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cient Pagan world. But at this he is not to | dicate or prevent vice, by turning to a better use rest; for if he expects to be wise and happy, those moments in which it is learned or indulged: he must diligently study the SCRIPTURES of and in some sense lengthen life, by teaching posGon.

terity to enjoy those years which have hitherto Such is the book now proposed, as the first been lost. "The success, and even the trial of mitiation into the knowledge of things, which this experiment, will depend upon those to whom has been thought by many to be too long delay- the care of our youth is committed ; and a due ed in the present forms of education. Whether sense of the importance of their trust will easily the complaints be not often ill-grounded, may prevail upon them to encourage a work which perhaps be disputed; but it is at least reasonable pursues the design of improving education. If to believe, that greater proficiency might some- any part of the following performance shall upon times be made ; that real knowledge might be trial be found capable of amendment: if any more early communicated ; and that children thing can be added or altered, so as to render the might be allowed, without injury to health, to attainment of knowledge more easy ; the Edispend many of those hours upon useful employ, tor will be extremely obliged to any gentleman, ments, which are generally lost in idleness and particularly those who are engaged in the busiplay; therefore the public will surely encourage ness of teaching, for such hints or observations an experiment, by which, if it fails, nobody is as may tend towards the improvement, and will hurt ; and if it succeeds, all the future ages of spare neither expense nor trouble in making the the world may find advantage ; which may era- | best use of their information.



No expectation is more fallacious than that, erecting mercantile companies, and preparing to which authors form of the reception which their traffic in the remotest countries. labours will find among mankind. Scarcely Nor is the form of this work less popular than any man publishes a book, whatever it be, with the subject. It has lately been the practice of out believing that he has caught the moment the learned to range knowledge by the alphabet, when the public attention is vacant to his call, and publish dictionaries of every kind of literaand the world is disposed in a particular manner ture. This practice has perhaps been carried to learn the art which he undertakes to teach. too far by the force of fashion. Sciences, in

The writers of this volume are not so far themselves systematical and coherent, are not exempt from epidemical prejudices, but that very properly broken into such fortuitous distrithey likewise please themselves with imagining, butions. A dictionary of arithmetic or geometry that they have reserved their labours to a pro- can serve only to confound; but commerce, conpitious conjuncture, and that this is the proper sidered in its whole extent, seems to refuse any time for the publication of a Dictionary of Com- other method of arrangement, as it comprises merce.

innumerable particulars unconnected with each The predictions of an author are very far from other, among which there is no reason why any infallibility ; but in justification of some degree should be first or last, better than is furnished by of confidence it may be properly observed, that the letters that compose their names. there was never from the earliest ages a time in We cannot indeed boast ourselves the invenwhich trade so much engaged the attention of tors of a scheme so commodious and compremankind, or commercial gain was sought with hensive. The French, among innumerable prosuch general emulation. Nations which have jects for the promotion of traffic, have taken care hitherto cultivated no art but that of war, nor to supply their merchants with a Dictionnaire de conceived any means of increasing riches but by Commerce, collected with great industry and plunder, are awakened to more inoffensive in- exactness, but too large for common use, and dustry. Those whom the possession of subter-adapted to their own trade. This book, as well raneous treasures have long disposed to accom as others, has been carefully consulted, that our modate themselves by foreign industry, are at merchants may not be ignorant of any thing last convinced, that idleness never will be rich. known by their enemies or rivals. The merchant is now invited to every port, ma Such indeed is the extent of our undertaking, nufactures are established in all cities, and princes that it was necessary to solicit every information, who just can view the sea from some single cor- to consult the living and the dead. The great ner of their dominions, are enlarging harbours, qualification of him that attempts a work thus

general is diligence of inquiry. No man has A new Dictionary of Trade and Commerce, compiled opportunity or ability to acquaint himself with from the Information of the most eminent Merchants, all the subjects of a commercial dictionary, so and from the Works of the best Writers on commercial Subjects in all Languages, by Mr. Roll. Folio, 1757.

as to describe from his own knowledge, or assert

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on his own experience. He must therefore often | and that an anvil is forged. But as it is to most depend upon the veracity of others, as every man traders of more use to know when their goods depends in common life, and have no other skill are well wrought, than by what means, care has to boast than that of selecting judiciously, and been taken to name the places where every maarranging properly.

nufacture has been carried furthest, and the But to him who considers the extent of our marks by which its excellency may be ascersubject, limited only by the bounds of nature tained. and of art, the task of selection and method will By the places of trade are understood all ports, appear sufficient to overburden industry and dis- cities, or towns, where staples are established, tract attention. Many branches of commerce manufactures are wrought, or any commodities are subdivided into smaller and smaller parts, till are bought and sold advantageously. This part at last they become so minute as not easily to be of our work includes an enumeration of almost noted by observation. Many interests are so all the remarkable places in the world, with such woven among each other as not to be disen- an account of their situation, customs, and protangled without long inquiry; many arts are in- ducts, as the merchant would require, who being dustriously kept secret, and many practices ne- to begin a new trade in any foreign country, was cessary to be known, are carried on in parts too yet ignorant of the commodities of the place and remote for intelligence.

the manners of the inhabitants. But the knowledge of trade is of so much im But the chief attention of the merchant, and portance to a maritime nation, that no labour consequently of the author who writes for mercan be thought great by which information may chants, ought to be employed upon the means of be obtained ; and therefore we hope the reader trade, which include all the knowledge and pracwill not have reason to complain, that, of what tice necessary to the skilful and successful conhe might justly expect to find, any thing is duct of commerce. omitted.

The first of the means of trade is proper eduTo give a detail or analysis of our work is cation, which may confer a competent skill in very difficult; a volume intended to contain numbers; to be afterwards completed in the whatever is requisite to be known by every counting-house, by observation of the manner of trader, necessarily becomes so miscellaneous and stating accounts, and regulating books, which is unconnected as not to be easily reducible to one of the few arts which having been studied heads; yet, since we pretend in some measure in proportion to its importance, is carried as far to treat of traffic as a science, and to make that as use can require. The counting-house of an regular and systematical which has hitherto been accomplished merchant is a school of method, to a great degree fortuitous and conjectural, and where the great science may be learned of ranghas often succeeded by chance rather than by ing particulars under generals, of bringing the conduct, it will be proper to show that a distri- different parts of a transaction together, and of bution of parts has been attempted, which, showing at one view a long series of dealing and though rude and inadequate, will at least pre- exchange. Let no man venture into large busiserve some order, and enable the mind to take a ness while he is ignorant of the method of regumethodical and successive view of this design. lating books; never let him imagine that any

In the dictionary which we here offer to the degree of natural abilities will enable him to suppublic, we propose to exhibit the materials, the ply this deficiency, or preserve multiplicity of places, and ihe means of traffic.

affairs from inextricable confusion. The materials or subjects of traffic are what This is the study, without which all other ever is bought and sold, and include therefore studies will be of lítile avail; but this alone is every production of nature.

not sufficient. It will be necessary to learn In giving an account of the commodities of many other things, which however may be easily nature, whether those which are to be used in included in the preparatory institutions, such as their original state, as drugs and spices, or those an exact knowledge of the weights and measures which become useful when they receive a new of different countries, and some skill in geograform from human art, as flax, cotton, and metals, phy and navigation, with which this book may we shall show the places of their production, the perhaps sufficiently supply him. manner in which they grow, the art of cultivating In navigation, considered as part of the skill of or collecting them, their discriminations and va- a merchant, is included not so much the art of rieties, by which the best sorts are known from steering a ship, as the knowledge of the seathe worst, and genuine from fictitious, the arts coast, and of the different parts to which his car. by which they are counterfeited, the casualties goes are sent; the customs to be paid ; the by which they are impaired, and the practice by passes, permissions, or certificates to be prowhich the dainage is palliated or concealed. We cured the hazards of every voyage, and the true shall likewise show their virtues and uses, and rate of insurances. To this must be added, an trace them through all the changes which they acquaintance with the policies and arts of other undergo.

nations, as well those to whom the commodities The history of manufactures is likewise deli- are sold, as of those who carry goods of the same vered. Of every artificial commodity, the man- kind to the same market; and who are therefore ner in which it is made is in some measure to be watched as rivals endeavouring to take addescribed, though it must be remembered, that vantage of every error, miscarriage, or debate. manual óperations are scarce to be conveyed by The chief of the means of trade is money, of any words to him that has not seen them. which our late refinements in traffic have made Some general notions may however be afforded : the knowledge extremely difficult. The merit is easy to comprehend, that plates of iron are chant must not only inform himself of the various formed by the pressure of rollers, and bars by denominations and value of foreign coins, tothe strokes of a hammer; that a cannon is cast, I gether with their method of counting and re

ducing; such as the milleries of Portugal, and | facturer. Much of the prosperity of a trading the livres of France; but he must learn what is nation depends upon duties properly apportioned; of more difficult attainment; the discount of so that what is necessary may continue cheap, exchanges, the nature of current paper, the prin- and what is of use only to luxury may in some ciples upon which the several banks of Europe measure atone to the public for the mischief done are established, the real value of funds, the true to individuals. Duties may often be so regucredit of trading companies, with all the sources lated as to become useful even to those that pay of profit, and possibilities of loss.

them; and they may be likewise so unequally All this he must learn merely as a private imposed as to discourage honesty, and depress dealer, attentive only to his own advantage ; but industry, and give temptation to fraud and unas every man ought to consider himself as part of lawful practices. the community to which he belongs, and while To teach all this is the design of the Comhe prosecutes his own interest to promote like mercial Dictionary; which though immediately wise that of his country, it is necessary for the and primarily written for the merchants, will be trader to look abroad upon mankind, and study of use to every man of business or curiosity. many questions which are perhaps more pro- There is no man who is not in some degree a perly political than mercantile.

merchant, who has not something to buy and He ought therefore to consider very accurately, something to sell, and who does not therefore the balance of trade, or the proportion between want such instructions as may teach him the things exported and imported; to examine what true value of possessions or commodities. kinds of commerce are unlawful, either as being The descriptions of the productions of the earth expressly prohibited, because detrimental to the and water, which this volume will contain, may manufactures or other interests of his country, as be equally pleasing and useful to the speculatist the exportation of silver to the East Indies, and with any other natural history; and the acthe introduction of French commodities; or un- counts of various manufactures will constitute no lawful in itself, as the traffic for negroes. He contemptible body of experimental philosophy. ought to be able to state with accuracy, the The descriptions of ports and cities muy instruct benefits and mischiefs of monopolies, and exclu- the geographer as well as if they were found in sive companies; to inquire into the arts which books appropriated only to his own science; and have been practised by them to make them the doctrines of funds, insurances, currency, monecessary, or by their opponents to make them nopolies, exchanges, and duties, is so necessary odious. He should inform himself what trades to the politician, that without it he can be of no are declining, and what are improveable; when use either in the council or the senate, nor can the advantage is on our side, and when on that speak or think justly either on war or trade. of our rivals.

We therefore hope that we shall not repent the The state of our colonies is always to be dili- labour of compiling this work; nor flatter ourgently surveyed, that no advantage may be lost selves unreasonably, in predicting a favourablo which they can afford, and that every opportu- reception to a book which no condition of life can nity may be improved of increasing their wealth render useless, which may contribute to the and power, or of making them useful to their advantage of all that make or receive laws, of all mother country:

that buy or sell, of all that wish to keep or imThere is no knowledge of more frequent use prove their possessions, of all that desire to be than that of duties and imposts, whether customs rich, and all that desire to be wise. paid at the ports, or excises levied on the manu




The following relation is so curious and enter- | dible fictions: whatever he relates, whether taining, and the dissertations that accompany true or not, is at least probable; and he who it so judicious and instructive, that the trans- tells nothing exceeding the bounds of probalator is confident his attempt stands in need of bility, has a right to demand that they should no apology, whatever censures may fall on the believe him who cannot contradict him. performance.

He appears by his modest and unaffected The Portuguese traveller, contrary to the narration, to have described things as he saw general vein of his countrymen, has amused his them, to have copied nature from the life, and reader with no romantic absurdities or incre- to have consulted his senses, nat his imagina

tion. He meets with no basilisks that destroy *For an account of this book, see the Life of Dr. with their eyes; his crocodiles devour their Johnson, by Mr. Murphy.

prey without tears ; and his cataracts fall from

the rock without deafening the neighbouring from the temper of his religion ; but in the inhabitants.

others has left proofs, that learning and honesty The reader will here find no regions cursed are often too weak to oppose prejudice. He with irremediable barrenness, or blessed with has made no scruple of preferring the testimony spontaneous fecundity; no perpetual gloom or of father Du Bernat to the writings of all the unceasing sunshine; nor are the nations here Portuguese jesuits, to whom he allows great described either devoid of all sense of humanity, zeal, but little learning, without giving any or consummate in all private and social virtues : other reason than that his favourite was here are no Hottentots without religion, polity, Frenchman. This is writing only to Frenchor articulate language ; no Chinese perfectly men and to papists: a protestant would be polite, and completely skilled in all sciences: he desirous to know, why he must imagine thai will discover what will always be discovered father Du Bernat had a cooler head or more by a diligent and impartial inquirer, that wher- knowledge, and why one man whose account is ever human nature is to be found, there is a singular, is not more likely to be mistaken than mixture of vice and virtue, a contest of passion many agreeing in the same account. and reason; and that the Creator doth not ap If the Portuguese were biassed by any parti pear partial in his distributions, but has balanced cular views, another_bias equally powerful may in most countries their particular inconveniences bave deflected the Frenchman from the truth; by particular favours.

for they evidently write with contrary designs: In his account of the mission, where his vera- the Portuguese, to make their mission seem city is most to be suspected, he neither exag- more necessary, endeavoured to place in the gerates over-much the merits of the jesuits, if strongest light the differences between the Abyswe consider the partial regard paid by the Por- sinian and Roman church; but the great Lu tuguese to their countrymen, by the Jesuits to dolfus, laying hold on the advantage, reduced their society, and by the papists to their church, these later writers to prove their conformity. nor aggravates the vices of the Abyssinians; Upon the whole, the controversy seems of no but if the reader will not be satisfied with a great importance to those who believe the Holy popish account of a popish mission, he may have Scriptures sufficient to teach the way of sal recourse to the History of the Church of Abys- vation; but, of whatever moment it may be sinia, written by Dr. Geddes, in which he will thought, there are no proofs sufficient to de find the actions and sufferings of the missiona- cide it. ries placed in a different light, though the same His discourses on indifferent subjects will in which Mr. Le Grand, with all his zeal for the divert as well as instruct; and if either in these, Roman church, appears to have seen them. or in the relation of father Lobo, any argument

This learned dissertator, however valuable shall appear unconvincing, or description ob for his industry and erudition, is yet more to scure, they are defects incident to all mankind, be esteemed for having dared so freely, in the which, however, are not too rashly to be immidst of France, to declare his disapprobation puted to the authors, being sometimes perhaps of the patriarch Oviedo's sanguinary zeal, who more justly chargeable on the translator. was continually importuning the Portuguese to In this translation (if it may be so called) beat up their drums for missionaries who might great liberties have been taken, which, whether preach the gospel with swords in their hands, justifiable or not, shall be fairly confessed, and and propagate by desolation and slaughter the let the judicious part of mankind pardon or contrue worship of the God of peace.

demn them. It is not easy to forbear reflecting with how In the first part the greatest freedom has been little reason these men profess themselves the used, in reducing the narration into a narrow followers of Jesus, who left this great charac-compass; so that it is by no means a translateristic to his disciples, that they should be tion, but an epitome, in which, whether every known by loving one another, by universal and thing either useful or entertaining be comprised, unbounded charity and benevolence.

the compiler is least qualified to determine. Let us suppose an inhabitant of some remote In the account of Abyssinia, and the conand superior region, yet unskilled in the ways tinuation, the authors have been followed with of men, having read and considered the precepts more exactness; and as few passages appeared of the gospel, and the example of our Saviour, either insignificant or tedious, few have been to come down in search of the true church. If either shortened or omitted. he would not inquire after it among the cruel, The dissertations are the only part in which the insolent, and the oppressive; among those an exact translation has been attempted; and who are continually grasping at dominion over even in those, abstracts are sometimes given souls as well as bodies ; among those who are instead of literal quotations, particularly in the employed in procuring to themselves impunity first; and sometimes other parts have been confor the most enormous villanies, and studying tracted. methods of destroying their fellow-creatures, Several memorials and letters, which are not for their crimes but their errors—if he would printed at the end of the dissertations to secure not expect to meet benevolence engaged in mas- the credit of the foregoing narrative, are entirely sacres, or to find merey in a court of inquisition, left out. he would not look for the true church in the It is hoped that after this confession, whoever church of Rome.

shall compare this attempt with the original, if Mr. Le Grand has given in one dissertation he shall find no proofs of fraud or partiality, will an example of great moderation, in deviating I candidly overlook any failure of judgment.



Though criticism has been cultivated in every | the principal intention of Epitaphs is to perpeage of learning, by men of great abilities and tuate the examples of virtue, that the tomb of a extensive knowledge, till the rules of writing good man may supply the want of his presence, are become rather burdensome than instructive and veneration for his memory produce the to the mind; though almost every species of same effect as the observation of his life. Those composition has been the subject of particular Epitaphs are, therefore, the most perfect, which treatises, and given birth to definitions, distinc- set virtue in the strongest light, and are best tions, precepts, and illustrations; yet no critic adapted to exalt the reader's ideas and rouse his of note, that has fallen within my observation, emulation. has hitherto thought sepulchral inscriptions To this end it is not always necessary to reworthy of a minute examination, or pointed out count the actions of a hero, or enumerate the with proper accuracy their beauties and defects. writings of a philosopher ; to imagine such in

The reasons of this neglect it is useless to formations necessary, is to detract from their inquire, and perhaps impossible to discover; it characters, or to suppose their works mortal, or might be justly expected that this kind of writ- their achievements in danger of being forgotten. ing would have been the favourite topic of criti- The bare name of such men answers every purcism, and that self-love might have produced pose of a long inscription: some regard for it, in those authors that have Had only the name of Sır Isaac Newton crowded libraries with elaborate dissertations been subjoined to the design upon his monument, upon Homer ; since to afford a subject for heroic instead of a long detail of his discoveries, which poems is the privilege of very few, but every no philosopher can want, and which none but a man may expect to be recorded in an epitaph, philosopher can understand, those, by whose and therefore finds some interest in providing direction it was raised, had done more honour that his memory may not suffer by an unskilful both to him and to themselves. panegyric.

This indeed is a commendation which it reIf our prejudices in favour of antiquity de- quires no genius to bestow, but which can never serve to have any part in the regulation of our become vulgar or contemptible, if bestowed with studies, Epitaphs seem entitled to more than judgment, because no single age produces many common regard, as they are probably of the men of merit superior to panegyric. None but same age with the art of writing. The most the first names can stand unassisted against the ancient structures in the world, the Pyramids, attacks of time; and if men raised to reputation are supposed to be sepulchral monuments, which by accident or caprice, have nothing but their either pride or gratitude erected; and the same names engraved on their tombs, there is danger passions which incited men to such laborious and lest in a few years the inscription require an inexpensive methods of preserving their own terpreter. Thus have their expectations been memory, or that of their benefactors, would disappointed who honoured Picus of Mirandola doubtless incline them not to neglect any easier with this pompous epitaph: means by which the same ends might be obtained. Nature and reason have dictated to every nation,

Hic situs est Picus Mirandola, crtera norunt

Et Tagus et Ganges, forsan et Antipodes. that to preserve good actions from oblivion, is both the interest and duty of mankind;, and His name, then celebrated in the remotest cortherefore we find no people acquainted with the ners of the earth, is now almost forgotten; and use of letters, that omitted to grace the tombs his works, then studied, admired, and applauded, of their heroes and wise men with panegyrical are now mouldering in obscurity. inscriptions.

Next in dignity to the bare name is a short To examine, therefore, in what the perfection character simple and unadorned, without exagof Epitaphs consists, and what rules are to be geration, superlatives, or rhetoric

. Such were observed in composing them, will be at least of the inscriptions in use among the Romans, in as much use as other critical inquiries; and for which the victories gained by their emperors assigning a few hours to such disquisitions, great were commemorated by a single epithet; as examples at least, if not strong reasons, may be Cæsar Germanicus, Cæsar Dacicus, Germanicus, pleaded.

Illyricus. Such would be this epitaph, Isaacus An Epitaph, as the word itself implies, is an Newtonus, naturæ legibus investigatis hic quiinscription on the tomb, and in its most extensive escit. import may admit indiscriminately satire or But to far the greatest part of mankind a praise. But as malice has seldom produced longer encomium is necessary for the publication monuments of defamation, and the tombs hither of their virtues, and the preservation of their to raised have been the work of friendship and memories; and in the composition of these it is benevolence, custom has contracted the original that art is principally required, and precepts latitude of the word, so that it signifies in the therefore may be useful. general acceptation an inscription engraven on a In writing Epitaphs, one circumstance is to tomb in honour of the person deceased.

be considered, which affects no other composiAs honours are paid to the dead in order to tion; the place in which they are now comincite others to the imitation of their excellences, / monly found restrains them to a particular air

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