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Henry now began to please himself with the ways been the same,) brought away seventy success of his projects, and as one of his pur-captives, and some commodities of the place. poses was the conversion of infidels, he thought Louis de la Cerda, count of Clermont, of the it necessary to impart his undertaking to the blood royal both of France and Spain, nephew pope, and to obtain the sanction of ecclesiastical of John de la Cerda, who called himseli the authority. To this end Fernando Lopez d'Aze- Prince of Fortune, had once a mind to settle in vedo was despatched to Rome, who related to those islands, and applying himself first to the the pope and cardinals the great designs of king of Arragon, and then to Clement VI. was Henry, and magnified his zeal for the propaga- by the pope crowned, at Avignon, king of the tion of religion. The pope was pleased with Canaries, on condition that he should reduce the narrative, and by a formal bull, conferred them to the true religion ; but the prince altered upon the crown of Portugal all the countries his mind, and went into France to serve against which should be discovered as far as India, to- the English. The kings both of Castile and gether with India itself, and granted several pri- Portugal, though they did not oppose the papal vileges and indulgences to the churches which grant, yet complained of it, as made without Henry had built in his new regions, and to the their knowledge, and in contravention of their men engaged in the navigation for discovery. rights. By this bull, all other princes were forbidden to The first settlement in the Canaries was made. encroach upon the conquests of the Portuguese, by John de Betancour, a French gentleman, for on pain of the censures incurred by the crime of whom his kinsman, Robin de Braquement, adusurpation.

miral of France, begged them, with the title of The approbation of the pope, the sight of men king from Henry the Magnificent of Castile, to whose manners and appearance were so dif- whom he had done eminent services. John made ferent from those of Europeans, and the hope of himself master of some of the isles, but could gain from golden regions, which has been al- never conquer the grand Canary; and having ways the great incentive to hazard and discovery, spent all that he had, went back to Europe, now began to operate with full force. The de- leaving his nephew, Massiot de Betancour, to sire of riches and of dominion, which yet is take care of his new dominion. Massiot had a more pleasing to the fancy, filled the courts of quarrel with the vicar-general, and was likewise the Portuguese prince with innumerable adven- disgusted by the long absence of his uncle, turers from very distant parts of Europe. Some whom the French king detained in his service, wanted to be employed in the search after new and being able to keep his ground no longer, he countries, and some to be settled in those which transferred his rights to Don Henry, in exchange had been already found.

for some districts in the Madera, where he set Communities now began to be animated by tled his family. the spirit of enterprise, and many associations Don Henry, when he had purchased those were formed for the equipment of ships, and islands, sent thither, in 1424, two thousand five the acquisition of the riches of distant regions, hundred foot, and a hundred and twenty horse ; which perhaps were always supposed to be more but the army was too numerous to be mainwcalthy, as more remote. These undertakers tained by the country. The king of Castile afagreed to pay the prince a fifth part of the profit, terwards claimed them, as conquered by his subsometimes a greater share, and sent out the ar-jects under Betancour, and held under the mament at their own expense.

crown of Castile by fealty and homage; his The city of Lagos was the first that carried on claim was allowed, and the Canaries were rethis design by contribution. The inhabitants signed. fitted out six vessels, under the command of Lu It was the constant practice of Henry's navicarot, one of the prince's household, and soon gators, when they stopped at a desert island, to after fourteen more were furnished for the same land cattle upon it, and leave them to breed, purpose, under the same commander; to those where, neither wanting room nor food, they mulwere added many belonging to private men, so tiplied very fast, and furnished a very commodious that in a short time twenty-six ships put to sea supply to those who came afterwards to the same in quest of whatever fortune should present. place. This was imitated in some degree by

The ships of Lagos were soon separated by Anson, at the isle of Juan Fernandez. The foul weather, and the rest, taking each its own islands of Madera he not only filled with inhabicourse, stopped at different parts of the African tants, assisted by artificers of every kind, but coast, from Cape Blanco to Cape Verd. Some procured such plants as seemed likely to flourish of them, in 1444, anchored at Gomera, one of | in that climate, and introduced sugar-canes and the Canaries, where they were kindly treated by vines, which afterwards produced a very large the inhabitants, who took them into their service revenue. against the people of the isle of Palma, with The trade of Africa now began to be profitwhom they were at war; but the Portuguese at able, but a great part of the gain arose from the their return to Gomera, not being made so rich sale of slaves, who were annually brought into as they expected, fell upon their friends, in con- Portugal, by hundreds, as Lafitau relates, and tempt of all the laws of hospitality and stipula- relates without any appearance of indignation or tions of alliance, and making several of them compassion: they likewise imported gold dust in prisoners and slaves, set sail for Lisbon. such quantities, that Alphonsus V. coined it into

The Canaries are supposed to have been a new species of money called Crusades, which known, however imperfectly, to the ancients; is still continued in Portugal. but in the confusion of the subsequent ages they In time they made their way along the south were lost and forgotten, till about the year 1340, coast of Africa, eastward to the country of the the Biscayners found Lucarot, and invading it, negroes, whom they found living in tenis, with(for to find a new country and invade it has al- lout any political institutions, supporting life, with

very little labour, by the milk of their kine, and language of Portugal, so as to be able to intermillet, to which those who inhabited the coast pret for their countrymen, and one John Feradded' fish dried in the sun. Having never seen nandez applied himself to the negro tongue. the natives, or heard of the arts of Europe, they From this time began something like a regular gazed with astonishment on the ships wlien they traffic, such as can subsist between nations approached their coasts, sometimes thinking where all the power is on one side ; and a facthem birds, and sometimes fishes, according as tory was settled in the isle of Arguin, under the their sails were spread or lowered ; and some- protection of a fort. The profit of this new trade times conceiving them to be only phantoms, was assigned for a certain term to Ferdinando which played to and fro in the ocean. Such is Gomez; which seems to be the common method the account given by the historian, perhaps with of establishing a trade that is yet too small to too much prejudice against a negro's understand- engage the care of a nation, and can only be ening; who though he might well wonder at the larged by that attention which is bestowed by bulk and swiftness of the first ship, would private men upon private advantage. Gomez scarcely conceive it to be either a bird or a fish; continued the discoveries to Cape Catharine, but having seen many bodies floating in the two degrees and a half beyond the line. water, would think it what it really is, a large In the latter part of the reign of Alphonso V. boat; and if he had no knowledge of any means the ardour of discovery was somewhat interby which separate pieces of timber may be mitted, and all commercial enterprises were injoined together, would form very wild notions terrupted by the wars in which he was engaged concerning its construction, or perhaps suppose with various success. But John II. who suc. it to be a hollow trunk of a tree, from some ceeded, being fully convinced both of the honour country where trees grow to a much greater and advantage of extending his dominions in height and thickness than in his own.

countries hitherto unknown, prosecuted the de When the Portuguese came to land, they in- signs of prince Henry with the utmost vigour, creased the astonishinent of the poor inhabitants, and in a short time added to his other titles, that who saw men clad in iron with thunder and of king of Guinea and of the coast of Africa, lightning in their hands. They did not under In 1463, in the third year of the reign of John stand each other, and signs are a very imperfect II. died prince Henry, the first encourager of mode of communication, even to men of more remote navigation, by whose incitement, patronknowledge than the negroes, so that they could age, and example, distant nations have been not easily negotiate or traffic : at last the Por- made acquainted with each other, unknown tuguese laid hands on some of them to carry countries have been brought into general view, them home for a sample ; and their dread and and the power of Europe has been extended to amazement was raised, says Lafitau, to the the remotest parts of the world. What manhighest pitch, when the Europeans fired their kind has lost and gained by the genius and decannons and muskets among them, and they saw signs of this prince, it would be long to compare, their companions fall dead at their feet, without and very difficult to estimate. Much knowledge any enemy at hand, or any visible cause of their has been acquired, and much cruelty been comdestruction.

mitted ; the belief of religion has been very little On what occasion, or for what purpose, can- propagated, and its laws have been outrageously nons and muskets were discharged among a peo- and enormously violated. The Europeans have ple harmless and secure, by strangers who with scarcely visited any coast, but to gratify avarice, out any right visited their coast, it is not thought and extend corruption; to arrogate dominion necessary to inform us, The Portuguese could without right, and practice cruelty without in. fear nothing from them, and had therefore no centive. Happy had it then been for the opadequate provocation ; nor is there any reason pressed, if the designs of Henry had slept in his to believe but that they murdered the negroes in bosom, and surely more happy for the oppreswanton merriment, perhaps only to try how sors. But there is reason to hope that out of so many a volley would destroy, or what would be much evil good may sometimes be produced ; the consternation of those that should escape. and that the light of the gospel will at last illuWe are openly told that they had the less scru- minate the sands of Africa, and the deserts of ple concerning their treatment of the savage peo- America, though its progress cannot but be slow ple, because they scarcely considered them as when it is so much obstructed by the lives of distinct from beasts ; and indeed the practice of Christians. all the European nations, and among others of The death of Henry did not interrupt the prothe English barbarians that cultivate the south-gress of king John, who was very strict in his inern islands of America, proves, that this opinion, junctions, not only to make discoveries, but to however absurd and foolish, however wicked secure possession of the countries that were and injurious, still continues to prevail. Interest found. The practice of the first navigators was and pride harden the heart, and it is in vain to only to raise a cross upon the coast, and to carve dispute against avarice and power.

upon the trees the device of Don Henry, the By these practices the first discoverers alien- name which they thought it proper to give to the ated the natives from them; and whenever a new coast, and any other information, for those ship appeared, every one that could fly betook that might happen to follow them ; but now himself to the mountains and the woods, so that they began to erect piles of stones with a cross on nothing was to be got more than they could the top, and engraved on the stone the arms of steal: they sometimes surprised a few fishers, Portugal, the name of the king, and of the comand made them slaves, and did what they could mander of the ship, with the day and year of the to offend the negroes, and enrich themselves. discovery. This was accounted sufficient to This practice of robbery continued till some of prove their claim to the new lands; which might the negroes who had been enslaved, learned the I be pleaded with justice enough against any other

Europeans, and the rights of the original inhabit- | might be always at hand to lend him assist ants were never taken into notice.

Of these ance. stone records, nine more were erected in the The negro, who seemed very well to underreign of king John, along the coast of Africa, as stand what the admiral intended, after a short far as the Cape of Good Hope.

pause, returned an answer full of respect to the The fortress in the isle of Arguin was finished, king of Portugal, but appeared a little doubtfui and it was found necessary to build another at what to determine with relation to the fort. S. Georgia de la Mina, a few degrees north of The commander saw his diffidence, and used the line, to secure the trade of gold dust, which all his art of persuasion to overcome it. Carawas chiefly carried on at that place. For this mansa, either induced by hope, or constrained purpose a fleet was fitted out of ten large and by fear, either desirous to make them friends, ihree smaller vessels, freighted with materials or not daring to make them enemies, consented, for building the fort, and with provisions and am- with a show of joy, to that which it was not in munition for six hundred men, of whom one hun- his power to refuse; and the new comers began dred were workmen and labourers. Father La- the next day to break the ground for the founfitau relates, in very particular terms, that these dation of a fort. ships carried hewn stones, bricks, and timber, Within the limit of their intended fortification for the fort, so that nothing remained but barely were some spots appropriated to superstitions to erect it. He does not seem to consider how practices: which the negroes no sooner persmall a fort could be made out of the lading of ceived in danger of violation by the spade and ten ships.

pickaxe, than they ran to arms, and began to The command of this fleet was given to Don interrupt the work. The Portuguese persisted Diego d'Azambue, who set sail December 11th, in their purpose, and there had soon been tumult 1481, and reaching La Mina January 19th, 1482, and bloodshed, had not the admiral, who was gave immediate notice of his arrival to Cara- at a distance to superintend the unlading the mansa, a petty prince of that part of the country, materials for the edifice, been informed of the whom he very earnestly invited to an immediate danger. He was told at the same time, that conference.

the support of their superstition was only a Having received a message of civility from pretence, and that all their rage might be apthe negro chief, he landed, and chose a rising peased by the presents which the prince expectground, proper for his intended fortress, on which ed, the delay of which had greatly offended him. he planted a banner with the arms of Portugal, The Portuguese admiral immediately ran to and took possession in the name of his master. his men, prohibited all violence, and stopped the He then raised an altar at the foot of a great tree, commotion; he then brought out the presents, on which mass was celebrated, the whole assem- and spread them with great pomp before the bly, says Lafitau, breaking out into tears of de- prince ; if they were of no great value, they were votion at the prospect of inviting these barbarous rare, for the negroes had never seen such wonnations to the profession of the true faith. Being ders before; they were therefore received with secure of the goodness of the end, they had no ecstacy, and perhaps the Portuguese derided scruple about the means, nor ever considered them for their fondness of trifles, without consihow differently from the primitive martyrs and dering how many things derive their value only apostles they were attempting to make prose- from their scarcity; and that gold and rubies lytes. The first propagators of Christianity re- would be trifles, if nature had scattered them commended their doctrines by their sufferings and with less frugality. virtues; they entered no defenceless territories The work was now peaceably continued, and with swords in their hands; they built no forts such was the diligence with which the strangers upon ground to which they had no right, nor pol- hastened to secure the possession of the country, luted the purity of religion with the avariee of that in twenty days they had sufficiently fortitrade, or insolence of power.

fied themselves against the hostility of the neWhat may still raise higher the indignation of groes. They then proceeded to complete their a Christian mind, this purpose of propagating design. A church was built in the place where truth appears never to have been seriously pur- their first allar had been raised, on which a mass sued by any European nation; no means, whe- was established to be celebrated for ever once a ther lawful or unlawful, have been practised with day, for the repose of the soul of Henry, the first diligence and perseverance for the conversion of mover of these discoveries. savages. When a fort is built, and a factory In this fort the admiral remained with sixty established, there remains no other care than to soldiers, and sent back the rest in the ships, with grow rich. It is soon found that ignorance is gold, slaves, and other commodities. It may be most easily kept in subjection, and that by en observed that slaves were never forgotten, and lightening the mind with truth, fraud and usur- that wherever they went, they gratified their pation would be made less practicable and less pride, if not their a varice, and brought some of secure.

the natives, when it happened that they brought In a few days an interview was appointed be- nothing else. tween Caramansa and Azambue. The Portu The Portuguese endeavoured to extend their guese uttered by his interpreter a pompous speech, dominions still farther. They had gained some in which he made the negro prince large offers of knowledge of the Jaloffs, a nation inhabiting the his master's friendship, exhorting him to embrace coast of Guinea, between the Gambia and Senethe religion of his new ally; and told him, that gal. The king of the Jaloffs being vicious and as they came to form a league of friendship with luxurious, committed the care of the government him, it was necessary that they should build a to Bemoin, his brother by the mother's side, in fore, which might serve as a retreat from their preference to two other brothers by his father, common enemies, and in which the Portuguese | Bemoin, who wanted neither bravery nor pru.

dence, knew that his station was invidious and cessary for the erection of a fort. With this dangerous, and therefore made an alliance with powerful armament were sent a great number the Portuguese, and retained them in his defence of missionaries under the direction of Alvarez by liberality and kindness. At last the king the king's confessor. The command of this was killed by the contrivance of his brothers, force, which filled the coast of Africa with and Bemoin was to lose his power, or maintain it terror, was given to Pedro Vaz d'Acugna, surby war.

named Bisagu; who soon after they had landed, He had recourse in this exigence to his great not being well pleased with his expedition, put ally the king of Portugal, who promised to sup- an end to its inconveniences by stabbing Bemoin port him, on condition that he should become a suddenly to the heart. The king heard of this christian, and sent an ambassador, accompanied outrage with great sorrow, but did not attempt with missionaries. Bemoin promised all that to punish the murderer. was required, objecting only, that the time of a The king's concern for the restoration of Becivil war was not a proper season for a change moin was not the mere effect of kindness, he of religion, which would alienate his adherents, hoped by his help to facilitate greater designs. but said, that when he was once peaceably esta- He now began to form hopes of finding a way blished, he would not only embrace the true re- to the East Indies, and of enriching his country ligion himself

, but would endeavour the conver- by that gainful commerce: this he was encousion of the kingdom.

raged to believe practicable, by a map which the This excuse was admitted, and Bemoin delay- Moors had given to prince Henry, and which ed his conversion for a year, renewing his pro- subsequent discoveries have shown to be suffimise from time to time. But the war was unsuc- ciently near to exactness, where a passage round cessful, trade was at a stand, and Bemoin was the south-east part of Africa was evidently denot able to pay the money which he had bor- scribed. rowed of the Portuguese merchants, who sent The king had another scheme yet more likely intelligence to Lisbon of his delays, and received to engage curiosity, and not irreconcilable with an order from the king, commanding them under his interest. The world had for some time severe penalties to return home.

been filled with the report of a powerful chrisBemoin here saw his ruin approaching, and, tian prince called Prester John, whose country hoping that money would pacify all resentment, was unknown, and whom some, after Paulus borrowed of his friends a sum sufficient to dis- Venetus, supposed to reign in the midst of Asia, charge his debts; and finding that even this and others in the depth of Ethiopia, between the enticement would not delay the departure of the ocean and Red Sea. The account of the African Portuguese, he embarked his nephew in their christians was confirmed by some Abyssinians ships, with a hundred slaves, whom he pre- who had travelled into Spain, and by some friars sented to the king of Portugal, to solicit his as that had visited the holy land; and the king sistance. The effect of this embassy he could was extremely desirous of their correspondence not stay to know; for being soon after deposed, and alliance. he sought shelter in the fortress of Arguin, Some obscure intelligence had been obtained, whence he took shipping for Portugal, with which made it seem probable that a way might twenty-five of his principal followers.

be found from the countries lately discovered, The king of Portugal pleased his own vanity to those of this far-famed monarch. In 1486, an and that of his subjects, by receiving him with ambassador came from the king of Bemin, to great state and magnificence, as a mighty mo- desire that preachers might be sent to instruct narch who had fled to an ally for succour in him and his subjects in the true religion. He misfortune. All the lords and ladies of the related that in the inland country, three huncourt were assembled, and Bemoin was con- dred and fifty leagues eastward from Bemin, ducted with a splendid attendance into the hall was a mighty monarch called Ogane, who had of audience, where the king rose from his throne jurisdiction both spiritual and temporal over to welcome him. Bemoin then made a speech other kings; that the king of Bemin and his with great ease and dignity, representing his neighbours, at their accession, sent ambassadors unhappy state, and imploring the favour of his to him with rich presents, and received from powerful ally. The king was touched with his him the investiture of their dominions, and the affliction, and struck by his wisdom.

marks of sovereignty, which were a kind of The conversion of Bemoin was much desired sceptre, a helmet, and a latten cross, without by the king ; and it was therefore immediately which they could not be considered as lawful proposed him that he should become a chris- kings ; that this great prince was never seen but tian. Ecclesiastics were sent to instruct him; on the day of audience, and then held out one of and having now no more obstacles from interest, his feet to the ambassador, who kissed it with he was easily persuaded to declare himself what great reverence, and who at his departure had a ever would please those on whom he now de- cross of latten hung on his neck, which ennobled pended. He was baptized December 3d, 1459, him thenceforward, and exempted him from all in the palace of the queen, with great magnifi- servile offices. cence, and named John, after the king.

Bemoin had likewise told the king, that to Some time was spent in feasts and sports on the east of the kingdom of Tombut, there was this great occasion, and the negroes signalized among other princes, one that was neither Mathemselves by many feats of agility, far surpass- hometan nor idolater, but who seemed to proing the power of Europeans, who having more fess a religion nearly resembling the christian. helps of art, are less diligent to cultivate the These informations compared with each other, qualities of nature. In the mean time twenty and with the current accounts of Prester John, large ships were fitted out, well manned, stored induced the king to an opinion, which, though with am:munition, and laden with materials ne- ) formed somewhat at hazard, is still believed to

be right, that by passing up the river Senegal of Storms to be called thenceforward Capo de his dominions would be found. It was therefore buena Esperanza, or the Cape of Good Hope. ordered that when the fortress was finished, an Some time before the expedition of Diaz, the attempt should be made to pass upward to the river Zaire and the kingdom of Congo had been source of the river. The design failed then, and discovered by Diego Can, who found a nation has never yet succeeded.

of negroes who spoke a language which those Other ways likewise were tried of penetrat- that were in his ships could not understand. He ing to the kingdom of Prester John, for the landed, and the natives, whom he expected to king resolved to leave neither sea nor land un- Ay like the other inhabitants of the const, met searched till he should be found. The two mes-them with confidence, and treated them with sengers who were sent first on this design, went kindness; but Diego, finding that they could to Jerusalem, and then returned, being per- not understand each other, seized some of their suaded that for want of understanding the lan-chiefs, and carried them to Portugal, leaving guage of the country, it would be vain or impos- some of his own people in their room to learn sible to travel farther. Two more were then the language of Congo. despatched, one of whom was Pedro de Covillan, The negroes were soon pacified, and the Porthe other Alphonso de Paiva ; they passed from tuguese left to their mercy were well treated; Naples to Alexandria, and then travelled to Cairo, and as they by degrees grew able to make themfrom whence they went to Aden, a town of Ara- selves understood, recommended_themselves, bia, on the Red Sea, near its mouth. From Aden, their nation, and their religion. The king of Pavia set sail for Ethiopia, and Covillan for the Portugal sent Diego back in a very short time Indies. Covillan visited Canavar, Calicut, and with the negroes whom he had forced away ; Goa in the Indies, and Sosula in the eastern and when they were set safe on shore the king Africa; thence he returned to Aden, and then of Congo conceived so much esteem for Diego, to Cairo, where he had agreed to meet Paiva. that he sent one of those who had returned, back At Cairo he was informed that Paiva was dead, again in the ship to Lisbon, with two young men but he met with two Portuguese Jews, one of despatched as ambassadors, to desire instructors whom had given the king an account of the situ- to be sent for the conversion of his kingdom. ation and trade of Ormus: they brought orders The ambassadors were honourably received, to Covillan, that he should send one of them and baptized with great pomp, and a fleet was home with the journal of his travels, and go to immediately fitted out for Congo, under the Ormus with the other.

command of Gonsalvo Sorza, who dying in his Corvillan obeyed the orders, sending an exact passage, was succeeded in authority by his account of his adventures to Lisbon, and pro- nephew Roderigo. ceeding with the other messenger to Ormus; When they came to land, the king's uncle, where having made sufficient inquiry, he sent who commanded the province, immediately rehis companion homewards with the caravans quested to be solemnly initiated in the christian that were going to Aleppo, and embarking once religion, which was granted to him and his young more on the Red Sea, arrived in time at Abys- son, on Easterday, 1491. The father was named sinia, and found the prince whom he had sought Manuel, and the son Antonio. Soon afterwards so long, and with such danger.

the king, queen, and eldest prince, received at Two ships were sent out upon the same search, the font the names of John, Eleanor, and Alof which Bartholomew Diaz had the chief com- phonso; and a war breaking out, the whole mand; they were attended by a smaller vessel army was admitted to the rites of christianity, laden with provisions, that they might not re- and then sent against the enemy. They return upon pretence of want either felt or feared. turned victorious, but soon forgot their faith, and

Navigation was now brought nearer to per- formed a conspiracy to restore paganism; a fection. The Portuguese claim the honour of powerful opposition was raised by infidels and many inventions by which the sailor is assisted, apostates, headed by one of the king's younger and which enable him to leave sight of land, and sons: and the missionaries had been destroyed, commit himself to the boundless ocean. Diaz had not Alphonso pleaded for them and for had orders to proceed beyond the river Zaire, christianity. where Diego Can had stopped, to build monu The enemies of religion now became the enements of his discoveries, and to leave upon the mies of Alphonso, whom they accused to his coasts negro men and women well instructed, father of disloyalty. His mother, queen Eleanor, who might inquire after Prester John, and fill gained time, by one artifice after another, till the the natives with reverence for the Portuguese. king was calmed; he then heard the cause again,

Diaz, with much opposition from his crew, declared his son innocent, and punished his acwhose mutinies he repressed, partly by softness cusers with death. and partly by steadiness, sailed on till he reached The king died soon after, and the throne was the utmost point of Africa, which from the bad disputed by Alphonso, supported by the chrisweather that he met there, he called Cabo Tor: tians, and Aquitimo, his brother, followed by mentoso, or the Cape of Storms. He would the infidels. A battle was fought, Aquitimo was have gone forward, but his crew forced him to taken and put to death, and christianity was return. In his way back he met the Victualler, for a time established in Congo; but the nation from which he had been parted nine months has relapsed into its former follies. before; of the nine men which were in it at the Such was the state of the Portuguese naviseparation, six had been killed by the negroes, gation, when, in 1492, Columbus made the daring and of the three remaining, one died for joy at and prosperous voyage which gave a new world the sight of his friends. Diaz returned to Liso to European curiosity and European cruelty:bon in December, 1487, and gave an account of He had offered his proposal, and declared his his voyage to the king, who ordered the Cape ] expectations to king John of Portugal, who had

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