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slighted him as a fanciful and rash projector, The Portuguese and Spaniards became now that promised what he had not reasonable jealous of each other's claim to countries which hopes to perform. Columbus had solicited other neither had yet seen; and the Pope, to whom princes, and had been repulsed with the same they appealed, divided the new world between indignity; at last Isabella of Arragon furnished them by a line drawn from north to south, a him with ships, and having found America, he hundred leagues westward from Cape Verd and entered the mouth of the Tagus in his return, the Azores, giving all that lies west from that and showed the natives of the new country.- line to the Spaniards, and all that lies east to the When he was admitted to the king's presence, Portuguese. This was no satisfactory division, he acted and talked with so much haughtiness, for the east and west must meet at last, but that and reflected on the neglect which he had un- time was then at a great distance. dergone with so much acrimony, that the cour According to this grant, the Portuguese contiers who saw their prince insulted, offered to tinued their discoveries eastward, and became destroy him; but the king, who knew that he masters of much of the coast both of Africa and deserved the reproaches that had been used, and the Indies; but they seized much more than they who now sincerely regretted his incredulity, could occupy, and while they were under the would suffer no violence to be offered him, but dominion of Spain, lost the greater part of their dismissed him with presents and with honours. I Indian territories.
PREFACE TO THE PRECEPTOR;
CONTAINING A GENERAL PLAN OF EDUCATION.
PUBLISHED IN 1748, BY DODSLEY.
The importance of edacation is a point so with the forms of education, is to be checked, generally understood and confessed, that it would will be readily granted; but since, though it be of little use to attempt any new proof or illus- may be in some degree obviated, it cannot tration of its necessity and advantages. wholly be suppressed, it is surely rational to
At a time when so many schemes of educa- turn it to advantage, by taking care that the tion have been projected, so many proposals mind shall never want objects on which its faculoffered to the public, so many schools opened ties may be usefully employed. It is not imposfor general knowledge, and so many lectures in sible, that this restless desire of novelty which particular sciences attended; at a time when gives so much trouble to the teacher, may be mankind seems intent rather upon familiarising often the struggle of the understanding starting than enlarging the several arts; and every age, from that, to which it is not by nature adapted, sex, and profession, is invited to an acquaintance and travelling in search of something on which with those studies, which were formerly sup- it may fix with greater satisfaction. For withposed accessible only to such as had devoted out supposing each man particularly marked out themselves to literary leisure, and dedicated by his genius for particular performances, it may their powers to philosophical inquiries; it seems be easily conceived, that when a numerous class rather requisite that an apology should be made of boys is confined indiscriminately to the same for any further attempt to smooth a path so fre- forms of composition, the repetition of the same quently beaten, or to recommend attainments words, or the explication of the same sentiments, so ardently pursued, and so officiously directed. the employment must, either by nature or acci
That this general desire may not be frustrated, dent, be less suitable to some than others; that our schools seem yet to want some book, which the ideas to be contemplated may be too difficult may excite curiosity by its variety, encourage for the apprehension of one, and too obvious for diligence by its facility, and reward application that of another: they may be such as some unby its usefulness. In examining the treatises derstandings cannot reach, though others look hitherto offered to the youth of this nation, there down upon them as below their regard. Every appeared none that did not fail in one or other mind in its progress through the different stages of these essential qualities; none that were not of scholastic learning, must be often in one of either unpleasing, or abstruse, or crowded with these conditions, must either flag with the lalearning very rarely applicable to the purposes bour, or grow wanton with the facility, of the of common life.
work assigned; and in either state naturally Every man who has been engaged in teaching, turns aside from the track before it. Weariness knows with how much difficulty youthful minds looks out for relief, and leisure for employment, are confined to close application, and how rea- and surely it is rational to indulge the wanderdily they deviate to any thing, rather than at. ings of both. For the faculties which are too tend to that which is imposed as a task. That lightly burdened with the business of the day, this disposition, when it becomes inconsistent. may with great propriety add to it some other
inquiry; and he that finds himself overwearied | mitted with little alteration. But so widely does by a task, which perhaps, with all his efforts, he this plan differ from all otheus, so much has the is not able to perform, is undoubtedly to be jus- state of many kinds of learning been changed, tified in addicting himself rather to easier stu- or so unfortunately have they hitherto been culdies, and endeavouring to quit that which is tivated, that none of the other subjects were exabove his attainment, for that which nature has plained in such a manner as was now required; made him capable of pursuing with advantage. and therefore neither care nor expense has been
That therefore this roving curiosity may not spared to obtain new lights, and procure to this be unsatisfied, it seems necessary to scatier in book the merit of an original. its way such" allurements as may withhold it With what judgment the design has been from a useless and unbounded dissipation; such formed, and with what skill it has been exe. as may regulate it without violence, and direct cuted, the learned world is now to determine. it without restraint ; such as may suit every in- But before sentence shall pass, it is proper to clination, and fit every capacity; may employ explain more fully what has been intended, that the stronger genius, by operations of reason; censure may not be incurred by the omission of and engage the less active or forcible mind, by that which the original plan did not comprehend; supplying it with easy knowledge, and obviating to declare more particularly who they are to that despondence, which quickly prevails, when whose instructions these treatises pretend, that nothing appears but a succession of difficulties, a charge of arrogance and presumption may be and one labour only ceases that another may be obviated; to lay down the reasons which di. imposed.
rected the choice of the several subjects; and to A book intended thus to correspond with all explain more minutely the manner in which each dispositions, and afford entertainment for minds particular part of these volumes is to be used. of different powers, is necessarily to contain The title has already declared, that these votreatises on different subjects. As it is designed | lumes are particularly intended for the use of for schools, though for the higher classes, it is schools, and therefore it has been the care of the confined wholly to such parts of knowledge as authors to explain the several sciences, of which young minds may comprehend; and as it is they have treated, in the most familiar manner; drawn up for readers yet unexperienced in life, for the mind used only to common expressions, and unable to distinguish the useful from the and inaccurate ideas, does not suddenly conform ostentatious or unnecessary parts of science, it itself to scholastic modes of reasoning, or conis requisite that a very nice distinction should be ceive the nice distinctions of a subtle philosophy, made, that nothing unprofitable should be ad- and may be properly initiated in speculative stumitted for the sake of pleasure, nor any arts of dies by an introduction like this, in which the attraction neglected, that might fix the attention grossness of vulgar conception is avoided, with upon more important studies.
out the observation of metaphysical exactness. These considerations produced the book which It is observed that in the course of the natural is here offered to the public, as better adapted world no change is instantaneous, but all its to the great design of pleasing by instruction, vicissitudes are gradual and slow; the motions than any which has hitherto been admitted into of intellect proceed in the like imperceptible proour seminaries of literature. There are not in- gression, and proper degrees of transition from deed wanting in the world compendiums of one study to another are therefore necessary; science, but many were written at a time when but let it not be charged upon the writers of this philosophy was imperfect, as that of G. Valla ; book, that they intended to exhibit more than many contain only naked schemes, or synopti- the dawn of knowledge, or pretended to raise in cal tables, as that of Stierius; and others are the mind any nobler product than the blossoms too large and voluminous, as that of Alstedius; of science, which more powerful institutions and, what is not to be considered as the least may ripen into fruit. objection, they are generally in a language, For this reason it must not be expected, that which to boys is more difficult than the sub- in the following pages should be found a comject; and it is too hard a task to be condemned plete circle of the sciences; or that any authors, to learn a new science in an unknown tongue. now deservedly esteemed, should be rejected to As in life, so in study, it is dangerous to do more make way for what is bere offered. It was inthings than one at a time; and the mind is not tended by the means of these precepts, not to to be harassed with unnecessary obstructions, deck the mind with ornaments, but to protect it in a way, of which the natural and unavoidable from nakedness; not to enrich it with affluence, asperity is such as too frequently produces but to supply it with necessaries. The inquiry, despair.
therefore, was not what degrees of knowledge If the language however had been the only are desirable, but what are in most stations of objection to any of the volumes already extant, life indispensably required; and the choice was the schools might have been supplied at a small determined not by the splendour of any part of expense by a translation; but none could be literature, but by the extent of its use, and the found that was not defective, redundant, or er- inconvenience which its neglect was likely to roneous, as to be of more danger than use. It produce. was necessary then to examine, whether upon I. The prevalence of this consideration apevery single science there was not some treatise pears in the first part, which is appropriated to writien for the use of scholars, which might be the humble purposes of teaching to read, and adapted to this design, so that a collection might speak, and write lellers; an attempt of little be made from different authors, without the ne- magnificence, but in which no man needs to cessity of writing new systems. This search blush for having employed his time, if honour was not wholly without success, for two authors be estimated by use. For precepts of this kind, were found, whose performances might be ad-) however neglected, extend their importance as
far as men are found who communicate their proposition may be fully understood before thoughts one to another; they are equally useful another is attempted. For which purpose it is to the highest and the lowest; they may often not sufficient, that when a question is asked in contribute make ignorance less inelegant; the words of the book, the scholar likewise can, and may it not be observed, that they are fre- in the words of the book, return the
proper quently wanted for the embellishment even of swer; for this may be only an act of memory learning?
not of understanding; it is always proper to In order to show the proper use of this part, vary the words of the question, to place the which consists of various exemplifications of proposition in different points of view, and to such differences of style as require correspondent require of the learner an explanation in his own diversities of pronunciation, it will be proper to terms, informing him however when they are inform the scholar, that there are in general improper. By this method the scholar will be three forms of style, each of which demands its come cautious and attentive, and the master will particular mode of elocution: the familiar, the know with certainty the degree of his proficiency. solemn, and the pathelic. That in the familiar, Yet, though this rule is generally right, I cannot ..e that reads is only to talk with a paper in his but recommend a precept of Pardie's, that when
and, and to indulge himself in all the lighter the student cannot be made to comprehend some liberties of voice, as when he reads the common particular part, it should be, for that time, laid articles of a newspaper, or a cursory letter of aside, till new light shall arise from subsequent intelligence or business. That the solemn style, observation. such as that of a serious narrative, exacts a When this compendium is completely under uniform steadiness of speech, equal, clear, and stood, the scholar may proceed to the perusal of calm. That for the pathetic, such as an ani- Tacquet, afterwards of Euclid himself, and then mated oration, it is necessary the voice be re- of the modern improvers of geometry, such as gulated by the sense, varying and rising with Barrow, Keil, and Sir Isaac Newton. the passions. These rules, which are the most III. The necessity of some acquaintance with general, admit a great number of subordinate geography and astronomy will not be disputed. observations, which must be particularly adapted if the pupil is born to the case of a large forto every scholar; for it is observable, that though tune, no part of learning is more necessary to very few read well, yet every man errs in a dif- him than the knowledge of the situation of 'naferent way.
But let one remark never be tions, on which their interests generally depend; omitted; inculcate strongly to every scholar the if he is dedicated to any of the learned profesdanger of copying the voice of another; an sions, it is scarcely possible that he will not be attempt which, though it has been often repeat obliged to apply himself in some part of his ed, is always unsuccessful.
life to these studies, as no other branch of liteThe importance of writing letters with pro- rature can be fully comprehended without them; priety, justly claims to be considered with care, if he is designed for the arts of commerce or since, next to the power of pleasing with his agriculture, some general acquaintance with presence, every man would wish to be able to these sciences will be found extremely useful to give delight at a distance. This great art should him; in a word, no studies afford more extenbe diligently taught, the rather, because of those sive, more wonderful, or more pleasing scenes; letters which are most useful, and by which the and therefore there can be no ideas impressed general business of life is transacted, there are upon the soul, which can more conduce to its no examples easily to be found. It seems the future entertainment. general fault of those who undertake this part In the pursuit of these sciences, it will be proof education, that they propose for the exercise per to proceed with the same gradation and cauof their scholars, occasions which rarely hap-tion as in geometry. And it is always of use pen; such as congratulations and condolences, to decorate the nakedness of science, by interand neglect those without which life cannot spersing such observations and narratives as may proceed. It is possible to pass many years with amuse the mind, and excite curiosity. Thus, out the necessity of writing panegyrics or epi- in explaining the state of the polar regions, it thalamiums; but every man has frequent occa- might be fit to read the narrative of the Englishsion to state a contract, or demand a debt, or men that wintered in Greenland, which will make make a narrative of some minute incidents of young minds sufficiently curious after the cause common life.
On these subjects, therefore, of such a length of night, and intenseness of young persons should be taught to think justly, cold; and many stratagems of the same kind and write clearly, neatly, and succinctly, lest might be practised to interest them in all parts they come from school into the world without of their studies, and call in their passions to ani. any acquaintance with common affairs, and mate their inquiries. When they have read stand idle spectators of mankind, in expectation this treatise, it will be proper to recommend to that some great event will give them an oppor- them Varenius's Geography, and Gregory's As. tunity to exert their rhetoric.
tronomy. Il. The second place is assigned to geometry; ' IV. The study of chronology and history seems * on the usefulness of which it is unnecessary to to be one of the most natural delights of the expatiate in an age when mathematical studies human mind. It is not easy to live without inhave so much engaged the attention of all classes quiring by what means every thing was brought of men. This treatise is one of those which into the state in which we now behold it, or have been borrowed, being a translation from without finding in the mind some desire of being the work of M. Le Clerc; and is not intended informed concerning the generations of manas more than the first initiation. In delivering kind, that have been in possession of the world the fundamental principles of geometry, it is before us, whether they were better or worse accessary to proceed by slow steps, that each ) than ourselves; or what good or evil has been
derived to us from their schemes, practices, and which the literature of this nation will be in a institutions. These are inquiries which history short time augmented. alone can satisfy; and history can only be made VI. With regard to the practice of drawing, intelligible by some knowledge of chronology, it is not necessary to give any directions, the use the science by which events are ranged in their of the treatise being only to teach the proper order, and the periods of computation are set- method of imitating the figures which are antled ; and which therefore assists the memory nexed. It will be proper to incite the scholars by method, and enlightens the judgment by to industry, by showing in other books the use showing the dependence of one transaction on of the art, and informing them how much it asanother. Accordingly it should be diligently sists the apprehension, and relieves the memory; inculcated to the scholar, that unless he fixes in and if they are obliged sometimes to write dehis mind some idea of the time in which each scriptions of engines, utensils, or any complex man of eminence lived, and each action was per- pieces of workmanship, they will more fully formed, with some part of the contemporary his- apprehend the necessity of an expedient which tory of the rest of the world, he will consume so happily supplies the defects of language, and his life in useless reading, and darken his mind enables the eye to conceive what cannot be conwith a crowd of unconnected events; his me- veyed to the mind any other way. When they mory will be perplexed with distant transactions have read this treatise, and practised upon these resembling one another, and his reflections be figures, their theory may be improved by the like a dream in a fever, busy and turbulent, but Jesuit's Perspective, and their manual operaconfused and indistinct.
tions by other figures which may be easily proThe technical part of chronology, or the art cured. of computing and adjusting time, as it is very VII. Logic, or the art of arranging and condifficult, so it is not of absolute necessity, but necting ideas, of forming and examining argushould however be taught, so far as it can be ments, is universally allowed to be an attainment learned without the loss of those hours which are in the utmost degree worthy the ambition of required for attainments of nearer concern. The that being whose highest honour is to be endued student may join with this treatise Le Clerc's with reason; but it is doubted whether that. Compendium of History; and afterwards may, ambition has yet been gratified, and whether for the historical part of chronology, procure the powers of ratiocination have been much imHelvicus's and Isaacson's Tables ; and, if he proved by any systems of art, or methodical inis desirous of attaining the technical part, may stitutions. The logic which for so many ages first peruse Holder's Account of Time, Hearne's kept possession of the schools, has at last been Ductor Historicus, Strauchius, the first part of condemned as a mere art of wrangling, of very Petavius's Rationarium Temporum; and at little use in the pursuit of truth; and later wri, length, Scaliger de Emendatione Temporum. ters have contented themselves with giving an And for instruction in the method of his histori- account of the operations of the mind, marking cal studies, he may consult Hearne's Ductor the various stages of her progress, and giving Historicus, Whearc's Lectures, Rawlinson's some general rules for the regulation of her conDirections for the Stndy of History, and for duct. The method of these writers is here folecclesiastical history, Cave and Dupin, Baronius lowed ; but without a servile adherence to any, and Fleury.
and with endeavours to make improvements V. Rhetoric and poetry supply, life with its upon all. This work, however laborious, has highest intellectual pleasures; and in the hands yet been fruitless, if there be truth in an obserof virtue are of great use for the impression of vation very frequently made, that logicians out just sentiments, and recommendation of illus- of the school do not reason better than men untrious examples. In the practice of these great assisted by those lights which their science is arts, so much more is the effect of nature than supposed to bestow. It is not to be doubted but the effect of education, that nothing is attempted that logicians may be sometimes overbome by here but to teach the mind some general heads their passions, or blinded by their prejudices; of observation, to which the beautiful passages and that a man may reason ill, as he may act ill, of the best writers may commonly be reduced. not because he does not know what is right, but In the use of this it is not proper that the teacher because he does not regard it; yet it is no more should confine himself to the examples before the fault of his art that it does not direct him him ; for by that method he will never enable when his attention is withdrawn from it, than his pupils to make just application of the rules; it is the defect of his sight, that he misses his but, having inculcated the true meaning of each way when he shuts his eyes. Against this cause figure, he should require them to exemplify it of error there is no provision to be made, by their own observations, pointing to them the otherwise than by inculcating the value of poem, or, in longer works, the book or canto in truth and the necessity of conquering the paswhich an example may be found, and leaving sions. But logic may likewise fail to produce them to discover the particular passage by the its effects upon common occasions, for want light of the rules which they have lately learned of being frequently and familiarly applied, till
For a farther progress in these studies, they its precepts may direct the mind imperceptibly, may consult Quintilian and Vossius's Rhetoric; as the fingers of a musician are regulated by his the art of poetry will be best learned from Bossu knowledge of the tune. This readiness of reand Bohours in French, together with Dryden's collection is only to be procured by frequent imEssays and Prefaces, the Critical Papers of Ad- pression; and therefore it will be proper, when dison, Spence on Pope's Odyssey, and Trapp's logic has been once learned, that the teacher take Prælectiones Poeticæ ; but a more accurate and frequent occasion, in the most easy and familiar philosophical account is expected from a com- conversation, to observe when its rules are prementary upon Aristotle's Art of Poetry, with served, and when they are broken ; and that
afterwards he read no authors without exacting | When therefore the obligations of morality are of his pupil an account of every remarkable ex- taught, let the sanctions of Christianity never be emplification, or breach of the laws of reasoning. forgotten; by which it will be shown, that they
When this system has been digested, if it be give strength and lustre to each other ; religion thought necessary to proceed farther in the study will appear to be the voice of reason, and mora. of method, it will be proper to recommend lity the will of God. Under this article must be Crousaz, Watts, Le Clerc, Wolfius, and Locke's recommended Tully's Offices, Grotius, PuffenEssay on Human Understanding, and if there dorf, Cumberland's Laws of Nature, and the be imagined any necessity of adding the peri- excellent Mr. Addison's Moral and Religious patetic logic, which has been perhaps condemned Essays. without a candid trial, it will be convenient to X. Thus far the work is composed for the use proceed to Sanderson, Wallis, Crackanthorp, of scholars, merely as they are men. But it was. and Aristotle.
thought necessary to introduce something that VIII. To excite a curiosity after the works of might be particularly adapted to that country for God, is the chief design of ihe small specimen which it is designed; and therefore a discourse of natural history inserted in this collection has been added upon trade and commerce, of which, however, may be sufficient to put the which it becomes every man of this nation to un. mind in motion, and in some measure to direct derstand at least the general principles, as it is its steps ; but its effects may easily be improved impossible that any should be high or low enough by a philosophic master, who will every day find noi to be in some degree affected by their declena thousand opportunites of turning the atten- sion or prosperity. It is therefore necessary that tion of his scholars to the contemplation of the it should be universally known among us, what objects that surround them, of laying open the changes of property are advantageous, or when wonderful art with which every part of the uni- the balance of trade is on our side; what are the verse is formed, and the providence which governs products or manufactures of other countries ;-. the vegetable and animal creation. He may lay and how far one nation may in any species of before them the Religious Philosopher, Ray, traffic obtain or preserve superiority over ano Derham's Physico-Theology, together with the ther. The theory of trade is yet but little unSpectacle de la Nature ; and in time recommend derstood, and therefore the practice is often withto their perusal Rondoletius and Aldrovandus. out real advantage to the public; but it might
IX. But how much soever the reason may be be carried on with more general success, if its strengthened by logic, or the conceptions of the principles were better considered ; and to excite mind enlarged by the study of nature, it is ne- that aitention is our chief design. To the perucessary the man be not suffered to dwell upon sal of this book may succeed that of Mun upon them so long as to neglect the study of himself
, Foreign Trade, Sir Josiah Child, Locke upon the knowledge of his own station in the ranks Coin, Davenant's Treatises, the British Merof being, and his various relations to the in-chant, Dictionnaire de Commerce, and, for an numerable multitudes which surround him, and abstract or compendium, Gee, and an improvewith which his Maker has ordained him to be ment that may hereafter be made upon his plan. united for the reception and communication of XI. The principles of laws and government happiness. To consider these aright is of the come next to be considered; by which men are greatest importance, since from these arise duties taught to whom obedience is due, for what it is which he cannot neglect. Ethics, or morality, paid, and in what degree it may be justly requirtherefore, is one of the studies which ought to ed. This knowledge, by peculiar necessity, conbegin with the first glimpse of reason, and only stitutes a part of the education of an Englishend with life itself. Other acquisitions are man who professes to obey his prince according merely temporary benefits, except as they con to the law, and who is himself a secondary letribute to illustrate the knowledge, and confirm gislator, as he gives his consent, by his representhe practice, of morality and piety, which ex. tative, to all the laws by which he is bound, and tend their influence beyond the grave, and in- has a right to petition the great council of the crease our happiness through endless duration. nation, whenever he thinks they are deliberating
This great science, therefore, must be incul- upon an act detrimental to the interest of the cated with care and assiduity, such as its impor-community. This is therefore a subject to which tance ought to incite in reasonable minds : and the thoughts of a young man ought to be directo for the prosecution of this design, fit opportuni-ed; and that he may obtain such knowledge as ties are always at hand. As the importance of may qualify him to act and judge as one of a free logic is to be shown by detecting false arguments, people, let him be directed to add to this introthe excellence of morality is to be displayed by duction, Fortescue's Treatises, N. Bacon's Hisproving the deformity, the reproach, and the mi- torical Discourse on the Laws and Government sery of all deviations from it. Yet it is to be re- of England, Temple's Introduction, Locke on membered, that the laws of mere morality are Government, Zouch's Elementa Juris Civilis, no coercive power; and, however they may by Plato Redivivus, Gurdon's History of Parliaconviction of their fitness please the reasoner in ments, and Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity. the shade, when the passions stagnate without XII. Having thus supplied the young student impulse, and the appetites are secluded from their with knowledge, it remains now that he learns its objects, they will be of little force against the ar- application ; and that thus qualified to act hisdour of desire, or the vehemence of rage, amidst part, he be at last taught to choose it.
For this the pleasures and tumults of the world. To purpose a section is added upon human life and counteract the power of temptations, hope must manners; in which he is cautioned against the be excited by the prospect of rewards, and fear danger of indulging his passions, of vitiating his by the expectation of punishment; and virtue habils, and depraving his sentiments. He is inmay owe her panegyrics to morality, but must structed in these points by three fables, two of derive her authority from religion.
which were of the highest authority in the an