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vinced of the reasonableness of the new learn- I whom they were written, or to whom they were
ing, as it was then called, propagated their sold.
opinions in small pieces, which were cheaply The next reign is too well known to have
printed; and, what was then of great impor- been a time of confusion, and disturbance, and
tance, easily concealed.

These treatises were disputes of every kind; and the writings which
generally printed in foreign countries, and are were produced, bear a natural proportion to the
not, therefore, always very correct. There was number of questions that were discussed at that
not then that opportunity of printing in private ; time; each party had its authors and its presses,
for the number of printers was small, and the and no endeavours were omitted to gain prose-
presses were easily overlooked by the clergy, lytes to every opinion. I know not whether
who spared no labour or vigilance for the sup- this may not properly be called The Age of
pression of heresy. There is, however, reason Pamphlets ; for, though they, perhaps, may not
to suspect, that some attempts were made to arise to such multitudes as Mr. Rawlinson ima-
carry on the propagation of truth by a secret gined, they were, undoubtedly, more numerous
press; for one of the first treatises in favour of than can be conceived by any who have not had
the reformation, is said, at the end, to be printed an opportunity of examining them.
at Greenwich, by the permission of the Lord of After the Restoration, the same differences, in
Hosts.

religious opinions, are well known to have subIn the time of king Edward the Sixth, the sisted, and the same political struggles to have presses were employed in favour of the reform- been frequently renewed; and, therefore, a great ed religion, and small tracts were dispersed over number of pens were employed, on different octhe nation, to reconcile them to the new forms casions, till at length all other disputes were of worship. In this reign, likewise, political | absorbed in the popish controversy. pamphlets may be said to have begun, by the From the pamphlets which these different addresses of the rebels of Devonshire; all which periods of time produced, it is proposed, that means of propagating the sentiments of the this Miscellany shall be compiled; for which it people so disturbed the court, that no sooner cannot be supposed that materials will be wantwas queen Mary resolved to reduce her subjects ing; and, therefore, the only difficulty will be in to the Romish superstition, but she artfully, by what manner to dispose them. a charter* granted to certain freemen of Lon Those who have gone before us in underdon, in whose fidelity, no doubt, she confided, takings of this kind, have ranged the pamphlets, entirely prohibited all presses, but what should which chance threw into their hands, without be licensed by them; which charter is that by any regard either to the subject on which they which the corporation of Stationers in London is treated, or the time in which they were written; at this time incorporated.

a practice in no wise to be imitated by us, who Under the reign of queen Elizabeth, when want for no materials; of which we shall choose liberty again began to flourish, the practice of those we think best for the particular circumwriting pamphlets became more general, presses stances of times and things, and most instructwere multiplied, and books were dispersed; and, ing and entertaining to the reader. I believe, it may properly be said, that the Of the different methods which present themtrade of writing began at that time, and that it selves upon the first view of the great heaps of has ever since gradually increased in the num- pamphlets which the Harleian library exhibits, ber, though, perhaps, not in the style of those the two which merit most attention are, to disthat followed it.

tribute the treatises acccording to their subjects, In this reign was erected the first secret press or their dates; but neither of these ways can be against the church as now established, of which conveniently followed. By ranging our collecI have found any certain account. It was em- tion in order of time, we must necessarily publish ployed by the Puritans and conveyed from one those pieces first, which least engage the curipart of the nation to another, by them, as they osity of the bulk of mankind; and our design found themselves in danger of discovery, From must fall to the ground, for want of encouragethis press issued most of the pamphleis against ment, before it can be so far advanced as to obWhitgift and his associates in the ecclesiastical tain general regard: by confining ourselves for government, and, when it was at last seized at any long time to any single subject, we shall Manchester, it was employed upon a pamphlet reduce our readers to one class; and, as we called More Work for a Cooper.

shall lose all the grace of variety, shall disgust In the peaceable reign of King James, those all those who read chiefly to be diverted. There minds which might, perhaps, with less disturb- is likewise one objection of equal force against ance of the world have been engrossed by war, both these methods, that we shall preclude ourwere employed in controversy; and writings of selves from the advantage of any future discoveall kinds were multiplied among us. The press, ries; and we cannot hope to assernble at once however, was not wholly engaged in polemical all the pamplets which have been written in any performances, for more innocent subjects were age or on any subject. sometimes treated; and it deserves to be re It may be added, in vindication of our inmarked, because it is not generally known, that tended practice, that it is the same with that of the treatises of Husbandry and Agriculture, Photius, whose collections are no less miscellawhich were published about that time, are so neous than ours; and who declares, that he numerous, that it can scarcely be imagined by leaves it to his reader to reduce his extracts

under their proper heads.

Most of the pieces which shall be offered in * Which begins thus: “Know ye, that We, consider; this collection to the public, will be introduced heretical books or tracts-against the faith and sound by short prefaces, in which will be given some catholic doctrine of holy mother, the church,” &c. account of the reasons for which they are in

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serted; notes will be sometimes adjoined, for the withstanding every subject may not be relished explanation of obscure passages, or obsolete ex- by every reader, yet the buyer may be assured pressions; and care will be taken to mingle use that each number will repay his generous suband pleasure through the whole collection. Not-scription.

A VIEW OF THE CONTROVERSY

BETWEEN

MONS. CROUSAZ AND MR. WARBURTON,

ON THE SUBJECT OF

MR. POPE'S ESSAY ON MAN,

IN A LETTER TO THE EDITOR OF THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE, VOL. XIII.

MR. URBAN,—It would not be found useless In page 35th of the English translation, he in the learned world, if in written controversies, exhibits an observation which every writer ought as in oral disputations, a moderator could be to impress upon his mind, and which may afford selected, who might in some degree superintend a sufficient apology for his commentary. the debate, restrain all needless excursions, re On the notion of a ruling passion he offers this press all personal reflections, and at last recapi- remark: “Nothing so much hinders men from tulate the arguments on each side ; and who, obtaining a complete victory over their ruling though he should not assume the province of passions, as that all the advantages gained in deciding the question, might at least exhibit it in their days of retreat, by just and sober reflecits true state.

tions, whether struck out by their own minds, or This reflection arose in my mind upon the borrowed from good books, or from the converconsideration of Mr. Crousaz's Commentary on sation of men of merit, are destroyed in a few the Essay on Man, and Mr. Warburton's An- moments by a free intercourse and acquaintance swer to it. The importance of the subject, the with libertines; and thus the work is always to reputation and abilities of the controvertists, and be begun anew. A gamester resolves to leave perhaps the ardour with which each has en- off play, by which he finds his health impaired, deavoured to support his cause, have made an his family ruined, and his passions inflamed; in attempt of this kind necessary for the information this resolution he persists a few days, but soon of the greatest number of Mr. Pope's readers. yields to an invitation, which will give his pre

Among the duties of a moderator, I have men- vailing inclination an opportunity of reviving in tioned that of recalling the disputants to the sub- all its force. The case is the same with other ject, and cutting off the excrescences of a debate, men: but is reason to be charged with these cawhich Mr. Crousaz will not suffer to be long un- lamities and follies, or rather the man who reemployed, and the repression of personal invec- fuses to listen to its voice in opposition to imtives which have not been very carefully avoided pertinent solicitations ?” on either part; and are less excusable, because On the means recommended for the attainit has not been proved, that either the poet, or ment of happiness, he observes, that “the abilihis commentator, wrote with any other design ties which our Maker has given us, and the than that of promoting happiness by cultivating internal and external advantages with which he reason and piety.

has invested us, are of two very different kinds; Mr. Warburton hasindeed so much depressed those of one kind are bestowed in common upon the character of his adversary, that before I con us and the brute creation, but the other exalts us sider the controversy between them, I think it far above other animals. To disregard any of necessary to exhibit some specimens of Mr. these gifts, would be ingratitude; but to neglect Crousaz's sentiments, by which it will probably those of greater excellence, to go no farther than be shown, that he is far from deserving either the gross satisfactions of sense, and the functions indignation or contempt; that his notions are of mere animal life, would be a far greater just, though they are sometimes introduced with crime. We are formed by our Creator capable out necessity; and defended when they are not of acquiring knowledge, and regulating our con. opposed; and that his abilities and parts are duct by reasonable rules; it is therefore our such as may entitle him to reverence from those duty to cultivate our understandings, and exalt who think his criticisms superfluous,

our virtues. We need but make the experiment

to find, that the greatest pleasures will arise are not to give ourselves up to pleasures that from such endeavours.

weaken the attention, and dull the under“ It is trifling to allege, in opposition to this standing." truth, that knowledge cannot be acquired, nor And the true sense of Mr. Pope's assertion, virtue pursued, without toil and efforts, and that that Whatever is, is right, and I believe the sense all efforts produce fatigue. God requires nothing in which it was written, is thus explained: “A disproportioned to the powers he has given, and sacred and adorable order is established in the in the exercise of those powers consists the government of mankind. These are certain and highest satisfaction.

unvaried truths: he that seeks God, and makes * Toil and weariness are the effects of vanity: it his happiness to live in obedience to him, shall when a man has formed a design of excelling obtain what he endeavours after, in a degree far others in merit, he is disquieted by their advances, above his present comprehension. He that turns and leaves nothing unattempted, that he may his back upon his Creator, neglects to obey him, step before them: this occasions a thousand un- and perseveres in his disobedience, shall obtain reasonable emotions, which justly bring their no other happiness than he can receive from enpunishment along with them.

joyments of his own procuring; void of satisfac“But let a man study and labour to cultivate tion, weary of life, wasted by empty cares, and and improve his abilities in the eye of his Maker, remorses equally harassing and just, he will exand with the prospect of his approbation; let perience the certain consequences of his own him attentively reflect on the infinite value of choice. Thus will justice and goodness resume that approbation, and the highest encomiums their empire, and that order be restored which that men can bestow will vanish into nothing men have broken." at the comparison. When we live in this man I am afraid of wearying you or your readers ner, we find that we live for a great and glorious with more quotations, but if you shall inform me end.

that a continuation of my correspondence will be “When this is our frame of mind, we find it well received, I shall descend to particular pasno longer difficult to restrain ourselves in the sages, show how Mr. Pope gave sometimes occagratifications of eating and drinking, the most sion to mistakes, and how Mr. Crousaz was gross enjoyments of sense. We take what is misled by his suspicion of the system of fatality. necessary to preserve health and vigour, but I am, sir, yours, &c.

PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE

TO

THE LONDON CHRONICLE,

JANUARY 1, 1757.

It has always been lamented, that of the little the scheme can only be so far known as the time allotted to man, much must be spent upon author shall think fit to discover it. superfluities. Every prospect has its obstruc The Paper which we now invite the public to tions, which we must break to enlarge our view; add to the papers with which it is already rather every step of our progress finds impediments, wearied than satisfied, consists of many parts; which, however eager to go forward, we must some of which it has in common with other peristop to remove. Even those who profess to teach odical sheets, and some peculiar to itself. the way to happiness, have multiplied our en The first demand made by the reader of a cumbrances, and the author of almost every book journal is, that he should find an accurate acretards his instructions by a preface.

count of foreign transactions and domestic inciThe writers of the Chronicle hope to be easily dents. This is always expected, but this is very forgiven, though they should not be free from an rarely performed. Of those writers who have infection that has seized the whole fraternity, and taken upon themselves the task of intelligence, instead of falling immediately to their subjects, some have given and others have sold their abishould detain the reader for a time with an ac- lities, whether small or great, to one or other of count of the importance of their design, the ex- the parties that divide us; and without a wish tent of their plan, and the accuracy of the method for truth or thought of decency, without care of which they intend to prosecute. Such premo- any other reputation than that of a stubborn adnitions, though not always necessary when the herence to their abettors, carry on the same reader has the book complete in his hand, and tenor of representation through all the vicissimay find by his own eyes whatever can be found tudes of right and wrong, neither depressed by in it, yet may be more easily allowed to works detection, nor abashed by confutation, proud of published gradually in successive parts, of which the hourly increase of infamy, and ready to boast

of all the contumelies that falsehood and slander | must always be imperfect by omission, and often may bring upon them, as new proofs of their erroneous by misinformation ; but even in these zeal and fidelity.

there shall not be wanted care to avoid misWith these heroes we bave no ambition to be takes, or to rectify them whenever they shall be numbered; we leave to the confessors of faction found. the merit of their sufferings, and are desirous to That part of our work, by which it is distinshelter ourselves under the protection of truth. guished from all others, is the literary journal, or That all our facts will be authentic, or all our account of the labours and productions of the remarks just, we dare not venture to promise: learned. This was for a long time among the we can relate but what we hear, we can point deficiencies of English literature ; but as the caout but what we see. Of remote transactions, price of man is always starting from too little to the first accounts are always confused, and com- too much, we have now, among other disturberg monly exaggerated: and in domestic affairs, if of human quiet, a numerous body of reviewers the power to conceal is less, the interest to mis- and remarkers. represent is often greater; and, what is suff Every art is improved by the emulation of ciently vexatious, truth seems to fly from curi- competitors; those who make no advances toosity, and as many inquirers produce many nar- wards excellence, may stand as warnings against ratives, whatever engages the public attention is faults. We shall endeavour to avoid that peluimmediately disguised by the embellishments of lance which treats with contempt whatever has fiction. We pretend to no peculiar power of dis- hitherto been reputed sacred. We shall repress entangling contradiction or denuding forgery, we that elation of malignity, which wantons in the have no settled correspondence with the Anti- cruelties of criticism, and not only murders repupodes, nor maintain any spies in the cabinets of tation, but murders it by torture. Whenever princes. But as we shall always be conscious we feel ourselves ignorant, we shall at least be that our mistakes are involuntary, we shall modest. Our intention is not to pre-occupy watch the gradual discoveries of time, and re-judgment by praise or censure, but to gratify tract whatever we have hastily and erroneously curiosity by early intelligence, and to tell rather advanced.

what our authors have attempted, than what In the narratives of the daily writers every they have performed. The titles of books are reader perceives somewhat of neatness and pu- necessarily short, and therefore disclose but imrity wanting, which at the first view it seems perfectly the contents; they are sometimes fraudeasy to supply: but it must be considered, that ulent, and intended to raise false expectations. those passages must be written in haste, and in our account this brevity will be extended, and that there is often no other choice, but that they these frauds, whenever they are detected, will must want either novelty or accuracy; and that be exposed; for though we write without intenas life is very uniform, the affairs of one week are tion to injure, we shall not suffer ourselves to be so like those of another, that by any attempt made parties to deceit. after variety of expression, invention would soon If any author shall transmit a summary of his be wearied, and language exhausted. Some im- work, we shall willingly receive it; if any liteprovements however we hope to make; and for rary anecdote, or curious observation, shall be the rest, we think that when we commit only communicated to us, we will carefully insert it. common faults, we shall not be excluded from Many facts are known and forgotten; many obcommon indulgence.

servations are made and suppressed; and enterThe accounts of prices of corn and stocks are tainment and instruction are frequently lost, for to most of our readers of more importance than want of a repository in which they may be connarratives of greater sound : and as exactness is veniently preserved. here within the reach of diligence, our readers No man can modestly promise what he cannot may justly require it from us.

ascertain : we hope for the praise of knowledge Memorials of a private and personal kind, and discernment, but we claim only that of diliwhich relate deaths, marriages, and preferments, gence and candour.

INTRODUCTION

TO

THE WORLD DISPLAYED.

NAVIGation, like other arts, has been per-| the violence of the ocean before the ark of fected by degrees. It is not easy to conceive Noah. that any age or nation was without some vessel, As the tradition of the deluge has been transin which rivers might be passed by travellers, mitted to almost the nations of the earth, it or lakes frequented by fishermen; but we have must be supposed that the memory of the means no knowledge of any ship that could endure by which Noah and his family were preserved

would be continued long among their descend- durst not venture, and which they had not yet ants, and that the possibility of passing the seas knowledge enough to avoid by standing off from could never be doubted.

the land into the open sea. What men know to be practicable, a thousand The prince was desirous to know something motives will incite them to try; and there is of the countries that lay beyond this formidable reason to believe, that from the time that the cape, and sent two commanders, named John generations of the postdiluvian race spread 10 Gonzales Zarco, and Tristan Vaz, in 1418, to the sea-shores, there were always navigators pass beyond Bajador, and survey the coast be that ventured upon the sea, though, perhaps, not hind it. They were caught by a tempest, which willingly beyond the sight of land.

drove them out into the unknown ocean, where Of the ancient voyages little certain is known, they expected to perish by the violence of the and it is not necessary to lay before the reader wind, or perhaps to wander for ever in the boundsuch conjectures as learned men have offered to less deep. At last, in the midst of their despair, the world. The Romans, by conquering Car- they found a small island, where they sheltered thage, put a stop to a great part of the trade of themselves, and which the sense of their deliverdistant nations with one another, and because ance disposed them to call Puerto Santo, or the they thought only on war and conquest, as their Holy Haven. empire increased, commerce was discouraged; When they returned with an account of this till under the latter emperors, ships seem to have new island, Henry performed a public act of been of little other use than to transport soldiers. thanksgiving, and sent them again with seeds

Navigation could not be carried to any great and catile; and we are told by the Spanish hisdegree of certainty without the compass, which torian, that they set two rabbits on shore, which was unknown to the ancients. The wonderful increased so much in a few years, that they quality by which a needle or small bar of steel, drove away the inhabitants, by destroying their touched with a loadstone or magnet, and turning corn and plants, and were suffered to enjoy the freely by equilibration on a point, always pre- island without opposition. serves the meridian, and directs its two ends In the second or third voyage to Puerto Santo, north and south, was discovered, according to (for authors do not agree which,) a third captain, the common opinion, in 1299, by John Gola of called Perello, was joined to the two former. Amalfi, a town in Italy.

As they looked round the island upon the ocean, From this time it is reasonable to suppose that they saw at a distance something which they navigation made continual, though slow, im- took for a cloud, till they perceived that it did provements, which the confusion and barbarity not change its place. They directed their course of the times, and the want of communication towards it, and, in 1419, discovered another between orders of men so distant as sailors and island covered with trees, which they therefore monks, hindered from being distinctly and suc- called Madera, or the Isle of Wood. cessively recorded.

Madera was given to Vaz or Zarco, who set It seems, however, that the sailors still want- fire to the woods, which are reported by Souza ed either knowledge or courage, for they conti- to have burned for seven years together, and to nued for two centuries to creep along the coast, have been wasted, till want of wood was the and considered every headland as unpassable greatest inconveniency of the place. But green which ran far into the sea, and against which the wood is not very apt to burn, and the heavy rains waves broke with uncommon agitation. which fall in these countries must surely have

The first who is known to have formed the extinguished the conflagration, were it ever so design of new discoveries, or the first who had / violent. power to execute his purposes, was Don Henry There was yet little progress made upon the the Fifth, son of John, the first king of Portu- southern coast, and Henry's project was treated gal, and Philippina, sister of Henry the Fourth as chimerical by many of his countrymen. At of England. Don Henry having attended his last Gilianes, in 1433, passed the dreadful cape, father to the conquest of Ceuta, obtained by con- to which he gave the name of Bajador, and came versation with the inhabitants of the continent, back, to the wonder of the nation. some accounts of the interior kingdoms and In two voyages more, made in the two followsouthern coast of Africa ; which, though rude ing years, they passed forty-two leagues farther, and indistinct, were sufficient to raise his curi- and in the latter, two men with horses being set osity, and convince him, that there were coun on shore, wandered over the country, and found tries yet unknown and worthy of discovery. nineteen men, whom, according to the savage

He therefore equipped some small vessels, and manners of that age, they attacked ; the natives commanded that they should pass as far as they having javelins, wounded one of the Portuguese, could along the coast of Africa which looked and received some wounds from them. At the upon the great Atlantic ocean, the immensity of mouth of a river, they found sea wolves in great which struck the gross and unskilful navigators numbers, and brought home many of their skins, of these times with terror and amazement. He which were much esteemed. was not able to communicate his own ardour to Antonio Gonzales, who had been one of the his seamen, who proceeded very slowly in the associates of Gilianes, was sent again, in 1440, new attempt; each was afraid to venture much to bring back a cargo of the skins of sea wolves. farther than he that went before him, and ten He was followed in another ship by Nunno Trisyears were spent before they had advanced be- tam. They were now of strength sufficient to yond Cape Bajador, so called from its progres- venture upon violence; they therefore landed, sion into the ocean, and the circuit by which it and without either right or provocation, made must be doubled. The opposition of this pro- all whom they seized their prisoners, and brought montory to the course of the sea, produced a vio- them to Portugal, with great commendations lent current and high waves, into which they both from the prince and the nation.

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