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known, and added to the literary treasures of ceed each other ; by what accident the most their native country.

gloomy nights of ignorance have given way to That our catalogue will excite any other man the dawn of science, and how learning has lanto emulate the collectors of this

rary, to pre- guished and decayed, for want of patronage and fer books and manuscripts to equipage and lux- regard, or been overborne by the prevalence of ury, and to forsake noise and diversion for the fashionable ignorance, or lost amidst the tumults conversation of the learned, and the satisfaction of invasion and the storms of violence, All of extensive knowledge, we are very far from those who desire any knowledge of the literary presuming to hope; but shall make no scruple transactions of past ages, may find in catalogues, to assert, that, if any man should happen to be like this at least, such an account as is given by seized with such laudable ambition, he may find annalists and chronologers of civil history. in this catalogue hints and informations, which How the knowledge of the sacred writings has are not easily to be met with; he will discover, been diffused, will be observed from the catathat the boasted Bodleian library is very far logue of the various editions of the Bible, from from a perfect model, and that even the learned the first impression by Fust, in 1462, to the preFabricius cannot completely instruct him in the sent time; in which will be contained the polyearly editions of the classic writers.

glot editions of Spain, France, and England, those But the collectors of libraries cannot be nu- of the original Hebrew, the Greek Septuagint, merous; and, therefore, catalogues cannot very and the Latin Vulgate : with the versions which properly be recommended to the public, if they are now used in the remotest parts of Europe, had not a more general and frequent use, a use in the country of the Grisons, in Lithuania, Bowhich every student has experienced, or ne hemia, Finland, and Iceland. glected to his loss. By the means of catalogues With regard to the attempts of the same kind only can it be known, what has been written on made in our country, there are few whose exevery part of learning, and the hazard avoided pectations will not be exceeded by the number of encountering difficulties which have already of English bibles, of which not one is forgotten, been cleared, discussing questions which have whether valuable for the pomp and beauty of the already been decided, and digging in mines of impression, or for the notes with which the text literature which former ages have exhausted. is accompanied, or for any controversy or per

How often this has been the fate of students, secution that it produced, or for the peculiarity every man of letters can declare; and, perhaps, of any single passage. With the same care have there are very few who have not sometimes the various editions of the book of commonvalued as new discoveries, made by themselves, prayer been selected, from which all the alterathose observations which have long since been tions which have been made in it may be easily published, and of which the world therefore will remarked. refuse them the praise; nor can the refusal be Among a great number of Roman missals censured as any enormous violation of justice; and breviaries, remarkable for the beauty of for, why should they not forfeit by their ig- their cuts and illuminations, will be found the norance, what they might claim by their saga- Mosarabic missal and breviary, that raised such city?

commotions in the kingdom of Spain. To illustrate this remark, by the mention of The controversial treaties written in England, obscure names, would not much confirm it; and about the time of the Reformation, have been to villify for this purpose the memory of men diligently collected, with a multitude of remarktruly great, would be to deny them the reve- able tracts, single sermons, and small treatises ; rence which they may justly claim from those which, however worthy to be preserved, are perwhom their writings have instructed. May the haps to be found in no other place. shade, at least, of one great English critic rest The regard which was always paid by the without disturbance; and may no man presume collectors of this library, to that remarkable peto insult his memory, who wants his learning, riod of time in which the art of printing was his reason, or his wit.

invented, determined them to accumulate the From the vexatious disappointment of meet- ancient impressions of the fathers of the church; ing reproach, where praise is expected, every to which the later editions are added, lest antiman will certainly desire to be secured; and quity should have seemed more worthy of esteem therefore that book will have some claim to his than accuracy. regard, from which he may receive informations History has been considered with the regard of the labours of his predecessors, such as a cata- due to that study by which the manners are logue of the Hardeian library will copiously af- most easily formed, and from which the most ford him.

efficacious instruction is received; nor will the Nor is the use of catalogues of less importance most extensive curiosity fail of gratification in to those whom curiosity has engaged in the this library; from which no writers have been study of literary history, and who think the in- excluded, that relate either to the religious or tellectual revolutions of the world more worthy civil affairs of any nation. of their attention than the ravages of tyrants, Not only those authors of ecclesiastical histhe desolation of kingdoms, the rout of armies, tory have been procured that treat of the state and the fall of empires. Those who are pleased of religion in general, or deliver accounts of sects with observing the first birth of new opinions, or nations, but those likewise who have confined their struggles against opposition, their silent themselves to particular orders of men in every progress under persecution, their general re-church; who have related the original, and the ception, and their gradual decline, or sudden rules of every society, or recounted the lives of extinction ; those that amuse themselves with its founder and its members ; those who have remarking the different periods of human know- deduced in every country the succession of ledge, and observe bow darkness and light suc- bishops, and those who have employed their

abilities in celebrating the piety of particular volumes, pamphlets, and papers which weru saints, or martyrs, or monks, or nuns.

published by either party; and such is the car, The civil history of all nations has been with which they have been preserved. amassed together; nor is it easy to determine Nor is history without the necessary preparawhich has been thought most worthy of curi- tives and attendants, geography and chronology: osity.

of geography, the best writers and delineators of France, not only the general histories and have been procured, and pomp and accuracy ancient chronicles, the accounts of celebrated have both been regarded: the student of chronoreigns, and narratives of remarkable events, but logy may here find likewise those authors who even the memorials of single families, the lives I searched the records of time, and fixed the peof private men, the antiquities of particular cities, riods of history. churches, and monasteries, the topography of With the historians and geographers may be provinces, and the accounts of laws, customs, ranked the writers of voyages and travels, which and prescriptions, are here to be found. may be read here in the Latin, English, Dutch,

The several states of Italy have, in this trea- German, French, Italian, and Spanish lansury, their particular historians, whose accounts guages., are, perhaps, generally more exact, by being less The laws of different countries, as they are extensive; and more interesting, by being inore in themselves equally worthy of curiosity with particular.

their history, have, in this colleetion, been justly Nor has less regard been paid to the different regarded; and the rules by which the various nations of the Germanic empire, of which nei- communities of the world are governed, may be ther the Bohemians, nor Hungarians, nor Aus- here examined and compared. Here are the trians, nor Bavarians have been neglected; nor ancient editions of the papal decretals, and the have their antiquities, however generally disre- commentators on the civil law, the edicts of garded, been less studiously searched than their Spain and the statutes of Venice. present state.

But with particular industry have the various The northern nations have supplied this col. writers on the laws of our own country been lection, not only with history, but poetry, with collected from the most ancient to the present Gothic antiquities and Runic inscriptions; which time, from the bodies of the statutes to the miat least have this claim to veneration above the nutest treatise; not only the reports, precedents, remains of the Roman magnificence, that they are and readings of our own courts, but even the the works of those heroes by whom the Roman laws of our West Indian colonies, will be exempire was destroyed; and which may plead, at hibited in our catalogue. least in this nation, that they ought not to be But neither history nor law have been so far neglected by those that owe to the men whose able to engross this library, as to exclude phymemories they preserve, their constitution, their sic, philosophy, or criticism. Those have been properties, and their liberties.

thought, with justice, worthy of a place, who The curiosity of these collectors extends have examined the different species of animals, equally to all parts of the world; nor did they delineated their forms, or described their proforget to add to the northern the southern writers, perties and instincts; or who have penetrated or to adorn their collection with chronicles of the bowels of the earth, treated on its different Spain, and the conquest of Mexico.

strata, and analyzed its metals; or who have Even of those nations with which we have less amused themselves with less laborious speculaintercourse, whose customs are less accurately tions, and planted trees, or cultivated flowers. known, and whose history is less distinctly re Those that have exalted their thoughts above counted, there are in this library reposited such the minuter parts of the creation, who have obaccounts as the Europeans have been hitherto served the motions of the heavenly bodies, and able to obtain ; nor are the Mogul, the Tartar, attempted systems of the universe, have not the Turk, and the Saracen, without their his- been denied the honour which they deserved by torians.

so great an attempt, whatever has been their That persons so inquisitive with regard to success. Nor have those mathematicians been the transactions of other nations, should inquire rejected, who have applied their science to the yet more ardently after the history of their own, common purposes of life; or those that have may be naturally expected ; and indeed, this deviated into the kindred arts of tactics, archipart of the library is no common instance of tecture, and fortification. diligence and accuracy. Here are to be found, Even arts of far less importance have found with the ancient chronicles, and larger histories their authors, nor have these authors been deof Britain, the narratives of single reigns, and spised by the boundless curiosity of the proprithe accounts of remarkable revolutions, the to- etors of the Harleian library. The writers on pographical histories of counties, the pedigrees horsemanship and fencing are more numerous, of families, the antiquities of churches and cities, and more bulky than could be expected by those the proceedings of parliaments, the records of who reflect how seldom those excel in either, monasteries, and the lives of particular men, whom their education has qualified to composé whether eminent in the church or in the state, books. or remarkable in private life; whether exem The admirer of Greek and Roman literature plary for their virtues, or detestable for their will meet, in this collection, with editions little crimes; whether persecuted for religion, or exe- known to the most inquisitive critics, and which cuted for rebellion.

have escaped the observation of those whose That memorable period of the English history, great employment has been the collation of which begins with the reign of king Charles the copies; nor will he find only the most ancient First, and ends with the Restoration, will almost editions of Faustus, Jenson, Spira, Sweynheim furnish a library alone, such is the number of | and Pannartz, but the most accurate likewise


and beautiful of Colinæus, the Juntæ, Plantin, | loss of the same kind should be disadvantageous Aldus, the Stephens, and Elzevir, with the com to him, no man will hereafter willingly risk his mentaries and observations of the most learned fortune in the cause of learning. editors.

Nor are they accompanied only with the illustrations of those who have confined their attempts to particular writers, but of those likewise who have treated on any part of the Greek

PREFACE or Roman antiquities, their laws, their customs, their dress, their buildings, their wars, their

VOL. III. revenues, or the rites and ceremonies of their worship, and those that have endeavoured to Having prefixed to the former volumes of my explain any of their authors from their statutes Catalogue an account of the prodigious collecor their coins.

tion accumulated in the Harleian library, there Next to the ancients, those writers deserve to would have been no necessity of any

introducbe mentioned, who, at the restoration of litera- tion to the subsequent volumes, had not some ture, imitated their language and their style censures which this great undertaking has drawn with so great success, or who laboured with 80 upon me, made it proper to offer to the public an much industry to make them understood : such apology for my conduct. were Philelphus and Politian, Scaliger and The price which I have set upon my cataBuchanan, and the poets of the age of Leo the logue, has been represented by the booksellers as Tenth; these are likewise to be found in this an avaricious innovation ; and, in a paper publibrary, together with the Deliciæ, or collections lished in the Champion, they, or their mercenary, of all nations.

have reasoned so justly, as to allege, that, if I Painting is so nearly allied to poetry, that it could afford a very large price for the library, I cannot be wondered that those who have so might therefore afford to give away the Catamuch esteemed the one, have paid an equal re- logue. gard to the other; and therefore it may be easily I should have imagined that accusations, conimagined, that the collection of prints is nume- certed by such heads as these, would have varous in an uncommon degree; but, surely, the nished of themselves, without any answer; but, expectation of every man will be exceeded, when since I have the mortification to find that they he is informed that there are more than forty have been in some degree regarded by men of thousand engraven from Raphael, Titian, Guido, more knowledge than themselves, I shall explain the Carraches, and a thousand others, by Nan, the motive of my procedure. teuil, Hollar, Collet, Edelinck, and Dorigny, and My original design was, as I have already ex., other engravers of equal reputation.

plained, to publish a methodical and exact CataThere is also a great collection of original logue of this library, upon the plan which has drawings, of which three seem to deserve a par- been laid down, as I am informed by several men ticular mention : the first exhibits a representa- of the first rank among the learned. It was intion of the inside of St. Peter's church at Rome; tended by those who undertook the work, to the second, of that of St. John Lateran; and the make a very exact disposition of all the subjects, third, of the high altar of St. Ignatius : all paint and to give an account of the remarkable differed with the utmost accuracy, in their proper ences of the editions, and the other peculiarities, colours.

which make any book eminently valuable: and As the value of this great collection may be it was imagined, that some improvements might, conceived from this account, however imperfect

, by pursuing this scheme, be made in literary as the variety of subjects must engage the curi- history. osity of men of different studies, inclinations, and With this view was the Catalogue begun, employments, it may be thought of very little when the price was fixed upon it in public use to mention any slighter advantages, or to advertisements; and it cannot be denied, that dwell on the decorations and embellishments such a Catalogue would have been willingly purwhich the generosity of the proprietors has be- chased by those who understood its use. But, stowed upon it; yet, since the compiler of the when a few sheets had been printed, it was disThuanian catalogue thought not even that species covered that the scheme was impracticable, withof elegance below his observation, it may not be out more hands than could be procured, or more improper to observe, that the Harleian library, time than the necessity of a speedy sale would perhaps, excels all others, not more in the num- allow : the Catalogue was therefore continued ber and excellence, than in the splendour of its without notes, at least in the greatest part; and, volumes.

though it was still performed better than those We may now surely be allowed to hope, that which are daily offered to the public, fell much our catalogue will not be thought unworthy of below the original design. the public curiosity ; that it will be purchased as It was then no longer proper to insist upon a a record of this great collection, and preserved as price; and therefore, though money was deone of the memorials of learning.

manded upon the delivery of the Catalogue, it The patrons of literature will forgive the pur- was only taken as a pledge that the Catalogue chaser of this library, if he presumes to assert was not, as is very frequent, wantonly called for, some claim to their protection and encourage- by those who never intended to peruse it, and I ment, as he may have been instrumental in con- therefore promised that it should be taken again tinuing to this nation the advantage of it. The in exchange for any book rated at the same sale of Vossius's collection into a foreign coun- value. try, is, to this day, regretted by men of letters; It may be still said, that other booksellers give and if this effort for the prevention of another away their catalogues without any such precau

tion, and that I ought not to make any new or If, therefore, I have set a high value upon extraordinary demands. But, I hope, it will be books—if I have vainly imagined literature to be considered, at how much greater expense my more fashionable than it really is, or idly hopea Catalogue was drawn up: and be remembered, to revive a taste well nigh extinguished, I know that when other booksellers give their catalogues, not why I should be persecuted with clamour they give only what will be of no use when their and invective, since I only shall suffer by my books are sold, and what, if it remained in their mistake, and be obliged to keep those books hands, they must throw away; whereas I hope which I was in hopes of selling; that this Catalogue will retain its use, and, con If those who charge me with asking a high sequently, its value, and be sold with the cata- price, will explain their meaning, it may be poslogues of the Barberinian and Marckian libraries.sible to give them an answer less general. If

However, to comply with the utmost expecta- they measure the price at which the books are tions of the world, I have now published the now offered, by that at which they were bought second part of my Catalogue, upon conditions by the late possessor, they will find it diminished still more commodious for the purchaser, as I at least three parts in four: If they would comintend, that all those who are pleased to receive pare it with the demands of other booksellers, them at the same price of five shillings a volume, they must find the same books in their hands, shall be allowed at any time, within three months and they will be, perhaps, at last reduced to after the day of sale, either to return them in ex, confess, that they mean, by a high price, only a change for books, or to send them back, and price higher than they are inclined to give. receive their money.

I have, at least, a right to hope, that no genSince, therefore, I have absolutely debarred tleman will receive an account of the price from myself from receiving any advantage from the the booksellers, of whom it may easily be imasale of the Catalogue, it will be reasonable to gined that they will be willing, since they canimpute it rather to necessity than choice, that I not depreciate the books, to exaggerate the price: shall continue it to two volumes more, which the and I will boldly promise those who have been number of the single tracts which have been disco- influenced by malevolent reports, that, if they vered, make indispensably requisite. I need not will be pleased, at the day of sale, to examine tell those who are acquainted with affairs of this the prices with their own eyes, they will find kind, how much pamphlets swell a catalogue, them lower than they have been represented. since the title of the least book may be as long as that of the greatest.

Pamphlets have been for many years, in this nation, the canals of controversy, politics, and

AN ESSAY sacred history, and therefore will, doubtless, fur. nish occasion to a very great number of curious ON THE ORIGIN AND IMPORTANCE OF SMALL remarks. And I take this opportunity of proposing to those who are delighted with this kind Written for the Introduction to the Harleian of study, that, if they will encourage me, by a

Miscellany. reasonable subscription, to employ men qualified Though the scheme of the following Miscelto make the observations for which this part of lany is so obvious, that the title alone is sufficient the catalogue will furnish occasion, I will pro- to explain it; and though several collections have cure the whole fifth and sixth volumes to be exe- been formerly attempted upon plans, as to the cuted in the same manner with the most laboured method very little, but, as to the capacity and part of this, and interspersed with notes of the execution, very different from ours; we being same kind.

possessed of the greatest variety for such a If any excuse was necessary for the addition work, hope for a more general reception than of these volumes, I have already urged in my de- those confined schemes had the fortune to meet fence the strongest plea, no less than absolute with ; and, therefore, think it not wholly unnecessity, it being impossible to comprise in four necessary to explain our intentions, to display volumes, however large, or however closely the treasure of materials out of which this Misprinted, the titles which yet remain to be men- cellany is to be compiled, and to exhibit a tioned

general idea of the pieces which we intend to But, I suppose, none will blame the multipli- insert in it. cation of volumes, to whatever number they There is, perhaps, no nation in which it is so may be continued, which every one may use necessary, as in our own, to assemble from time without buying them, and which are therefore to time the small tracts and fugitive pieces which published at no expense but my own.

are occasionally published; for, besides the geneThere is one accusation súll remaining, by ral subjects of inquiry, which are cultivated by which I am more sensibly affected, and which I us, in common with every other learned nation, am therefore desirous to obviate, before it has our constitution in church and state naturally too long prevailed. I hear that I am accused of gives birth to a multitude of performances which rating my books at too high a price, at a price would either not have been written, or could not which no other person would demand. To an- have been made public in any other place. swer this accusation, it is necessary to inquire The form of our government, which gives every what those who urge it mean by a high price. man that has leisure, or curiosity, or vanity, the The price of things valuable for their rarity is en- right of inquiring into the propriety of public tirely arbitrary, and depends upon the variable measures, and by consequence, obliges those who taste of mankind, and the casual fluctuation of are intrusted with the administration of national the fashion, and can never be ascertained like affairs, to give an account of their conduct to that of things only estimable according to their almost every man who demands it, may be rea

sonably imagined to have occasioned innumera



ble pamphlets, which would never have appeared short time, or omitted in formal relations, and under arbitrary governments, where every man which are yet to be considered as sparks of truth, lulls himself in indolence under calamities, of which, when united, may afford light in some which he cannot promote the redress, or thinks it of the darkest scenes of state, as, we doubt not, prudence to conceal the uneasiness, of which he will be sufficiently proved in the course of this cannot complain without danger.

Miscellany; and which it is, therefore, the inThe multiplicity of religious sects tolerated terest of the public to preserve unextinguished. among us, of which every one has found oppo The same observation may be extended to nents and vindicators, is another source of subjects of yet more importance. In controunexhaustible publication, almost peculiar to versies that relate to the truths of religion, the ourselves; for controversies cannot be long con- first essays of reformation are generally timotinued, nor frequently revived, where an inquisi- rous; and those who have opinions to offer, tor has a righi to shut up the disputants in which they expect to be opposed, produce their dungeons; or where silence can be imposed on sentiments by degrees, and, for the most part, in either party by the refusal of a license.

small tracts: by degrees, that they may not Not that it should be inferred from hence, that shock their readers with too many novelties political or religious controversies are the only at once; and in small tracts, that they may be products of the liberty of the British press; the easily dispersed, or privately printed'; almost mind once let loose to inquiry, and suffered to every controversy, therefore, has been, for a operate without restraint, necessarily deviates time, carried on in pamphlets, nor has swelled into peculiar opinions, and wanders in new tracks, into larger volumes, till the first ardour of the where she is indeed sometimes lost in a labyrinth, disputants has subsided, and they have recolfrom which though she cannot return, and scarce lected their notions with coolness enough to knows how to proceed, yet sometimes makes digest them into order, consolidate them into sysuseful discoveries, or finds out nearer paths to tems, and fortify them with authorities. knowledge.

From pamphlets, consequently, are to be The boundless liberty with which every man learned the progress of every debate ; the varimay write his own thoughts, and the opportu- ous state to which the questions have been nity of conveying new sentiments to the public, changed; the artifices and fallacies which have without danger of sufering either ridicule or been used, and the subterfuges by which reason censure, which every man may enjoy, whose has been eluded; in such writings may be seen vanity does not incite him too hastily to own his how the mind has been opened by degrees, how performances, naturally invites those who em one truth has led to another, how error has been ploy themselves in speculation, to try how their disentangled, and hints improved to demonstranotions will be received by a nation, which ex- tion, which pleasure, and many others are empts caution from fear, and modesty from lost by him that only reads the larger writers, shame; and it is no wonder, that where repu- by whom these scattered sentiments are coltation may be gained, but needs not be lost, lected, who will see none of the changes of multitudes are willing to try their fortune, and fortune which every opinion has passed through, thrust their opinions into the light; sometimes will have no opportunity of remarking the tranwith unsuccessful haste, and sometimes with sient advantages which error may sometimes happy temerity.

obtain, by the artifices of its patron, or the sucIt is observed, that, among the natives of cessful rallies by which truth regains the day, England, is to be found a greater variety of hu- after a repulse; but will be to him, who traces mour, than in any other country; and doubt the dispute through into particular gradations, less, where every man has a full liberty to pro- as he that hears of a victory, to him that sees pagate his conceptions, variety of humour must the battle. produce variety of writers ; and, where the Since the advantages of preserving these small number of authors is so great, there cannot but tracts are so numerous, our attempt to unite be some worthy of distinction.

them in volumes cannot be thought either useAll these, and many other causes, too tedious less or unseasonable ; for there is no other meto be enumerated, have contributed to make thod of securing them from accidents; and they pamphlets and small tracts a very important part have already been so long neglected that this of an English library; nor are there any pieces, design cannot be delayed, without hazarding upon which those, who aspire to the reputation the loss of many pieces, which deserve to be of judicious collectors of books, bestow more transmitted to another age. attention, or greater expense; because many The practice of publishing pamphlets on the advantages may be expected from the perusal of most important subjects, has now prevailed these small productions, which are scarcely to more than two centuries among us; and therebe found in that of larger works.

fore it cannot be doubted, but that, as no large If we regard history, it is well known that collections have been yet made, many curious most political treatises have for a long time ap- tracts must have perished; but it is too late to peared in this form, and that the first relations lament that loss; por ought we to reflect upon of transactions, while they are yet the subject it, with any other view, than that of quickening of conversation, divide the opinions, and employ our endeavours for the preservation of those the conjectures of mankind, are delivered by that yet remain; of which we have now a these petty writers who have opportunities of greater number than was perhaps ever amassed collecting the different sentiments of disputants, by any one person, of inquiring the truth from living witnesses, The first appearance of pamphlets among us, and of copying their representations from the is generally thought to be at the new opposition life ; and, therefore, they preserve a multitude raised against the errors and corruptions of the of particular incidents, which are forgotten in al Church of Rome. Those who were first con.

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