck out new conversed among those who had gained his contracts, and formed original systems. He had a fidence with great freedom, but his favourites quickness of apprehension, and firmness of me were not numerous, and to others he was always mory, which enabled him to read with incredible reserved and silent, without the least inclination rapidity, and at the same time to retain what he to discover his sentiments or display his learnmg. read, so as to be able to recollect and apply it. He never fixed his choice upon any employment, He turned over volumes in an instant, and se nor contined his views to any profession, being lected what was useful for his purpose.' He sel- desirous of nothing but knowledge, and entirely dom made extracts, except of books which he untainted with avarice or ambition. He precould not procure when he might want them a served himself always independent, and was second time, being always able to find in any au- never known to be guilty of a lie. His constant thor, with great expedition, what he had once application to learning suppressed those passions read. He read over, in one winter, twenty vast which betray others of his age to irregularities, folios; and the catalogue of books which he bad and excluded all those temptations to which men borrowed, comprised forty-one pages in quarto, I are exposed by idleness or common amusements.
LEWIS MORIN was born at Mans, on the 11th in a course of life, which was never exceeded of July, 1635, of parents eminent for their piety. either by the ostentation of a philosopher, or the He was the eldest of sixteen children, a family to severity of an anchoret ; for he confined himself which their estate bore no proportion, and which, to bread and water, and at most allowed himself in persons less resigned to Providence, would no indulgence beyond fruits. By this method, he have caused great uneasiness and anxiety. preserved a constant freedom and serenity of
His parents omitted nothing in his education, spirits, always equally proper for study; for his which religion requires, and which their fortune soul had no pretences to complain of being overcould supply. Botany was the study that ap-whelmed with matter. peared to have taken possession of his inclina This regimen, extraordinary as it was, had tion, as soon as the bent of his genius could be many advantages; for it preserved his health, an discovered. A countryman, who supplied the advantage which very few sufficiently regard; it apothecaries of the place, was his first master, gave him an authority to preach diet and aband was paid by him for his instructions with the stinence to his patients; and it made him rich little money that he could procure, or that which without the assistance of fortune ; rich, not for was given him to buy something to eat after din himself, but for the poor, who were the only perner. This abstinence and generosity discovered sons benefited by that artificial aMuence, which, themselves with his passion for botany, and the of all others, is inost difficult to acquire. It is gratification of a desire indifferent in itself was easy to imagine, that, while he practised in the procured by the exercise of two virtues. midst of Paris the severe temperance of a hermit,
He was soon master of all his instructor's Paris differed no otherwise, with regard to him, knowledge, and was obliged to enlarge his ac- from a hermitage, than as it supplied him with quaintance with plants, by observing them him- books and the conversation of learned men. self in the neighbourhood of Mans. Having In 1662, he was admitted doctor of physic. finished his grammatical studies, he was sent to About that time Dr. Fagon, Dr. Longuet, and Dr. learn philosophy at Paris, whither he travelled on Galois, all eminent for their skill in botany, were foot like a student in botany, and was careful not employed in drawing up a catalogue of the plants to lose such an opportunity of improvement. in the Royal Garden, which was published in
When his course of philosophy was completed, 1665, under the name of Dr. Vallot, then first he was determined, by his love of botany, to the physician : during the prosecution of this work, profession of physic, and from that time engaged | Dr. Morin was often consulted, and from these
conversations it was that Dr. Fagon conceived a * Translated from an eloge by Fontenelle, and first particular esteem of him, which he always conprinted in the Gentleman's Magazine for 1741.
tinued to retain
After having practised physic some years, he When Mr. Tournefort went to pursue his bowas admitted Expectant at the Hotel Dieu, where tanical inquiries in the Levant, he desired Dr. he was regularly to have been made Pensionary Morin to supply his place of Demonstrator of the physician upon the first vacancy ; but mere un- Plants in the Royal Garden, and rewarded him assisted merit advances slowly, if
, what is not for the trouble, by inscribing to him a new plant very common, it advances at all. Morin had no which he brought from the east, by the name of acquaintance with the arts necessary to carry on Morina Orientalis, as he named others the Dodarschemes of preferment; the moderation of his to, the Fagonne, the Bignonne, the Phelipee. These desires preserved him from the necessity of study are compliments proper to be made by the boing them, and the privacy of his life debarred him tanists, not only to those of their own rank, but froin any opportunity.
to the greatest persons; for a plant is a momAt last, however, justice was done him in spite ment of a more durable nature than a medal or of artifice and partiality ; but his advancement an obelisk; and yet, as a proof that even these added nothing to his condition, except the power vehicles are not always sufficient to transmit to of more extensive charity; for all the money futurity the name conjoined with them, the Nicowhich he received as a salary, he put into the tiana is now scarcely known by any other name chest of the hospital, always, as he imagined, than that of tobacco. without being observed. Not content with serv Dr. Morin, advancing far in age, was now ing the poor for nothing, he paid them for being forced to take a servant, and, what was yet a served.
more essential alteration, prevailed upon himself His reputation rose so high in Paris, that Made to take an ounce of wine a day, which he meamoiselle de Guise was desirous to make him her sured with the same exactness as a medicine borphysician ; but it was not without difficulty that dering upon poison. He quitted at the same time he was prevailed upon by his friend, Dr. Dodart
, all his practice in the city, and confined it to the to accept the place. He was by this new ad- poor of his neighbourhood, and his visits to the vancement laid under the necessity of keeping a Hotel Dieu ; but his weakness increasing, he was chariot, an equipage very unsuitable to his tem- forced to increase his quantity of wine, which yet per; but while he coinplied with those exterior he always continued to adjust by weight.* appearances which the public had a right to de At 78, his legs could carry him no longer, and mand from him, he remitted nothing of his former he scarcely left his bed; but his intellects conausterity in the more private and essential parts tinued unimpaired, except in the last six months of his life
, which he had always the power of of his life. He expired, or to use a more proper regulating according to his own disposition. term, went out, on the 1st of March, 1714, at the
In two years and a half the Princess fell sick, age of 30 years, without any distemper, and mereand was despaired of by Morin, who was a great ly for want of strength, having enjoyed by the master of prognostics. At the time when she benefit of his regimen a long and healthy life, and thought herself in no danger, he pronounced her a gentle and easy death. death inevitable; a declaration to the highest de This extraordinary regimen was but part of gree disagreeable, but which was made more easy the daily regulation of his life, of which all the to him than to any other by his piety and artless offices were carried on with a regularity and exsimplicity. Nor did his sincerity produce any ill actness nearly approaching to that of the planeconsequences to himself; for the Princess, affected tary motions. by his zeal, taking a ring from her finger, gave it He went to bed at seven, and rose at two, him as the last pledge of her affection, and re- throughout the year. He spent in the morning warded him still more to his satisfaction, by pre- three hours at his devotions, and went to the Hoparing for death with a true christian piety. She tel Dieu in the sunner between five and six, and left him by will a yearly pension of two thousand in the winter between six and seven, hearing mass livres, which was always regularly paid him. for the most part at Notre Dame. After his re
No sooner was the Princess dead, but he freed turn he read the holy scripture, dined at eleven, himself from the incumbrance of his chariot, and and when it was fair weather walked till two in retired to St. Victor without a servant; having, the royal garden, where he examined the new however, augmented his daily allowance with a plants, and gratified his earliest and strongest little rice boiled in water.
passion. For the remaining part of the day, if Dodart, who had undertaken the charge of be- he had no poor to visit, he shut himself up, and ing ambitious on his account, procured him, at read books of literature or physic, but chiefly the restoration of the academy in 1699, to be physic, as the duty of his profession required. nominated associate botanist ; not knowing, what This likewise was the time he received vísits, if he would doubtless have been pleased with the any were paid him. He often used this expresknowledge of, that he introduced into that assem sion, “Those that come to see me, do me honour; bly the man that was to succeed him in his place those that stay away, do me a favour.” It is easy of Pensionary.
to conceive that a man of this temper was not Dr. Morin was not one who had upon his hands crowded with salutations: there was only now the labour of adapting himself to the duties of and then an Antony that would pay Paul a visit. his condition, but always found himself naturally adapted to them. He had, therefore, no difficulty The practice of Dr. Morin is forbidden, I believe, in being constant at the assemblies of the acade- by every writer that has left rules for the preservation of my, notwithstanding the distance of places, while health, and is directly opposite to that of Conaro, who he had strength enough to support the journey. tracted his life
, without any painful infirmities, or any But his regimen was not equally effectual to pro- decay of his intellectual abilities, to more than a hundred duce our as to prevent distempers; and being years ; it is generally agreed, that as nen advance in
years, they onght to iake lighter susten ince, and in lead 64 years old at his admission, he could not con
quantities; and reason seems casily to discover that an tinue his assiduity more than a year after the the concoctive powers grow weaker, they ought to labour death of Dodart, whom he succeeded in 1707. less.-Orig. Edit.