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ability in the professors. The students wear By a lady who saw is at the chapel, the Eart scarlet gowns, and the professors black, which of Errol was informed of our arrival, and we is, I believe, the academical dress in all the Scol- had the honour of an invitation to his seat, called tish universities, except that of Edinburgh, where Slanes Castle, as I am told, improperly, from the scholars are not distinguished by any parti- the castle of that name, which once stood at a cular habit. In the King's College there is kept place not far distant. a public table, but the scholars of the Marischal The road beyond Aberdeen grew more stony, College are boarded in the town. The expense and continued equally naked of all vegetable of living is here, according to the information decoration. We travelled over a tract of ground that I could obtain, somewhat more than at St. near the sea, which not long ago suffered a very Andrews.

uncommon and unexpected calamity. The sand The course of education is extended to four of the shore was raised by a tempest in such years, at the end of which those who take a de- quantities, and carried to such a distance, that gree, who are not many, become masters of arts; an estate was overwhelmed and lost. Such and and whoever is a master may, if he pleases, im- so hopeless was the barrenness superinduced, mediately commence doctor. The title of doctor, that the owner, when he was required to pay the however, was for a considerable time bestowed the usual tax, desired rather to resign the ground. only on physicians. The advocates are examined and approved by their own body; the SLANES CASTLE. THE BULLER OF BUCHAN. ministers were not ambitious of titles, or were We came in the afternoon to Slanes Castle, afraid of being censured for ambition; and the built upon the margin of the sea, so that the doctorate in every faculty was commonly given walls of one of the towers seem only a continuor sold into other countries. The ministers are ation of a perpendicular rock, the foot of which now reconciled to distinction, and as it must is beaten by the waves. To walk round the always happen that some will 'excel others, have house seemed impracticable. From the winthought graduation a proper testimony of uncom-dows the eye wanders over the sea that sepamon abilities or acquisitions.

rates Scotland from Norway, and when the winds The indiscriminate collation of degrees has beat with violence, must enjoy all the terrific justly taken away that respect which they ori- grandeur of the tempestuous ocean. I would ginally claimed, as stamps by which the literary not for my amusement wish for a storm; but as value of men so distinguished was authoritative storms, whether wished or not, will sometimes ly denoted. That academical honours, or any happen, I may say, without violence of humanity, others, should be conferred with exact propor- that I should willingly look out upon them from tion to merit, is more than human judgment or Slanes Castle. human integrity have given reason to expect. When we were about to take our leave, our Perhaps degrees in universities cannot be better departure was prohibited by the countess, till we adjusted by any general rule, than by the length should have seen two places upon the coast, of time passed in the public profession of learn- which she rightly considered as worthy of curiIng. An English or Irish doctorate cannot be osity, Don Buy, and the Buller of Buchan, to obtained by a very young man, and it is reason- which Mr. Boyd very kindly conducted us. able to suppose, what is likewise by experience Don Buy, which in Erse is said to signify the commonly found true, that he who is by age Yellow Rock, is a double protuberance of stone qualified to be a doctor, has in so much time open to the main sea on one side, and parted gained learning sufficient not to disgrace the from the land by a very narrow channel on the title, or wit sufficient not to desire it.

other. It has its name and its colour from the The Scotch universities hold but one term dung of innumerable sea-fowls, which in the or session in the year. That of St. Andrew's spring choose this place as convenient for incucontinues eight months, that of Aberdeen only bation, and have their eggs and their young five, from the first of November to the first of taken in great abundance. One of the birds April.

that frequent this rock has, as we were told, its In Aberdeen there is an English chapel, in body not larger than a duck's, and yet lays eggs which the congregation was numerous and as large as those of a goose. This bird is by the splendid. The form of public worship used by inhabitants named a Coot. That which is called the church of England, is in Scotland legally Coot in England, is here a Cooter. practised in licensed chapels served by clergy Upon these rocks there was nothing that men of English or Irish ordination, and by tacit could long detain attention, and we soon turned connivance quietly permitted in separate congre- our eyes to the Buller, or Bouilloir of Buchan, gations, supplied with ministers by the succes- which no man can see with indifference, whó sors of the bishops, who were deprived at the has either sense of danger, or delight in rarity. Revolution.

It is a rock perpendicularly tubulated, united We came to Aberdeen on Saturday, August on one side with a high shore, and on the other 21st. On Monday we were invited into the rising steep to a great height above the main town-hall, where I had the freedom of the city sea. The top is open, from which may be seen given me by the Lord Provost. The honour a dark gulf of water which flows into the cavity, conferred had all the decorations that politeness through a breach made in the lower part of the could add, and, what I am afraid I should not enclosing rock. It has the appearance of a vast have had to say of any city south of the Tweed, well, bordered with a wall" The edge of the I found no petiy officer bowing for a fee. Buller is not wide, and to those that walk round,

The parchment containing the record of ad- appears very narrow. He that ventures to look mission is, with the seal appending, fastened to downward, sees that if his foot should slip, he a riband, and worn for one day by the new citi- must fall from his dreadful elevation upon stones sua in his hat.

on one side, or into the water on the other. We

however went round, and were glad when the totally forgotten. The frames of their windows circuit was completed.

are all of wood. They are more frugal of their When we came down to the sea, we saw some glass than the English, and will often, in houses boats, and rowers, and resolved to explore the not otherwise mean, compose a square of two Buller, at the bottom. We entered the arch, pieces, not joining like cracked glass, but with which the water had made, and found ourselves one edge laid perhaps half an inch over the in a place, which, though we could not think other. Their windows do not move upon hinges, ourselves in danger, we could scarcely survey but are pushed up and drawn down in groves, without some recoil of the mind. The basin in yet they are seldom accommodated with weighits which we floated was nearly circular, perhaps and pulleys. He that would have his window thirty yards in diameter. We were enclosed by open, must hold it with his hand, unless what a natural wall, rising steep on every side to a may be sometimes found among good contrivers, height which produced the idea of insurmount- there be a nail which he may stick into a hole, able confinement. The interception of all late- to keep it from falling. ral light caused a dismal gloom. Round us was What cannot be done without some uncoma perpendicular rock, above us the distant sky, mon trouble or particular expedient, will not and below an unknown profundity of water. If often be done at all. The incommodiousness of I had any malice against a walking spirit, in- the Scotch windows keeps them very closcly stead of laying him in the Red Sea, I would shut. The necessity of ventilating human hacondemn him to reside in the Buller of Buchan. bitations has not yet been found by our northern

But terror without danger is only one of the neighbours; and even in houses well built, and sports of fancy, a voluntary agitation of the elegantly furnished, a stranger may be sometimes mind that is permitted no longer than it pleases. forgiven, if he allows himself to wish for fresher We were soon at leisure to examine the place air. with minute inspection, and found many cavi

These diminutive observations seem to take ties which, as the watermen told us, went back away something from the dignity of writing, ward to a depth which they had never explored. and therefore are never communicated but with Their extent we had not time to try; they are hesitation, and a little fear of abasement and said to serve different purposes. Ladies come contempt. But it must be remembered, that hither sometimes in summer with collations, life consists not of a series of illustrious actions, and smugglers make them storehouses for clan- or elegant enjoyments; the greater part of our destine merchandise. It is hardly to be doubted time passes in compliance with necessities, in but the pirates of ancient times often used them the performance of daily duties, in the removal as magazines of arms, or repositories of plunder. of small inconveniences, in the procurement of

To the little vessels used by the northern petty pleasures ; and we are well or ill at ease, rowers, the Buller may have served as a shelter as the main stream of life glides on smoothly, from storms, and perhaps as a retreat from ene- or is ruffled by small obstacles and frequent inmies; the entrance might have been stopped, terruption. The true state of every nation is or guarded with little difficulty, and though the the state of common life. The manners of a vessels that were stationed within would have people are not to be found in the schools of been battered with stones showered on them learning, or the palaces of greatness, where the from above, yet the crews would have lain safe national character is obscured or obliterated by in the caverns.

travel or instruction, by philosophy or vanity: Next morning we continued our journey, pleased nor is public happiness to be estimated by the with our reception at Slanes Castle, of which we assemblies of the gay, or the banquets of the bad now leisure to recount the grandeur and the rich. The great mass of nations is neither rich elegance; for our way afforded us few topics of nor gay; they whose aggregate constitutes the conversation. The ground was neither unculti- people, are found in the streets and the villages, vated nor unfruitful; but it was still all arable. in the shops and farms; and from them, col. Of Hocks or herds there was no appearance. Ilectively considered, must the measure of genehad now travelled two hundred miles in Scot- ral prosperity be taken. As they appprouch to land, and seen only one tree not younger than delicacy, a nation is refined ; as their convenimyself.

ences are multiplied, a nation, at least a comBAMFF.

mercial nation, must be denominated wealthy. We dined this day at the house of Mr. Frazer,

ELGIN. of Streichton, who showed us in his grounds some stones yet standing of a Druidical circle, Finding nothing to detain us at Bamff, we set and what I began to think more worthy of no- out in the morning, and having breakfasted at tice, some forest-trees of full growth.

Cullen, about noon came to Elgin, where, in the At night we came to Bamff

, where I remem- inn that we supposed the best, a dinner was set her nothing that particularly claimed my atten- before us which we could not eat. This was the tion. The ancient towns of Scotland have ge- first time, and, except one, the last, that I found nerally an appearance unusual to Englishmen. any reason to complain of a Scottish table ; and The houses, whether great or small, are for the such disappointments, I suppose, must be exmost part built of stones. Their ends are now pected in every country, where there is no great and then next the streets, and the entrance into frequency of travellers. them is very often by a flight of steps, which The rúin of the cathedral of Elgin afforded us reaches up to the second story; the floor which another proof of the waste of reformation. There is level with the ground being entered only by is enough yet remaining to show that it was once stairs descending within the house.

magnificent. Its whole plot is easily traced. On The art of joining squares of glass with lead the north side of the choir, the chapter-house, is little used in Scotland, and in some places is which is roofed with an arch of stone, remains

entire ; and on the south side, another mass of | began to leave fertility'and culture behind us, and building, which we could not enter, is preserved saw for a great length of road nothing but heath; by the care of the family of Gordon; but the yet at Fochabars, a seat belonging to the duke of body of the church is a mass of fragments. Gordon, there is an orchard, which in Scotland

A paper was here put into our hands, which I had never seen before, with some timber-trees, deduced from sufficient authorities the history of and a plantation of oaks. This venerable ruin. The church of Elgin had, At Fores we found good accommodation, but in the intestine tumults of the barbarous ages, nothing worthy of particular remark, and next been laid waste by the irruption of a Highland morning entered upon the road on which Macchief, whom the bishop had offended; but it was beth heard the fatal prediction; but we travelled gradually restored to the state of which the traces on, not interrupted by promises of kingdoms, may be now discerned, and was at last not de- and came to Nair, a royal burgh, which, if stroyed by the tumultuous violence of Knox, once it flourished, is now in a state of miserable but more shamefully suffered to dilapidate by decay ; but I know not whether its chief andeliberate robbery and frigid indifference. There nual magistrate has not still the title of Lord is still extant, in the books of the council, an Provost. order, of which I cannot remember the date, but At Nairn we may fix the verge of the Highwhich was doubtless issued after the reforma- lands ; for here I first saw peat fires, and first tion, directing that the lead, which covers the heard the Erse language. We had no molive two cathedrals of Elgin and Aberdeen, shall be to stay longer than to breakfast, and went for. taken away, and converted into money for the ward to the house of Mr. Macaulay, the minissupport of the army. A Scotch army was in ter, who published an account of St. Kuda, those times very cheaply kept ; yet the lead of and by his direction visited Calder Castle, from two churches must have borne so small a pro- which Macbeth drew his second title. It has portion to any military expense, that it is hard been formerly a place of strength. The draw. not to believe the reason alleged to be merely bridge is still to be seen, but the moat is now dry. popular, and the money intended for some pri- The tower is very ancient. Its walls are of great vate purse. The order, however, was obeyed; thickness, arched on the top with stone, and surthe two churches were stripped, and the lead was rounded with battlements. The rest of the house shipped to be sold Holland. I hope every is later, though far from modern. reader will rejoice that this cargo of sacrilege We were favoured by a gentleman, who lives was lost at sea.

in the castle, with a letter to one of the officers Let us not, however, make too much haste to at Fort George, which being the most regular despise our neighbours. Our own cathedrals fortification in the island, well deserves the noare mouldering by unregarded dilapidation. It tice of a traveller, who has never travelled before. seems to be part of the despicable philosophy of We went thither next day, found a very kind the time to despise monuments of sacred mag- reception, were led round the works by a gentle. nificence, and we are in danger of doing that man, who explained the use of every part, and deliberately, which the Scotch did not do but in entertained by Sir Eyre Coote, the Governor, the unsettled state of an imperfect constitution. with such elegance of conversation, as left us no

Those who had once uncovered the cathedrals, attention to the delicacies of his table. never wished to cover them again ; and being Of Fort George I shall not attempt to give thus made useless, they were first neglected, and any account. I cannot delineate it scientifically, perhaps, as the stone was wanted, afterwards and a loose and popular description is of use demolished.

only when the imagination is to be amused. Elgin seems a place of little trade, and thinly There was every where an appearance of the inhabited. The episcopal cities of Scotland, I utmost neatness and regularity. But my sufbelieve, generally fell with their churches, frage is of little value, because this and Fort though some of them have since recovered by a Augustus are the only garrisons that I ever situation convenient for commerce. Thus Glas-saw. gow, though it has no longer an archbishop, has We did not regret the time spent at the fort, risen beyond its original state by the opulence of though in consequence of our delay we came its traders ; and Aberdeen, though its ancient somewhat late to Inverness, the town which stock had decayed, flourishes by a new shoot in may properly be called the capital of the Highanother place.

lands. Hither the inhabitants of the inland parts In the chief street of Elgin, the houses jutover come to be supplied with what they cannot make the lowest story, like the old buildings of timber for themselves : hither the young nymphs of the in London, but with greater prominence; so that mountains and vallies are sent for education, and, there is sometimes a walk' for a considerable as far as my observation has reached, are not length under a cloister, or portico, which is now sent in vain. indeed frequently broken, because the new houses

INVERNESS. have another form, but seems to have been uni Inverness was the last place which had a reguformly continued to the old city.

lar communication by high roads with the south

ern counties. All the ways beyond it have, I FOUES. CALDER. FORT GEORGE.

believe, been made by the soldiers in this century. We went forwards the same day to Fores, the At Inverness therefore Cromwell, when he sub town to which Macbeth was travelling when he dued Scotland, stationed a garrison, as at the met the weird sisters in his way. This to an boundary of the Highlands. The soldiers seem Englishman is classic ground. Our imagina- to have incorporated afterwards with the inhabitions were heated, and our thoughts recalled to tants, and to have peopled the place with an Eng. their old amusements,

lish race; for the language of this town has been We had now a prelude to the Highlands. We i long considered as peculiarly elegant.

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Here is a castle, called the castle of Macbeth, | could have hired no horses beyond Inverness, the walls of which are yet standing. It was no and we were not so sparing of ourselves as to very capacious edifice, but stands upon a rock lead them, merely that we might have one day 80 high and steep, that I think it was once not louger the indulgence of a carriage. accessible, but by the help of ladders, or a At Inverness, therefore, we procured three bridge. Over against it, on another hill, was a horses for ourselves and a servant, and one more fort built by Cromwell, now totally demolished; for our baggage, which was no very heavy load. for no faction of Scotland loved the name We found in the course of our journey the conof Cromwell, or had any desire to continue his venience of having disencumbered ourselves by memory.

laying aside whatever we could spare; for it Yet what the Romans did to other nations, is not to be imagined without experience, how in was in a great degree done by Cromwell to the climbing crags, and treading bogs, and winding Scots ;

he civilized them by conquest, and in- through narrow and obstructed passages, a littroduced by useful violence the arts of peace. Itle bulk will hinder, and a little weight will burwas told at Aberdeen, that the people learned den; or how often a man that has pleased himfrom Cromwell's soldiers to make shoes and to self at home with his own resolution, will, in the plant kail.

hour of darkness and fatigue, be content to leave How they lived without kail, it is not easy to behind him every thing but himself, guess ; they cultivate hardly any other plant for common tables, and when they had not kail, they probably had nothing. The numbers that go We took two Highlanders to run beside us, barefoot are still sufficient to show that shoes partly to show us the way, and partly to take may be spared; they are not yet considered as back from the sea-side the horses, of which they necessaries of life; for tall boys, not otherwise were the owners. One of them was a man of meanly dressed, run without them in the streets; great liveliness and activity, of whom his comand in the islands the sons of gentlemen pass panion said, that he would tire any horse in Inseveral of their first years with naked feet. yerness. Both of them were civil and ready.

I know not whether it be not peculiar to the handed. Civility seems part of the national Scots to have attained the liberal, without the character of Highlanders. Every chieftain is a manual arts, to have excelled in ornamental monarch, and politeness, the natural product of knowledge, and to have wanted not only the royal government, is diffused from the laird elegances, but the conveniences of common life. through the whole clan. But they are not comLiterature, soon after its revival, found its way monly dexterous: their narrowness of life conto Scotland, and from the middle of the sixteenth fines them to a few operations, and they are century, almost to the middle of the seventeenth, accustomed to endure little wants more than to the politer studies were very diligently pursued. remove them. The Latin poetry of Delicia Poetarum Scotorum We mounted our steeds on the twenty-eighth would have done honour to any nation ; at least of August, and directed our guides to conduct till the publication of May's Supplement, the us to Fort Augustus. It is built at the head of English had very little to oppose.

Lough Ness, of which Inverness stands at the Yet men thus ingenious and inquisitive were outlet. The way between them has been cut by content to live in total ignorance of the trades the soldiers, and the greater part of it runs along by which human wants are supplied, and to sup- a rock, levelled with great labour and exactness, ply them by the grossest means. Till the Union near the water-side. made them acquainted with English manners, Most of this day's journey was very pleasant. the culture of their lands was unskilful, and their The day, though bright, was not hot; and the domestic life unformed; their tables were coarse appearance of the country, if I had not seen the as the feasts of Eskimeaux, and their houses Peak, would have been wholly new. We went filthy as the cottages of Hottentots.

upon a surface so hard and level, that we had Since they have known that their condition little care to hold the bridle, and were therefore was capable of improvement, their progress in at full leisure for contemplation. On the left useful knowledge has been rapid and uniform. were high and steep rocks shaded with birch, What remains to be done they will quickly do, the hardy native of the north, and covered with and then wonder, like me, why that which was fern or heath. On the right the limpid waters of 80 necessary and so easy was so long delayed. Lough Ness were beating

their bank, and waving But they must be for ever content to owe to the their surface by a gentle agitation. Beyond English that elegance and culture, which, if they them were rocks sometimes covered with verhad been vigilant and active, perhaps the Eng- dure, and sometimes towering in horrid nakedlish might have owed to them.

Now and then we espied a little cornHere the appearance of life began to alter. I field, which served to impress more strongly the had seen a few women with plaids at Aberdeen; general barrenness. but at Inverness the Highland manners are Lough Ness is about twenty-four miles long, common. There is, I think, a kirk in which and from one mile to two miles broad. It is reonly the Erse language is used. There is like-markable that Boethius, in his description of wise an English chapel, but meanly built, Scotland, gives it twelve miles of breadth. When where on Sunday we saw a very decent con- historians or geographers exhibit false accounts gregation.

of places far distant, they may be forgiven, beWe were now to bid farewell to the luxury of cause they can tell but what they are told; and travelling, and to enter a country upon which that their accounts exceed the truth, may be justperhaps no wheel has ever rolled. We could ly supposed, because most men exaggerate to indeed have used our postchaise one day longer, others, if not to themselves : but Boethius lived along the military road to Fort Augustus, but wel at no great distance; if he never saw the lake,


he must have been very incurious, and if he had A hut is constructed with loose stones, ranged seen it, his veracity yielded to very slight temp for the most part with some tendency to circutations.

larity. It must be placed where the wind canLough Ness, though not twelve miles broad, not act upon it with violence, because it has no is a very remarkable diffusion of water without cement; and where the water will run easily islands. It fills a large hollow between two away, because it has no floor but the naked ridges of high rocks, being supplied partly by ground. The wall, which is commonly about the torrents which fall into it on either side, and six feet high, declines from the perpendicular a partly, as is supposed, by springs at the bottom little inward. Such rafters as can be procured Its water is remarkably clear and pleasant, and are then raised for a roof, and covered with is imagined by the natives to be medicinal. We heath, which makes a strong and warm thatch, were told, that it is in some places a hundred kept from Aying off by ropes of twisted heath, and forty fathoms deep, a profundity scarcely of which the ends, reaching from the centre of credible, and which probably those that relate it the thatch to the top of the wall, are held firm have never sounded." Its fish are salmon, trout, by the weight of a large stone. No light is adand pike.

mitted but at the entrance, and through a hole It was said at Fort Augustus, that Lough Ness in the thatch, which gives vent to the open in the hardest winters, though a lake not This hole is not directly over the fire, lest the far from it is covered with ice. In discussing rain should extinguish it; and the smoke therethese exceptions from the course of nature, the fore naturally fills the place before it escapes. first question is whether the fact be justly stated. Such is the general structure of the houses in That which is strange is delightful, and a pleas- which one of the nations of this opulent and ing error is not willingly detected. Accuracy of powerful island has been hitherto content to narration is not very common, and there are so live. Huts however are not more uniform than few rigidly philosophical, as not to represent as palaces; and this which we were inspecting was perpetual, what is only frequent, or as constant, very far from one of the meanest, for it was what is really casual.' If it be true that Lough divided into several apartments; and its inhabiNess never freezes, it is either sheltered by its tants possessed such property as a pastoral poet high banks from the cold blasts, and exposed might exalt into riches. only to those winds which have more power to When we entered, we found an old woman agitate than congeal, or it is kept in perpetual boiling goat's flesh in a ketule. She spoke little motion by the rush of streams from the rocks English, but we had interpreters at hand, and that enclose it. Its profundity, though it should she was willing enough to display her whole be such as is represented, can have little part in system of economy. She has five children, of this exemption; for though deep wells are not which none are yet gone from her. The eldest, frozen, because their water is secluded from the a boy of thirteen, and her husband, who is eighty external air, yet, where a wide surface is exposed years old, were at work in the wood. Her two to the full influence of a freezing atmosphere, I next sons were gone to Inverness to buy meal, know not why the depth should keep it open.— by which oatmeal is always meant. Meal she Natural philosophy is now one of the favourite considered as expensive food, and told us, that studies of the Scottish nation, and Lough Ness in spring, when the goats gave milk, the children well deserves to be diligently examined. could live without it. She is mistress of sixty

The road on which we travelled, and which goats, and I saw many kids in an enclosure at was itself a source of entertainment, is made the end of her house. She had also some poul along the rock, in the direction of the lough, try. By the lake we saw a potato-garden, and sometimes by breaking off protuberances, and a small spot of ground on which stood four sometimes by cutting the great mass of stone to shocks, containing each twelve sheaves of bara considerable depth. The fragments are piled ley. She has all this from the labour of their in a loose wall on either side, with apertures own hands, and for what is necessary to be left at very short spaces, to give a passage to the bought, her kids and her chickens are sent to wintry currents. Part of it is bordered with market. low trees, from which our guides gathered nuts, With the true pastoral hospitality, she asked and would have had the appearance of an Eng- us to sit down and drink whisky. She is relilish lane, except that an English lane is almost gious, and though the kirk is four miles off, proalways dirty. It has been made with great la- bably eight English miles, she goes thither every bour, but has this advantage, that it cannot, Sunday. We gave her a shilling, and she begwithout equal labour, be broken up.

ged snuff; for snuff is the luxury of a Highland Within our sight there were goats feeding or cottage. playing. The mountains have red deer, but Soon afterwards we came to the General's Hut, they came not within view; and if what is said so called because it was the temporary abode of of their vigilance and subtilty be true, they have Wade while he superintended the works upon some claim to that palm of wisdom, which the the road. It is now a house of entertainment for eastern philosopher, whom Alexander interro- passengers, and we found it not ill stocked with gated, gave to those beasts which live farthest (provisions. from men. Near the way, by the water-side, we espied a

FALL OF FIERS. cottage. This was the first Highland hut that Towards evening we crossed, by a bridge, the I had seen; and as our business was with life river which makes the celebrated Fall of Fiers. and manners, we were willing to visit it. To enter The country at the bridge strikes the imaginaa habitation without leave, seems to be not consi- tion with all the gloom and grandeur of Siberian dered here as rudeness or intrusion. The old laws solitude. The way makes a flexture, and the of hospitality still give this license to a stranger Imountains, covered with trees, rise at once on

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