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upon leaves, render it especially advantageous for them to have some additional protection. This they at once obtain by acquiring a resemblance to other species which, from whatever cause, enjoy a comparative immunity from persecution.
Concluding remarks on Variation in Lepidoptera. This summary of the more interesting phenomena of variation presented by the eastern Papilionidæ is, I think, sufficient to substantiate my position, that the Lepidoptera are a group that offer especial facilities for such inquiries; and it will also show that they have undergone an amount of special adaptive modification rarely equalled among the more highly organized animals. And, among the Lepidoptera, the great and pre-eminently tropical families of Papilionidæ and Danaidæ seem to be those in which complicated adaptations to the surrounding organic and inorganic universe have been most completely developed, offering in this respect a striking analogy to the equally extraordinary, though totally different, adaptations which present themselves in the Orchideæ, the only family of plants in which mimicry of other organisms appears to play any important part, and the only one in which cases of conspicuous polymorphism occur ; for as such we must class the male, female, and hermaphrodite forms of Catasetum tridentatum, which differ so greatly in form and structure that they were long considered to belong to three distinct genera.
Arrangement and Geographical Distribution of the
Malayan Papilionida. Arrangement.--Although the species of Papilionidæ inhabiting the Malayan region are very numerous, they all belong to three out of the nine genera into which the family is divided. One of the remaining genera (Eurycus) is restricted to Australia, and another (Teinopalpus) to the Himalayan Mountains, while no less than four (Parnassius, Doritis, Thais, and Sericinus) are confined to Southern Europe and to the mountain-ranges of the Palæarctic region.
The genera Ornithoptera and Leptocircus are highly characteristic of Malayan entomology, but are uniform in character and of small extent. The genus Papilio, on the other hand, presents a great variety of forms, and is so richly represented in the Malay Islands, that more than one-fourth of all the known species are found there. It becomes necessary, therefore, to divide this genus into natural groups before we can successfully study its geographical distribution.
Owing principally to Dr. Horsfield's observations in Java, we are acquainted with a considerable number of the larvæ of Papilios ; and these furnish good characters for the primary division of the genus into natural groups. The manner in which the hinder wings are plaited or folded back at the abdominal margin, the size of the anal valves, the structure of the antennæ, and the form of the wings are also of much service, as well as the character of the flight and the style of
colouration. Using these characters, I divide the
Black and green.
of a purplish colour. 2. Nox-group. Abdominal fold in male very large;
anal valves small, but swollen; antennæ moderate; wings entire, or tailed; includes the Indian
Philoxenus-group. b. Coon-group. Abdominal fold in male small; anal
valves small, but swollen; antenna moderate;
wings tailed. c. Polydorus-group. Abdominal fold in male small,
or none; anal valves small or obsolete, hairy;
wings tailed or entire. B. Larve with third segment swollen, transversely or
obliquely banded; pupa much bent. Imago with abdominal margin in male plaited, but not reflexed; body weak; antennæ long; wings much
dilated, often tailed. d. Ulysses-group.
| Protenor - group (Indian ) is e. Peranthus-group. somewhat intermediate bef. Memnon-group. tween these, and is nearest
to the Nox-group.
k. Demolion-group. C. Larvæ subcylindrical, variously coloured. Imago with
abdominal margin in male plaited, but not reflexed; body weak; antennæ short, with a thick curved club; wings entire.
1. Erithonius-group. Sexes alike, larva and pupa
something like those of P. Demolion. m. Paradoxa-group. Sexes different. n. Dissimilis - group. Sexes alike ; larva bright
coloured; pupa straight, cylindric. D. Larva elongate, attenuate behind, and often bifid, with
lateral and oblique pale stripes, green. Imago with the abdominal margin in male reflexed, woolly or hairy within; anal valves small, hairy;
antennæ short, stout; body stout. o. Macareus-group. Hind wings entire. p. Antiphates-group. Hind wings much tailed (swal.
q. Eurypylus-group. Hind wings elongate or tailed. Genus LEPTOCIRCUS.
Making, in all, twenty distinct groups of Malayan Papilionidæ.
The first section of the genus Papilio (A) comprises insects which, though differing considerably in structure, having much general resemblance. They all have a weak, low flight, frequent the most luxuriant forestdistricts, seem to love the shade, and are the objects of mimicry by other Papilios.
Section B consists of weak-bodied, large-winged insects, with an irregular wavering flight, and which, when resting on foliage, often expand the wings, which the species of the other sections rarely or never do. They are the most conspicuous and striking of eastern Butterflies.
Section C consists of much weaker and slower-flying insects, often resembling in their flight, as well as in their colours, species of Danaidæ.
Section D contains the strongest-bodied and most swift-flying of the genus. They love sunlight, and frequent the borders of streams and the edges of puddles, where they gather together in swarms consisting of several species, greedily sucking up the moisture, and, when disturbed, circling round in the air, or flying high and with great strength and rapidity.
Geographical Distribution.-One hundred and thirty species of Malayan Papilionidæ are now known within the district extending from the Malay peninsula, on the north-west, to Woodlark Island, near New Guinea, on the south-east.
The exceeding richness of the Malayan region in these fine insects is seen by comparing the number of species found in the different tropical regions of the earth. From all Africa only 33 species of Papilio are known; but as several are still undescribed in collections, we may raise their number to about 40. In all tropical Asia there are at present described only 65 species, and I have seen in collections but two or three which have not yet been named. In South America, south of Panama, there are 150 species, or about oneseventh more than are yet known from the Malayan region; but the area of the two countries is very different; for while South America (even excluding Patagonia) contains 5,000,000 square miles, a line encircling the whole of the Malayan islands would only include an area of 2,700,000 square miles, of which the land-area would be about 1,000,000 square miles. This superior